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General Information
mesaconase activity of the promiscuous fumarase/mesaconase contributes to mesaconate utilization by Burkholderia xenovorans. Mesaconate is metabolized through its hydration to (S)-citramalate. The first reaction of the pathway, the mesaconate hydratase (mesaconase) reaction, is catalyzed by a class I fumarase. The latter compound is then metabolized to acetyl-CoA and pyruvate with the participation of two enzymes of the itaconate degradation pathway, a promiscuous itaconate-CoA transferase able to activate (S)-citramalate in addition to itaconate and (S)-citramalyl-CoA lyase
the enzyme participates in the methylaspartate pathway of glutamate fermentation as well as in the metabolism of various C5-dicarboxylic acids such as mesaconate or L-threo-beta-methylmalate. fumD is clustered with the key genes for two enzymes of the methylaspartate pathway of glutamate fermentation, glutamate mutase and methylaspartate ammonia lyase, converting glutamate to mesaconate
physiological function
the enzyme (Bxe_A3136) is in fact a promiscuous fumarase/mesaconase. It has similar efficiencies (kcat/Km) for both fumarate and mesaconate hydration. This promiscuity is physiologically relevant, as it allows the growth of this bacterium on mesaconate as a sole carbon and energy source
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