BRENDA - Enzyme Database
show all sequences of 4.1.1.1

Effects of substitution of tryptophan 412 in the substrate activation pathway of yeast pyruvate decarboxylase

Li, H.; Jordan, F.; Biochemistry 38, 10004-10012 (1999)

Data extracted from this reference:

Activating Compound
Activating Compound
Commentary
Organism
Structure
pyruvate
substrate activation pathway from C221 to H92 to E91 to W412 to G413 to thiamine diphosphate, role of W412
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Cloned(Commentary)
Commentary
Organism
expression of W412F and W412A mutant PDC in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Crystallization (Commentary)
Crystallization
Organism
-
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Engineering
Amino acid exchange
Commentary
Organism
W412A
mutant with 10fold reduced specific activity, reduced turnover number and catalytic efficiency, very much reduced substrate activation, reduced affinity for thiamine diphosphate, reduced stability
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
W412F
mutant with 4fold reduced specific activity, reduced turnover number and catalytic efficiency
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
General Stability
General Stability
Organism
central role of the beta domain in stabilizing the overall structure
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
KM Value [mM]
KM Value [mM]
KM Value Maximum [mM]
Substrate
Commentary
Organism
Structure
additional information
-
additional information
kinetic data, pH-dependence of steady-state kinetic parameters of wild-type, W412F and W412A mutant PDC
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates)
Natural Substrates
Organism
Commentary (Nat. Sub.)
Natural Products
Commentary (Nat. Pro.)
Organism (Nat. Pro.)
Reversibility
pyruvate
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
-
acetaldehyde + CO2
-
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
?
Organism
Organism
Primary Accession No. (UniProt)
Commentary
Textmining
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
-
-
-
Purification (Commentary)
Commentary
Organism
W412F and W412A mutant PDC, expressed in Escherichia coli, W412A is purified as apoenzyme
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Reaction
Reaction
Commentary
Organism
a 2-oxo carboxylate = an aldehyde + CO2
mechanism
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Specific Activity [micromol/min/mg]
Specific Activity Minimum [mol/min/mg]
Specific Activity Maximum [mol/min/mg]
Commentary
Organism
additional information
-
-
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Storage Stability
Storage Stability
Organism
4C, wild-type and W412F mutant PDC, several months, stable
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Substrates and Products (Substrate)
Substrates
Commentary Substrates
Literature (Substrates)
Organism
Products
Commentary (Products)
Literature (Products)
Organism (Products)
Reversibility
pyruvate
-
649851
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
acetaldehyde + CO2
-
649851
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
?
pyruvate
mechanism
649851
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
acetaldehyde + CO2
-
649851
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
ir
Subunits
Subunits
Commentary
Organism
tetramer
-
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Temperature Optimum [C]
Temperature Optimum [C]
Temperature Optimum Maximum [C]
Commentary
Organism
25
-
assay at
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Temperature Stability [C]
Temperature Stability Minimum [C]
Temperature Stability Maximum [C]
Commentary
Organism
40
-
Tm, W412A mutant PDC
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
51.5
-
Tm, W412F mutant PDC
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
59.5
-
Tm, wild-type PDC
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Turnover Number [1/s]
Turnover Number Minimum [1/s]
Turnover Number Maximum [1/s]
Substrate
Commentary
Organism
Structure
additional information
-
additional information
kcat values at different pH values from pH 4.5 to 7.5 of wild-type, W412F and W412A mutant PDC
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
0.03
0.55
pyruvate
pH 6, 25C, W412A mutant PDC
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
2.1
-
pyruvate
pH 6, 25C, wild-type PDC
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
6.55
-
pyruvate
pH 6, 25C, W412A mutant PDC
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
17.8
-
pyruvate
pH 6, 25C, W412F mutant PDC
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
73.1
-
pyruvate
pH 6, 25C, wild-type PDC
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
pH Optimum
pH Optimum Minimum
pH Optimum Maximum
Commentary
Organism
6
-
-
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Cofactor
Cofactor
Commentary
Organism
Structure
thiamine diphosphate
requirement, located at the active site at the interface of the alpha and gamma domains
