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Search term: kernel

Results 1 - 85 of 85
EC Number
Source Tissue
Commentary
Reference
alcohol dehydrogenase
-
L-iditol 2-dehydrogenase
isoform Sdh1, specific for kernel and endosperm. Maximaml expression at both mRNA and enzyme activity level during early kernel development
catalase
spadix
stearoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] 9-desaturase
-
superoxide dismutase
-
aminobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase
-
violaxanthin de-epoxidase
expression pattern of ZmVDE1 during maize kernel development. ZmVDE1 is mainly expressed in the late stages of the embryo, endosperm and whole seed
12-oxophytodienoate reductase
-
L-galactonolactone dehydrogenase
-
cytokinin dehydrogenase
developing, TaCKX6a
cytokinin dehydrogenase
most abundant in
glutathione-disulfide reductase
-
protein-disulfide reductase (glutathione)
activity increases to the 3rd week after anthesis
methionine S-methyltransferase
activity does not change significantly during the first 2 d of germination, increases during the 3rd and 4th day
caffeate O-methyltransferase
-
apigenin 7-O-methyltransferase
-
1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase
yellow kernel
serine O-acetyltransferase
-
beta-ketoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] synthase I
-
indoleacetylglucose-inositol O-acyltransferase
-
indoleacetylglucose-inositol O-acyltransferase
endosperm
chalcone synthase
low expression
chalcone synthase
very low expression
glycogen phosphorylase
-
levansucrase
-
levansucrase
developing from anthesis until maturity. 1,6-Kestotetraose formation is prominent during the first 13 days after anthesis, and little or no 6-SFT activity is observed later on during maturation
2,1-fructan:2,1-fructan 1-fructosyltransferase
-
2,1-fructan:2,1-fructan 1-fructosyltransferase
developing from anthesis until maturity. 1-FFT is almost exclusively active during the first 9 days after anthesis and no 1,1-kestotetraose is produced during the last weeks of kernel development
indole-3-acetate beta-glucosyltransferase
-
indole-3-acetate beta-glucosyltransferase
immature
sucrose synthase
SUS1 is the predominant isoform of SUS associated with microsomes isolated from the base of the maize leaf elongation zone and from kernels at 20 and 30 days after pollination. SUS2 exists predominantly as a hetero-oligomer with SUS1 in kernels
sucrose synthase
SUS2 is particularly abundant in kernels at various pollination stages
sucrose synthase
SUSSH1 is predominant in developing kernels
sucrose-phosphate synthase
-
indolylacetyl-myo-inositol galactosyltransferase
immature
xyloglucan 4-glucosyltransferase
-
1,4-alpha-glucan branching enzyme
developing
starch synthase (glycosyl-transferring)
-
cis-zeatin O-beta-D-glucosyltransferase
-
cis-zeatin O-beta-D-glucosyltransferase
lower level of mRNA
NDP-glucose-starch glucosyltransferase
-
6G-fructosyltransferase
-
6G-fructosyltransferase
developing from anthesis until maturity. 1+6G-Kestotetraose is formed at 5 days after anthesis with both sucrose and 1-kestotriose as substrate and also with sucrose as a single substrate
4-alpha-glucanotransferase
-
4-alpha-glucanotransferase
kernel endosperm
(R)-mandelonitrile beta-glucosyltransferase
enzyme accumulates to higher levels in the bitter types
sucrose:sucrose fructosyltransferase
-
sucrose:sucrose fructosyltransferase
developing from anthesis until maturity. When sucrose is the sole substrate, 1-kestotriose formation is highest during the first 9 days after anthesis, as well as 1-SST activity for 1-kestotriose formation from sucrose and 6G-kestotriose, after which the latter activity suddenly decreases. Little 1-kestotriose formation is seen in wheat kernels harvested between 9 and 28 days after anthesis whereas no such activity is observed later on during kernel development. 1+6G-kestotetraose formation follows a similar pattern to 1-kestotriose synthesis throughout kernel development although the formed 1+6G-kestotetraose levels are always lower
indolylacetylinositol arabinosyltransferase
immature
adenylate dimethylallyltransferase (ADP/ATP-dependent)
strong expression in developing kernel
homogentisate geranylgeranyltransferase
genotype G37 (red pericarp) shows higher expression than G7 (light brown) and G33 (red pericarp) at milky and mature grain development stages but lower than both parents. The transcript levels are comparatively low in mature grain
homogentisate geranylgeranyltransferase
grain tocotrienol and HGGT levels increase in the early stage and then reach a plateau
homogentisate geranylgeranyltransferase
preferential expression in mesocarp and kernel tissues
adenylate dimethylallyltransferase
strong expression of isoform IPT2 in developing kernels. At 8-10 days after pollination the endosperm and especially the basal transfer cell layer is a major site of IPT2 expression, this expression persists in the basal transfer cell layer and the developing embryo into later kernel development stages
tRNA dimethylallyltransferase
-
hexokinase
-
fructokinase
-
glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase
-
pyruvate, phosphate dikinase
-
pyruvate, phosphate dikinase
cytosolic mRNA of OsPPDKB is induced in the reproductive organs after pollination, and greatly increases until about 10 days after fertilization. This mRNA is localized mainly in the endosperm, aleurone, and scutellum of the developing kernel
oleoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] hydrolase
-
oleoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] hydrolase
developing kernel
4-phytase
-
amygdalin beta-glucosidase
amygdalin contents in different genotypes, i.e. cultivars Ramillete, Marcona, Garrigues, and S3067, the content is high in bitter variants such as S3067, and low in sweet variants such as Ramillete, overview
prunasin beta-glucosidase
-
prunasin beta-glucosidase
amygdalin contents in different genotypes, i.e. cultivars Ramillete, Marcona, Garrigues, and S3067, the content is high in bitter variants such as S3067, and low in sweet variants such as Ramillete, overview
glucuronoarabinoxylan endo-1,4-beta-xylanase
-
fructan beta-(2,1)-fructosidase
-
fructan beta-(2,6)-fructosidase
-
beta-fructofuranosidase
-
beta-fructofuranosidase
the vacuolar isozyme Inv-V is important in kernel development, overview
isoamylase
-
isoamylase
developing
endo-1,4-beta-xylanase
-
endo-1,4-beta-xylanase
largest part of the endoxylanases is located in the outer wheat kernel layers
endo-1,4-beta-xylanase
wheat kernel associated endoxylanases consist of a minority of endogenous endoxylanases
arabinan endo-1,5-alpha-L-arabinanase
the mesocarp promotes the production of the enzyme (71%) when compared to the whole fruit (60.6%) and the other epicarp layers endocarp (26%) and kernel (28%). The mesocarp of Terminalia catappa is a potential and cost effective source for the production of alpha 1,5-L-endo-arabinase
rRNA N-glycosylase
-
pyruvate decarboxylase
mature
(R)-mandelonitrile lyase
-
maleate hydratase
-
chorismate mutase
-
inositol-3-phosphate synthase
-
H+-exporting diphosphatase
-
Results 1 - 85 of 85