BRENDA - Enzyme Database show
show all sequences of 2.7.1.6

Functional analysis of disease-causing mutations in human galactokinase

Timson, D.J.; Reece, R.J.; Eur. J. Biochem. 270, 1767-1774 (2003)

Data extracted from this reference:

Cloned(Commentary)
Commentary
Organism
expression in Escherichia coli
Homo sapiens
Engineering
Amino acid exchange
Commentary
Organism
A198V
very similar kinetic parameters to the wild-type enzyme
Homo sapiens
A384P
mutant enzyme is not present in the soluble fraction after sonication and can not be purified
Homo sapiens
C32M
mutant enzyme is not present in the soluble fraction after sonication and can not be purified
Homo sapiens
G346S
mutant enzyme shows substantial reduction in turnover number. Lower specificity constant for galactose than wild-type enzyme
Homo sapiens
G347S
mutant enzyme shows substantial reduction in turnover number, increase in Km-value for galactose. Lower specificity constant for galactose than wild-type enzyme
Homo sapiens
G349S
lower specificity constant for galactose than wild-type enzyme. Lower specificity constant for galactose than wild-type enzyme
Homo sapiens
G36R
mutant enzyme is not present in the soluble fraction after sonication and can not be purified
Homo sapiens
H44Y
increrase in Km-value for galactose compared to wild-type. Lower specificity constant for galactose than wild-type enzyme
Homo sapiens
P28T
mutant enzyme is not present in the soluble fraction after sonication and can not be purified
Homo sapiens
T288M
mutant enzyme is not present in the soluble fraction after sonication and can not be purified
Homo sapiens
Inhibitors
Inhibitors
Commentary
Organism
Structure
alpha-D-galactose 1-phosphate
uncompetitive inhibitor with respect to galactose, mixed inhibitor with respect to ATP
Homo sapiens
KM Value [mM]
KM Value [mM]
KM Value Maximum [mM]
Substrate
Commentary
Organism
Structure
0.005
-
ATP
pH 8, 37°C, mutant enzyme G346S
Homo sapiens
0.026
-
ATP
pH 8, 37°C, mutant enzyme A198V
Homo sapiens
0.034
-
ATP
pH 8, 37°C, wild-type enzyme
Homo sapiens
0.039
-
ATP
pH 8, 37°C, mutant enzyme G349S
Homo sapiens
0.089
-
ATP
pH 8, 37°C, mutant enzyme G347S
Homo sapiens
0.11
-
ATP
pH 8, 37°C, mutant enzyme R68C
Homo sapiens
0.13
-
ATP
pH 8, 37°C, mutant enzyme H44Y
Homo sapiens
0.43
-
D-galactose
pH 8, 37°C, mutant enzyme R68C
Homo sapiens
0.66
-
D-galactose
pH 8, 37°C, mutant enzyme A198V
Homo sapiens
0.97
-
D-galactose
pH 8, 37°C, wild-type enzyme
Homo sapiens
1.1
-
D-galactose
pH 8, 37°C, mutant enzyme G346S
Homo sapiens
1.7
-
D-galactose
pH 8, 37°C, mutant enzyme G349S
Homo sapiens
7.7
-
D-galactose
pH 8, 37°C, mutant enzyme H44Y
Homo sapiens
13
-
D-galactose
pH 8, 37°C, mutant enzyme G347S
Homo sapiens
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates)
Natural Substrates
Organism
Commentary (Nat. Sub.)
Natural Products
Commentary (Nat. Pro.)
Organism (Nat. Pro.)
Reversibility
ATP + galactose
Homo sapiens
lack of fully functional galactokinase is one cause of the inherited disease galactosemia, the main clinical manifestation of which is the early onset of cataracts
ADP + alpha-D-galactose 1-phosphate
-
-
?