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Activating Compound (protein specific)
Activating Compound
Commentary
Organism
Structure
pyruvate
substrate activation pathway from C221 to H92 to E91 to W412 to G413 to thiamine diphosphate, role of W412
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Cloned(Commentary) (protein specific)
Commentary
Organism
expression of W412F and W412A mutant PDC in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Cofactor (protein specific)
Cofactor
Commentary
Organism
Structure
thiamine diphosphate
requirement, located at the active site at the interface of the alpha and gamma domains
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Crystallization (Commentary) (protein specific)
Crystallization
Organism
-
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Engineering (protein specific)
Amino acid exchange
Commentary
Organism
W412A
mutant with 10fold reduced specific activity, reduced turnover number and catalytic efficiency, very much reduced substrate activation, reduced affinity for thiamine diphosphate, reduced stability
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
W412F
mutant with 4fold reduced specific activity, reduced turnover number and catalytic efficiency
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
General Stability (protein specific)
General Stability
Organism
central role of the beta domain in stabilizing the overall structure
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
KM Value [mM] (protein specific)
KM Value [mM]
KM Value Maximum [mM]
Substrate
Commentary
Organism
Structure
additional information
-
additional information
kinetic data, pH-dependence of steady-state kinetic parameters of wild-type, W412F and W412A mutant PDC
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates) (protein specific)
Natural Substrates
Organism
Commentary (Nat. Sub.)
Natural Products
Commentary (Nat. Pro.)
Organism (Nat. Pro.)
Reversibility
pyruvate
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
-
acetaldehyde + CO2
-
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
?
Purification (Commentary) (protein specific)
Commentary
Organism
W412F and W412A mutant PDC, expressed in Escherichia coli, W412A is purified as apoenzyme
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Specific Activity [micromol/min/mg] (protein specific)
Specific Activity Minimum [mol/min/mg]
Specific Activity Maximum [mol/min/mg]
Commentary
Organism
additional information
-
-
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Storage Stability (protein specific)
Storage Stability
Organism
4C, wild-type and W412F mutant PDC, several months, stable
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Substrates and Products (Substrate) (protein specific)
Substrates
Commentary Substrates
Literature (Substrates)
Organism
Products
Commentary (Products)
Literature (Products)
Organism (Products)
Reversibility
pyruvate
-
649851
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
acetaldehyde + CO2
-
649851
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
?
pyruvate
mechanism
649851
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
acetaldehyde + CO2
-
649851
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
ir
Subunits (protein specific)
Subunits
Commentary
Organism
tetramer
-
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Temperature Optimum [C] (protein specific)
Temperature Optimum [C]
Temperature Optimum Maximum [C]
Commentary
Organism
25
-
assay at
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Temperature Stability [C] (protein specific)
Temperature Stability Minimum [C]
Temperature Stability Maximum [C]
Commentary
Organism
40
-
Tm, W412A mutant PDC
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
51.5
-
Tm, W412F mutant PDC
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
59.5
-
Tm, wild-type PDC
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Turnover Number [1/s] (protein specific)
Turnover Number Minimum [1/s]
Turnover Number Maximum [1/s]
Substrate
Commentary
Organism
Structure
additional information
-
additional information
kcat values at different pH values from pH 4.5 to 7.5 of wild-type, W412F and W412A mutant PDC
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
0.03
0.55
pyruvate
pH 6, 25C, W412A mutant PDC
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
2.1
-
pyruvate
pH 6, 25C, wild-type PDC
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
6.55
-
pyruvate
pH 6, 25C, W412A mutant PDC
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
17.8
-
pyruvate
pH 6, 25C, W412F mutant PDC
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
73.1
-
pyruvate
pH 6, 25C, wild-type PDC
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
pH Optimum (protein specific)
pH Optimum Minimum
pH Optimum Maximum
Commentary
Organism
6
-
-
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Other publictions for EC 4.1.1.1
No.
