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endophyte Penicillium oxalicum strain B4 induces the enzyme and leads to enhanced growth and artemisinin content of host plant in an in vitro dual culture of endophyte with regenerated plantlets via generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) including superoxide ions and H2O2
the expression level of CYP71AV1 significantly increases with the overexpression of transcription factor AabHLH1. The promoters of ADS and CYP71AV1 contain E-box elements, which are putative binding sites for basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors. The E-box is important for the CYP71AV1 promoter activity. AabHLH1 can positively regulate the biosynthesis of artemisinin. AabHLH1 protein is capable of binding to the E-box cis-elements, present in both ADS and CYP71AV1 promoters, and possesses transactivation activity in yeast. Transient expression of AabHLH1 in Artemisia annua leaves increases transcript levels of the genes involved in artemisinin biosynthesis, such as ADS, CYP71AV1 and HMGR
transcription factor protein glandular trichome-specific WRKY 1, i.e. AaGSW1, promotes artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua by inducing CYP71AV1 expression. AaGSW1 positively regulates CYP71AV1 and AaORA expression by directly binding to the W-box motifs in their promoters. Overexpression of AaGSW1 in Artemisia annua (via Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation method) significantly improves artemisinin and dihydroartemisinic acid contents. AaGSW1 can be directly regulated by AaMYC2 and AabZIP1, which are positive regulators of jasmonate- and abscisic acid-mediated artemisinin biosynthetic pathways, respectively. AaGSW1 binds to the W-box in the CYP71AV1 promoter in vitro and activates the transcription of CYP71AV1 in vivo. Global expression profile and phylogenetic analysis of WRKY transcription factors in Artemisia annua, overview
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