Organism
Organism
Primary Accession No. (UniProt)
Commentary
Textmining
Homo sapiens
-
-
-
Purification (Commentary)
Commentary
Organism
-
Homo sapiens
Reaction
Reaction
Commentary
Organism
ATP + alpha-D-galactose = ADP + alpha-D-galactose 1-phosphate
the most likely kinetic mechanism is an ordered ternary complex in which ATP is the first substrate to bind
Homo sapiens
Substrates and Products (Substrate)
Substrates
Commentary Substrates
Literature (Substrates)
Organism
Products
Commentary (Products)
Literature (Products)
Organism (Products)
Reversibility
ATP + D-galactose
-
641728
Homo sapiens
ADP + alpha-D-galactose 1-phosphate
-
-
-
-
ATP + galactose
lack of fully functional galactokinase is one cause of the inherited disease galactosemia, the main clinical manifestation of which is the early onset of cataracts
641728
Homo sapiens
ADP + alpha-D-galactose 1-phosphate
-
-
-
?
Turnover Number [1/s]
Turnover Number Minimum [1/s]
Turnover Number Maximum [1/s]
Substrate
Commentary
Organism
Structure
0.4
-
ATP
pH 8, 37°C, mutant enzyme G346S
Homo sapiens
0.4
-
D-galactose
pH 8, 37°C, mutant enzyme G346S
Homo sapiens
1.1
-
ATP
pH 8, 37°C, mutant enzyme G347S
Homo sapiens
1.1
-
D-galactose
pH 8, 37°C, mutant enzyme G347S
Homo sapiens
1.8
-
ATP
pH 8, 37°C, mutant enzyme G349S
Homo sapiens
1.8
-
D-galactose
pH 8, 37°C, mutant enzyme G349S
Homo sapiens
2
-
ATP
pH 8, 37°C, mutant enzyme H44Y
Homo sapiens
2
-
D-galactose
pH 8, 37°C, mutant enzyme H44Y
Homo sapiens
3.9
-
ATP
pH 8, 37°C, mutant enzyme R68C
Homo sapiens
3.9
-
D-galactose
pH 8, 37°C, mutant enzyme R68C
Homo sapiens
5.9
-
ATP
pH 8, 37°C, mutant enzyme R198V
Homo sapiens
5.9
-
D-galactose
pH 8, 37°C, mutant enzyme R198V
Homo sapiens
8.7
-
ATP
pH 8, 37°C, wild-type enzyme
Homo sapiens
8.7
-
D-galactose
pH 8, 37°C, wild-type enzyme
Homo sapiens
Ki Value [mM]
Ki Value [mM]
Ki Value maximum [mM]
Inhibitor
Commentary
Organism
Structure
28
-
alpha-D-galactose 1-phosphate
pH 8, 37°C, uncompetitive inhibition constant with respect to galactose
Homo sapiens
39
-
alpha-D-galactose 1-phosphate
pH 8, 37°C, uncompetitive inhibition constant with respect to ATP
Homo sapiens
90
-
alpha-D-galactose 1-phosphate
pH 8, 37°C, competitive inhibition constant with respect to ATP
Homo sapiens
Cloned(Commentary) (protein specific)
Commentary
Organism
expression in Escherichia coli
Homo sapiens
Engineering (protein specific)
Amino acid exchange
Commentary
Organism
A198V
very similar kinetic parameters to the wild-type enzyme
Homo sapiens
A384P
mutant enzyme is not present in the soluble fraction after sonication and can not be purified
Homo sapiens
C32M
mutant enzyme is not present in the soluble fraction after sonication and can not be purified
Homo sapiens
G346S
mutant enzyme shows substantial reduction in turnover number. Lower specificity constant for galactose than wild-type enzyme
Homo sapiens
G347S
mutant enzyme shows substantial reduction in turnover number, increase in Km-value for galactose. Lower specificity constant for galactose than wild-type enzyme
Homo sapiens
G349S
lower specificity constant for galactose than wild-type enzyme. Lower specificity constant for galactose than wild-type enzyme