1st author
Pub Med
title
organims
journal
volume
pages
year
Activating Compound
Application
Cloned(Commentary)
Crystallization (Commentary)
Engineering
General Stability
Inhibitors
KM Value [mM]
Localization
Metals/Ions
Molecular Weight [Da]
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates)
Organic Solvent Stability
Organism
Oxidation Stability
Posttranslational Modification
Purification (Commentary)
Reaction
Renatured (Commentary)
Source Tissue
Specific Activity [micromol/min/mg]
Storage Stability
Substrates and Products (Substrate)
Subunits
Temperature Optimum [C]
Temperature Range [C]
Temperature Stability [C]
Turnover Number [1/s]
pH Optimum
pH Range
pH Stability
Cofactor
Ki Value [mM]
pI Value
IC50 Value
Activating Compound (protein specific)
Application (protein specific)
Cloned(Commentary) (protein specific)
Cofactor (protein specific)
Crystallization (Commentary) (protein specific)
Engineering (protein specific)
General Stability (protein specific)
IC50 Value (protein specific)
Inhibitors (protein specific)
Ki Value [mM] (protein specific)
KM Value [mM] (protein specific)
Localization (protein specific)
Metals/Ions (protein specific)
Molecular Weight [Da] (protein specific)
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates) (protein specific)
Organic Solvent Stability (protein specific)
Oxidation Stability (protein specific)
Posttranslational Modification (protein specific)
Purification (Commentary) (protein specific)
Renatured (Commentary) (protein specific)
Source Tissue (protein specific)
Specific Activity [micromol/min/mg] (protein specific)
Storage Stability (protein specific)
Substrates and Products (Substrate) (protein specific)
Subunits (protein specific)
Temperature Optimum [C] (protein specific)
Temperature Range [C] (protein specific)
Temperature Stability [C] (protein specific)
Turnover Number [1/s] (protein specific)
pH Optimum (protein specific)
pH Range (protein specific)
pH Stability (protein specific)
pI Value (protein specific)
Expression
General Information
General Information (protein specific)
Expression (protein specific)
KCat/KM [mM/s]
KCat/KM [mM/s] (protein specific)
746673
Buddrus
Crystal structure of an infer ...
uncultured bacterium
Acta Crystallogr. Sect. F
74
179-186
2018
-
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1
1
-
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1
-
1
-
1
-
1
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1
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1
1
1
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1
1
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1
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1
1
1
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1
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1
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1
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1
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1
1
1
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1
1
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-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
746864
Choo
Molecular and functional char ...
Kluyveromyces marxianus, Kluyveromyces marxianus KCTC 17555
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
102
3723-3737
2018
-
-
1
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-
-
-
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1
1
-
2
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5
-
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1
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-
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4
1
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1
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1
1
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1
1
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2
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1
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4
1
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1
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1
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-
747665
Balagurunathan
Metabolic engineering of Esch ...
Zymomonas mobilis
Enzyme Microb. Technol.
109
58-65
2018
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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1
-
4
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1
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1
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740088
Spinka
Significance of individual res ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Biochemistry
56
1285-1298
2017
-
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1
-
6
-
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6
-
1
-
1
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2
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1
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1
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1
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1
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6
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6
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1
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1
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1
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1
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747980
Luo
Functional characterization o ...
Actinidia deliciosa
Int. J. Mol. Sci.
18
pii: E2377
2017
-
-
1
-
-
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-
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1
-
2
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9
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1
1
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1
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1
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1
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9
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
1
1
1
-
-
748591
Tian
Enhanced ethanol formation by ...
Acetobactor pasteurianus
Microb. Cell Fact.
16
171
2017
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
5
-
-
1
-
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1
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1
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1
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1
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1
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1
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1
-
1
-
1
-
-
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-
-
-
-
-
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749358
Fagernes
Extreme anoxia tolerance in c ...
Carassius carassius
Sci. Rep.
7
7884
2017
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
10
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
1
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1
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2
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1
-
-
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-
-
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-
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735039
Cheng
Redirection of the reaction sp ...