Homo sapiens
G36R
mutant enzyme is not present in the soluble fraction after sonication and can not be purified
Homo sapiens
H44Y
increrase in Km-value for galactose compared to wild-type. Lower specificity constant for galactose than wild-type enzyme
Homo sapiens
P28T
mutant enzyme is not present in the soluble fraction after sonication and can not be purified
Homo sapiens
T288M
mutant enzyme is not present in the soluble fraction after sonication and can not be purified
Homo sapiens
Inhibitors (protein specific)
Inhibitors
Commentary
Organism
Structure
alpha-D-galactose 1-phosphate
uncompetitive inhibitor with respect to galactose, mixed inhibitor with respect to ATP
Homo sapiens
Ki Value [mM] (protein specific)
Ki Value [mM]
Ki Value maximum [mM]
Inhibitor
Commentary
Organism
Structure
28
-
alpha-D-galactose 1-phosphate
pH 8, 37°C, uncompetitive inhibition constant with respect to galactose
Homo sapiens
39
-
alpha-D-galactose 1-phosphate
pH 8, 37°C, uncompetitive inhibition constant with respect to ATP
Homo sapiens
90
-
alpha-D-galactose 1-phosphate
pH 8, 37°C, competitive inhibition constant with respect to ATP
Homo sapiens
KM Value [mM] (protein specific)
KM Value [mM]
KM Value Maximum [mM]
Substrate
Commentary
Organism
Structure
0.005
-
ATP
pH 8, 37°C, mutant enzyme G346S
Homo sapiens
0.026
-
ATP
pH 8, 37°C, mutant enzyme A198V
Homo sapiens
0.034
-
ATP
pH 8, 37°C, wild-type enzyme
Homo sapiens
0.039
-
ATP
pH 8, 37°C, mutant enzyme G349S
Homo sapiens
0.089
-
ATP
pH 8, 37°C, mutant enzyme G347S
Homo sapiens
0.11
-
ATP
pH 8, 37°C, mutant enzyme R68C
Homo sapiens
0.13
-
ATP
pH 8, 37°C, mutant enzyme H44Y
Homo sapiens
0.43
-
D-galactose
pH 8, 37°C, mutant enzyme R68C
Homo sapiens
0.66
-
D-galactose
pH 8, 37°C, mutant enzyme A198V
Homo sapiens
0.97
-
D-galactose
pH 8, 37°C, wild-type enzyme
Homo sapiens
1.1
-
D-galactose
pH 8, 37°C, mutant enzyme G346S
Homo sapiens
1.7
-
D-galactose
pH 8, 37°C, mutant enzyme G349S
Homo sapiens
7.7
-
D-galactose
pH 8, 37°C, mutant enzyme H44Y
Homo sapiens
13
-
D-galactose
pH 8, 37°C, mutant enzyme G347S
Homo sapiens
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates) (protein specific)
Natural Substrates
Organism
Commentary (Nat. Sub.)
Natural Products
Commentary (Nat. Pro.)
Organism (Nat. Pro.)
Reversibility
ATP + galactose
Homo sapiens
lack of fully functional galactokinase is one cause of the inherited disease galactosemia, the main clinical manifestation of which is the early onset of cataracts
ADP + alpha-D-galactose 1-phosphate
-
-
?
Purification (Commentary) (protein specific)
Commentary
Organism
-
Homo sapiens
Substrates and Products (Substrate) (protein specific)
Substrates
Commentary Substrates
Literature (Substrates)
Organism
Products
Commentary (Products)
Literature (Products)
Organism (Products)
Reversibility
ATP + D-galactose
-
641728
Homo sapiens
ADP + alpha-D-galactose 1-phosphate
-
-
-
-
ATP + galactose
lack of fully functional galactokinase is one cause of the inherited disease galactosemia, the main clinical manifestation of which is the early onset of cataracts
641728
Homo sapiens
ADP + alpha-D-galactose 1-phosphate
-
-
-
?
Turnover Number [1/s] (protein specific)
Turnover Number Minimum [1/s]
Turnover Number Maximum [1/s]
Substrate
Commentary
Organism
Structure
0.4
-
ATP
pH 8, 37°C, mutant enzyme G346S
Homo sapiens
0.4
-
D-galactose
pH 8, 37°C, mutant enzyme G346S
Homo sapiens
1.1
-
ATP
pH 8, 37°C, mutant enzyme G347S
Homo sapiens
1.1
-
D-galactose
pH 8, 37°C, mutant enzyme G347S
Homo sapiens
1.8
-
ATP
pH 8, 37°C, mutant enzyme G349S
Homo sapiens
1.8
-
D-galactose
pH 8, 37°C, mutant enzyme G349S
Homo sapiens
2
-
ATP
pH 8, 37°C, mutant enzyme H44Y
Homo sapiens
2
-
D-galactose
pH 8, 37°C, mutant enzyme H44Y
Homo sapiens
3.9
-
ATP
pH 8, 37°C, mutant enzyme R68C
Homo sapiens
3.9
-
D-galactose
pH 8, 37°C, mutant enzyme R68C
Homo sapiens
5.9
-
ATP
pH 8, 37°C, mutant enzyme R198V
Homo sapiens
5.9
-
D-galactose
pH 8, 37°C, mutant enzyme R198V
Homo sapiens
8.7
-
ATP
pH 8, 37°C, wild-type enzyme
Homo sapiens
8.7
-
D-galactose
pH 8, 37°C, wild-type enzyme
Homo sapiens
Other publictions for EC 2.7.1.6
No.
1st author
Pub Med
title
organims
journal
volume
pages
year
Activating Compound
Application
Cloned(Commentary)
Crystallization (Commentary)
Engineering
General Stability
Inhibitors
KM Value [mM]
Localization
Metals/Ions
Molecular Weight [Da]
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates)
Organic Solvent Stability
Organism
Oxidation Stability
Posttranslational Modification
Purification (Commentary)
Reaction
Renatured (Commentary)
Source Tissue
Specific Activity [micromol/min/mg]
Storage Stability
Substrates and Products (Substrate)
Subunits
Temperature Optimum [°C]
Temperature Range [°C]
Temperature Stability [°C]
Turnover Number [1/s]
pH Optimum
pH Range
pH Stability
Cofactor
Ki Value [mM]
pI Value
IC50 Value
Activating Compound (protein specific)
Application (protein specific)
Cloned(Commentary) (protein specific)
Cofactor (protein specific)
Crystallization (Commentary) (protein specific)
Engineering (protein specific)
General Stability (protein specific)
IC50 Value (protein specific)
Inhibitors (protein specific)
Ki Value [mM] (protein specific)
KM Value [mM] (protein specific)
Localization (protein specific)
Metals/Ions (protein specific)
Molecular Weight [Da] (protein specific)
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates) (protein specific)
Organic Solvent Stability (protein specific)
Oxidation Stability (protein specific)
Posttranslational Modification (protein specific)
Purification (Commentary) (protein specific)
Renatured (Commentary) (protein specific)
Source Tissue (protein specific)
Specific Activity [micromol/min/mg] (protein specific)
Storage Stability (protein specific)
Substrates and Products (Substrate) (protein specific)
Subunits (protein specific)
Temperature Optimum [°C] (protein specific)
Temperature Range [°C] (protein specific)
Temperature Stability [°C] (protein specific)
Turnover Number [1/s] (protein specific)
pH Optimum (protein specific)
pH Range (protein specific)
pH Stability (protein specific)
pI Value (protein specific)
Expression
General Information
General Information (protein specific)
Expression (protein specific)
KCat/KM [mM/s]
KCat/KM [mM/s] (protein specific)
739235
Lobo-Rojas
Trypanosoma cruzi contains two ...
Trypanosoma cruzi
Parasitol. Int.
65
472-482
2016
1
-
1
-
-
-
2
4
1
3
3
-
-
7
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
2
1
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
2
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
4
1
4
2
6
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
2
2
-
-
-
1
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
737825
Liu
Structure activity relationshi ...
Homo sapiens
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
25
721-727
2015
-
1
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
738227
Reinhardt
pH-rate profiles support a gen ...
Lactococcus lactis
FEBS Lett.
587
2876-2881
2013
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
6
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
1
-
-
6
-
3
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
3
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
6
721813
Zou
Substrate specificity of galac ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
22
3540-3543
2012
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
1
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
1
-
1
3
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
1
-
1
3
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
3
721979
Li
A highly efficient galactokina ...
Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis
Carbohydr. Res.