Thermus thermophilus, Thermus thermophilus HB8 / ATCC 27634 / DSM 579
PLoS ONE
11
e0146146
2016
-
1
-
-
2
-
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3
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3
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2
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1
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1
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1
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2
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3
-
2
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735848
Kannuchamy
Genetic engineering of Clostri ...
Zymomonas mobilis
BMC Biotechnol.
16
34
2016
-
1
1
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-
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-
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7
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1
1
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-
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736790
Xiao
3-Methyl-1-butanol biosynthesi ...
Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis
Mol. Biotechnol.
58
311-318
2016
-
1
-
-
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-
-
-
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1
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739823
Buddrus
Crystal structure of pyruvate ...
Zymobacter palmae
Acta Crystallogr. Sect. F
72
700-706
2016
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
1
-
3
-
-
1
-
-
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1
1
1
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1
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1
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1
1
1
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1
1
1
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1
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-
1
1
1
-
1
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-
-
-
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-
-
-
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-
740213
Kim
Enhanced production of 2,3-but ...
Candida tropicalis, Candida tropicalis ATCC20336
Biotechnol. Biofuels
9
265
2016
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
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-
1
-
2
-
5
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2
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1
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1
1
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1
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2
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2
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740780
Miyakoshi
Improved conversion of cinnama ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Kodama
J. Biosci. Bioeng.
121
265-267
2016
-
-
1
-
-
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1
-
2
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4
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4
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1
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1
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1
1
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2
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4
-
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-
-
-
1
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740781
Wang
Improvement of ethanol product ...
Phanerochaete sordida, Phanerochaete sordida YK-624 ATCC 90872
J. Biosci. Bioeng.
122
17-21
2016
-
-
-
-
-
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1
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2
-
3
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2
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1
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1
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1
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2
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2
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741473
Kata
Overexpression of the genes PD ...
Ogataea polymorpha, Ogataea polymorpha NCYC495
Yeast
33
471-478
2016
-
-
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-
-
-
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1
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2
-
5
-
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2
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1
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1
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1
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2
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-
-
2
-
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-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
744966
Reisse
In Vitro bioconversion of pyr ...
Clostridium acetobutylicum
Front. Bioeng. Biotechnol.
4
74
2016
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
1
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-
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-
-
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1
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1
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1
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1
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1
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1
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1
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-
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-
-
-
-
-
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746951
Eram
Pyruvate decarboxylase activi ...
Thermotoga maritima
Biochem. Biophys. Rep.
7
394-399
2016
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
2
-
-
1
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1
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1
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1
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1
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1
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1
1
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1
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1
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1
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1
-
1
-
1
-
1
-
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-
-
-
-
-
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-
735821
Milne
Comparative assessment of nati ...
Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis
Biotechnol. Biofuels
8
204
2015
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
3
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1
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1
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3
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-
736379
Eram
Molecular and biochemical char ...
Pseudothermotoga hypogea, Thermotoga maritima, Thermotoga maritima DSM 3109
J. Biochem.
158
459-466
2015
-
-
-
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2
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10
-
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6
2
-
2
-
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-
2
-
3
2
3
-
1
-
2
-
-
2
-
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-
2
-
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-
-
-
2
-
-
10
-
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2
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2
-
-
2
-
3
2
3
-
1
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
736593
Chen
Production of C4 and C5 branch ...
Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis CICC 6246
J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
42
1473-1479
2015
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1
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3
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2
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4
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1
1
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2
-
4
-
-
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-
-
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-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
737022
Long
Molecular identification and c ...
Hevea brasiliensis
Plant Physiol. Biochem.
87
35-44
2015
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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-
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3
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3
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3
-
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-
-
-
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-
-
-
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-
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3
1
2
4
-
-
739944
Jojima
Metabolic engineering for impr ...
Corynebacterium glutamicum
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
99
1165-1172
2015
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2
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-
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-
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-
726787
Van Zyl
Engineering pyruvate decarboxy ...