355
35-39
2012
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
2
-
2
1
-
-
3
-
-
1
-
-
-
15
-
15
-
2
-
2
2
2
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
2
1
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
15
-
15
-
2
-
2
2
2
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
2
723394
Egert
An Arabidopsis T-DNA insertion ...
Arabidopsis thaliana
Plant Cell Physiol.
53
921-929
2012
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
702897
Park
A novel c.-22T>C mutation in G ...
Homo sapiens
BMC Med. Genet.
10
29
2009
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
704761
Chu
Functional studies of rat gala ...
Rattus norvegicus
J. Biotechnol.
141
142-146
2009
-
-
1
-
8
-
12
10
-
-
1
-
-
3
-
-
1
-
-
1
5
-
7
1
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
3
-
9
-
-
1
-
-
8
-
9
12
3
10
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
1
-
1
5
-
7
1
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
35
35
687839
Wierenga
High-throughput screening for ...
Homo sapiens
J. Biomol. Screen.
13
415-423
2008
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
674821
Hartl
Induction of the gal pathway a ...
Trichoderma reesei, Trichoderma reesei QM9414
J. Biol. Chem.
282
18654-18659
2007
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
13
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
689012
Park
Molecular and biochemical char ...
Homo sapiens
Mol. Genet. Metab.
91
234-238
2007
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
671100
Inagaki
Expression, purification, crys ...
Pyrococcus horikoshii
Acta Crystallogr. Sect. F
62
169-171
2006
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
2
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
674554
Hawkins
The regulatory roles of the ga ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae W303alpha
J. Biol. Chem.
281
13485-13492
2006
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
674579
Sellick
Contribution of amino acid sid ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae mc2
J. Biol. Chem.
281
17150-17155
2006
-
-
-
-
21
-
-
14
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
21
-
-
-
-
14
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
661467
Yang
Structure-based engineering of ...
Escherichia coli
Chem. Biol.
12
657-664
2005
-
1
-
-
3
-
-
8
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
662453
Thoden
Molecular structure of human g ...
Homo sapiens
J. Biol. Chem.
280
9662-9670
2005
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
671334
Sidjanin
Cloning of canine galactokinas ...
Canis lupus familiaris
Anim. Genet.
36
265-266
2005
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
671416
de Vin
Molecular and biochemical anal ...
Streptococcus thermophilus
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
71
3659-3667
2005
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
674492
Thoden
Molecular structure of Sacchar ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
J. Biol. Chem.
280
36905-36911
2005
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
660753
Vaillancourt
Characterization of a galactok ...
Streptococcus salivarius
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
70
4596-4603
2004
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
661485
Hoffmeister
Mechanistic implications of Es ...
Escherichia coli
ChemBioChem
5
989-992
2004
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
6
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
662617
Hartley
Substrate specificity and mech ...
Pyrococcus furiosus
J. Mol. Biol.
337
387-398
2004
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
662892
Seiboth
The galactokinase of Hypocrea ...
Trichoderma reesei
Mol. Microbiol.
51
1015-1025
2004
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
641723
Yang
Studies on the substrate speci ...
Escherichia coli
Org. Lett.
5
2223-2226
2003
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
641724
Thoden
Molecular structure of galacto ...
Lactococcus lactis
J. Biol. Chem.
278
33305-33311
2003
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
641725
De Geus
Cloning, purification, crystal ...
Pyrococcus furiosus
Acta Crystallogr. Sect. D
59
1819-1821
2003
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
3
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
641728
Timson
Functional analysis of disease ...
Homo sapiens
Eur. J. Biochem.
270
1767-1774
2003
-
-
1
-
10
-
1
14
-
-
-
1
-
3
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
14
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
10
-
-
1
3
14
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
14
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
661394
Timson
Sugar recognition by human gal ...
Homo sapiens
BMC Biochem.
4
16
2003
-
-
-
-
6
-
1
6
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
1
-
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
641726
Okano
A genetic factor for age-relat ...
Homo sapiens
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
68
1036-1042
2001
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
4
-
-
-
1
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
641721
Asada
Molecular characterization of ...
Homo sapiens
J. Hum. Genet.
44
377-382
1999
-
-
1
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
641727
Zenke
Activation of Gal4p by galacto ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Science
272
1662-1665
1996
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
641722
Ai
Mouse galactokinase: isolation ...
Mus musculus
Genome Res.
5
53-59
1995
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2328
Vorgias
Overexpression and purificatio ...
Escherichia coli
Protein Expr. Purif.
2
330-338
1991
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
641714
Stambolian
Purification of human galactok ...
Homo sapiens
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
831
306-312
1985
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
2
-
-
1
-
-
4
2
2
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
1
-
4
2
2
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
641711
Dey
Galactokinase of Vicia faba se ...
Vicia faba
Eur. J. Biochem.
136
155-159
1983
-
-
-
-
-
-
10
4
-
5
2
-
-
2
-
-
1
-
-
2
1
1
3
1
-
-
1
-
1
-
1
-
3
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
10
3
4
-
5
2
-
-
-
-
1
-
2
1
1
3
1
-
-
1
-
1
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
641706
Szumilo
A galactokinase of Mycobacteri ...
Mycobacterium sp. 279, Mycobacterium sp.
Acta Microbiol. Pol.
31
249-256
1982
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
-
4
1
-
-
4
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
2
-
4
1
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
641707
Talbot
Isolation, purification and pa ...
Cricetulus griseus
Int. J. Biochem.
14
719-726
1982
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
2
-
-
1
-
-
2
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
1
-
2
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
641708
Wilson
-
Galactokinase from Saccharomyc ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Methods Enzymol.
90
30-35
1982
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
2
1
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
1
2
1
-
-
-
2
1
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
2
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
1
2
1
-
-
-
2
1
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
641716
Lavine
Purification and properties of ...
Tetrahymena thermophila
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
717
76-85
1982
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
2
-
4
2
-
-
4
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
5
1
1
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
2
-
4
2
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
5
1
1
-
-
-
1
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
641715
Lee
-
Galactokinase of Bifidobacteri ...
Bifidobacterium bifidum
Agric. Biol. Chem.
44
2961-2966
1980
-
-
-
1
-
-
3
2
-
4
1
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
4
-
1
-
3
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
3
1
2
-
4
1
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
4
-
1
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
641713
Schell
Purification and properties of ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
J. Biol. Chem.
252
1162-1166
1977
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
2
-
-
1
-
-
2
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
1
1
-
-
-
-
2
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
2
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
1
1
-
-
-
-
2
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
641717
Schlesinger
The NH2-terminal sequences of ...
Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae
FEBS Lett.
83
45-47
1977
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
641718
Lee
-
Purification and properties of ...
Bifidobacterium bifidum
J. Ferment. Technol.
55
19-26
1977
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
2
-
2
2
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
2
1
1
1
1
3
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
2
-
2
2
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
2
1
1
1
1
3
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
641632
Chan
One step purification of D-gal ...
Vigna radiata var. radiata
Anal. Biochem.
64
372-379
1975
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
1
1
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
1
1
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
641709
Ballard
-
Galactokinase from pig liver ...
Sus scrofa
Methods Enzymol.
42C
43-47
1975
4
-
-
-
-
-
5
2
-
5
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
1
4
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
2
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
2
2
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
1
4
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
641710
Blume
-
Galactokinase from human eryth ...
Homo sapiens
Methods Enzymol.
42C
47-53
1975
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
2
1
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
1
1
1
2
1
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
2
1
-
-
-
1
-
1
1
1
2
1
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
641719
Srivastava
Purification and kinetic prope ...
Homo sapiens
Arch. Biochem. Biophys.
150
191-198
1972
-
-
-
-
-
1
6
2
-
4
1
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
3
1
-
1
-
-
-
3
-
1
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
6
1
2
-
4
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
1
-
1
-
-
-
3
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
641712
Blume
Purification and properties of ...
Homo sapiens
J. Biol. Chem.
246
6507-6510
1971
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
1
-
-
2
-
-
1
-
-
2
1
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
1
-
2
1
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
641631
Neufeld
Phosphorylation of D-galactose ...
Vigna radiata var. radiata
J. Biol. Chem.
235
906-909
1960
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-