Gluconobacter oxydans, Gluconobacter oxydans DSM Z 7145, Parageobacillus thermoglucosidasius, Parageobacillus thermoglucosidasius TM89
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
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1247-1259
2014
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2
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-
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5
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1
4
4
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7
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2
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-
-
4
-
21
2
2
1
3
3
4
-
-
1
-
2
-
-
-
2
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
1
4
4
-
-
-
2
-
-
4
-
21
2
2
1
3
3
4
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
3
3
726796
Wu
Enzymatic synthesis of L-norep ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
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7399-7408
2014
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1
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1
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2
1
1
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1
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1
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1
1
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-
-
2
1
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
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-
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726840
Eram
The bifunctional pyruvate deca ...
Thermococcus guaymasensis, Thermococcus guaymasensis DSM 11113
Archaea
2014
349379
2014
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1
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5
2
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4
1
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1
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1
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2
1
1
1
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-
1
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1
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5
2
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1
-
1
-
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1
-
2
1
1
1
-
-
1
-
-
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-
728076
Lee
Enhancement of 1,3-propanediol ...
Zymomonas mobilis, Zymomonas mobilis ZM4
J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
41
1259-1266
2014
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1
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6
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1
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1
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735831
Oh
Production of 2-butanol from c ...
Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis
Biotechnol. Lett.
36
57-62
2014
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1
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1
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735870
Van Zyl
Structure and functional chara ...
Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus ATCC 49037
BMC Struct. Biol.
14
21
2014
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1
1
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3
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2
2
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11
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1
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5
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16
1
1
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1
-
1
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1
-
1
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1
1
1
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-
-
5
-
1
4
2
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-
1
-
-
5
-
16
2
2
-
2
-
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
3
5
739777
Lewicka
Fusion of pyruvate decarboxyla ...
Zymomonas mobilis
ACS Synth. Biol.
3
976-978
2014
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1
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1
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1
1
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1
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1
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-
-
1
1
-
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-
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-
-
-
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741468
Yang
Pyruvate decarboxylase and alc ...
Zymomonas mobilis
World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
30
2871-2883
2014
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1
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-
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1
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3
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1
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-
1
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1
1
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-
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1
-
1
-
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-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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-
-
-
-
-
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746776
Thitiprasert
Manipulating pyruvate decarbo ...
Rhizopus oryzae
Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol.
174
1795-1809
2014
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2
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1
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1
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1
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-
1
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-
-
-
-
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1
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-
-
-
2
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-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
726785
Agarwal
Comparison of pyruvate decarbo ...
Komagataella pastoris, Komagataella pastoris GS115, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4741
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
97
9439-9449
2013
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2
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1
4
-
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-
2
2
14
-
11
-
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-
1
1
-
15
2
1
-
-
4
1
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
5
4
-
3
4
-
-
-
-
-
4
4
14
-
-
-
-
-
3
3
-
15
4
3
-
-
4
3
-
-
-
-
1
3
-
-
-
727015
Kellett
Computational, structural, and ...
no activity in Vibrio vulnificus
Biochemistry
52
1842-1844
2013
-
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-
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-
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2
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-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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727559
de Assis
Pyruvate decarboxylase activit ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4741
FEMS Yeast Res.
13
518-528
2013
-
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-
-
-
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1
1
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-
1
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-
-
1
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-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
3
3
-
-
-
728448
Mithran
Analysis of the role of the py ...
Arabidopsis thaliana, Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0
Plant Biol.
16
28-34
2013
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
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-
-
11
-
-
-
-
-
2
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-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
2
3
11
5
-
-
736748
Krutsakorn
Construction of an in vitro by ...
Acetobacter pasteurianus
Microb. Cell Fact.
12
91
2013
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
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1
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-
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1
1
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-
-
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-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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727473
Huettl
Catalytically active filaments ...
Neurospora crassa
FEBS J.
279
275-284
2012
1
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1
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1
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7
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-
-
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1
1
-
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6
1
1
-
1
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-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
6
1
1
-
-
-
1
1
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-
727549
Son
Differential roles of pyruvate ...
Fusarium graminearum
FEMS Microbiol. Lett.
329
123-130
2012
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1
-
1
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-
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2
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-
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-
-
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-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
2
-
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727679
Balakrishnan
Bifunctionality of the thiamin ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
134
3873-3885
2012
-
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-
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9
-
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10
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1
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1
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2
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1
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1
1
1
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9
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
9
-
-
-
-
10
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
1
-
-
9
1
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
735533
Lu
Studies on the production of b ...
Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
96
283-297
2012
-
1
1
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-
-
-
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1
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-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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-
735780
Lee
Isobutanol production in engin ...
Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis KACC13877
Bioprocess Biosyst. Eng.
35
1467-1475
2012
-
1
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-
-
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2
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-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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-
736264
Garcia-Cayuela
Expression in Lactococcus lact ...
Lactococcus lactis, Lactococcus lactis IFPL730
Int. J. Food Microbiol.
159
207-213
2012
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-
-
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-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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-
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1
1
1
1
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736534
Kondo
Genetic engineering to enhance ...
Lactococcus lactis
J. Biotechnol.
159
32-37
2012
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1
1
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1
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-
-
1
1
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-
-
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-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
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-
-
-
-
-
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-
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702361
Pei
Structural insights into the p ...
Zymomonas mobilis
Biochemistry
49
1727-1736
2010
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1
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1
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1
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-
1
-
-
-
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-
1
1
1
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-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
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-
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1
-
-
-
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711542
Hong
Enhanced production of ethanol ...
Zymomonas mobilis
Biotechnol. Lett.
32
1077-1082
2010
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1
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1
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2
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714005
Matsuda
-
Stabilization of pyruvate deca ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Biocatal. Biotransform.
28
167-171
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1
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1
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1
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1
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1
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1
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-
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714220
Meyer
Double duty for a conserved gl ...
Zymomonas mobilis
Biochemistry
49
8197-8212
2010
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1
1
2
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3
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2
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1
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2
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-
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3
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-
1
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-
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-
1
1
1
2
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-
-
-
3
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-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
2
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-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
3
690431
Couldwell
Response of cytoplasmic pH to ...
Nicotiana tabacum, Solanum tuberosum
Ann. Bot.
103
249-258
2009
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
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-
2
-
-
2
-
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-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
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1
2
-
-
-
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-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
690432
Pena-Fronteras
Adaptation to flooding in upla ...
Cyperus rotundus
Ann. Bot.
103
295-302
2009
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
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-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
700675
Nguyen
A high affinity pyruvate decar ...
Populus deltoides
Phytochemistry
70
1217-1221
2009
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
2
2
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
2
2
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
702341
Yep
Engineering the substrate bind ...
Zymomonas mobilis
Biochemistry
48
8387-8395
2009
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
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-
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-
1
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-
-
1
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-
-
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-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
704470
Kutter
Covalently bound substrate at ...
Kluyveromyces lactis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae
J. Biol. Chem.
284
12136-12144
2009
-
-
-
2
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
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3
-
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2
-
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-
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2
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2
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2
2
4
-
-
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-
-
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-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
705199
Gocke
-
Comparative characterisation o ...
Acetobacter pasteurianus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Zymobacter palmae
J. Mol. Catal. B
61
30-35
2009
-
-
2
-
-
3
-
2
-
-
-
3
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
29
-
47
-
3
-
3
-
3
1
3
3
-
-
-
-
-
2
3
-
-
3
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
29
-
47
-
3
-
3
-
3
1
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
706270
Gonzalez-Agueero
Differential expression levels ...
Prunus armeniaca
Plant Physiol. Biochem.
47
435-440
2009
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
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-
-
-
-
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1
-
-
-
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1
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-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
736663
De La Plaza
Regulation of alpha-ketoisoval ...
Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis IFPL730
J. Mol. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
17
96-100
2009
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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-
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5
-
-
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-
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-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
686477
Hemschemeier
Biochemical and physiological ...
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
Eukaryot. Cell
7
518-526
2008
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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1
-
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-
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1
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1
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-
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1
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-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
690532
Cholet
Transcriptional analysis of L- ...
Yarrowia lipolytica
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
74
3356-3367
2008
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
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-
-
-
-
-
-
1
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-
-
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-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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-
-
-
-
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-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
690937
Stevenson
Directed evolution of yeast py ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Biochemistry
47
3013-3025
2008
-
-
1
-
1
2
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
2
-
2
-
1
-
1
1
2
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
1
2
-
1
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
1
-
2
-
2
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
691427
Orencio-Trejo
Metabolic regulation analysis ...
Zymomonas mobilis
Biotechnol. Biofuels
1(1)
8
2008
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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1
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-
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-
1
-
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-
1
-
1
1
-
-
-
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-
-
-
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-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
691428
Yun
-
Enzymatic production of (R)-ph ...
Zymomonas mobilis
Biotechnol. Bioprocess Eng.
13
372-376
2008
-
-
1
-
1
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
691435
Thompson
Heterologous expression of pyr ...
Zymomonas mobilis
Biotechnol. Lett.
30
1359-1365
2008
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
691441
Gunawan
Improved (R)-phenylacetylcarbi ...
Cyberlindnera jadinii, Cyberlindnera jadinii UNSW70940
Biotechnol. Lett.
30
281-286
2008
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
691443
Wang
An ethanol-tolerant recombinan ...
Zymomonas mobilis
Biotechnol. Lett.
30
657-663
2008
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
691578
Tylicki
Comparative study of the activ ...
Candida albicans, no activity in Malassezia pachydermatis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Can. J. Microbiol.
54
734-741
2008
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
692402
Ishchuk
Overexpression of pyruvate dec ...
Kluyveromyces lactis, Kluyveromyces lactis CBS 2359
FEMS Yeast Res.
8
1164-1174
2008
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
692733
Villatoro
Long-term storage of Pink Lady ...
Malus domestica
J. Agric. Food Chem.
56
9166-9174
2008
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
693587
Park
Genome-wide transcriptional re ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
J. Microbiol.
46
542-548
2008
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
693703
Huerta-Beristain
Specific ethanol production ra ...
Zymomonas mobilis
J. Mol. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
15
55-64
2008
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
694516
Erixon
Synthesis and biological evalu ...
Zymomonas mobilis
Org. Biomol. Chem.
6
3561-3572
2008
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
9
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
9
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
694588
Ponce-Valadez
Fermentation and malate metabo ...
Fragaria x ananassa
Physiol. Plant.
134
121-133
2008
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
694790
Taylor
Development of a versatile shu ...
Zymobacter palmae
Plasmid
60
45-52
2008
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
694835
Villatoro
-
Changes in biosynthesis of aro ...
Malus domestica
Postharvest Biol. Technol.
47
286-295
2008
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
695198
Pereira
Chromate causes sulfur starvat ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Toxicol. Sci.
106
400-412
2008
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
2
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
679188
Erixon
Inhibition of pyruvate decarbo ...
Zymomonas mobilis
Chem. Commun. (Camb. )
2007
960-962
2007
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
1
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
6
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
6
6
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
679569
Acar
-
Purification and characterizat ...
Rhizopus oryzae
Enzyme Microb. Technol.
40
675-682
2007
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
3
-
1
3
2
-
2
-
-
1
-
-
1
2
-
2
2
1
-
-
-
1
1
-
1
-
2
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
2
-
4
-
2
6
2
-
-
-
2
-
2
2
-
2
4
2
-
-
-
2
2
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
679914
Liu
Coexpression of pyruvate decar ...
Clostridium ventriculi
FEMS Microbiol. Lett.
274
291-297
2007
-
1
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
1
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
1
1
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
1
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
679923
Gunawan
Yeast pyruvate decarboxylases: ...
Candida tropicalis, Candida tropicalis LU57, Cyberlindnera jadinii, Cyberlindnera jadinii UNSW 70940, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Kluyveromyces marxianus UNSW 510700, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae UNSW 102200
FEMS Yeast Res.
7
33-39
2007
-
4
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
32
-
15
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
1
32
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
4
-
4
-
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3
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32
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4
1
32
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
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-
-
-
-
-
679924
Belinchon
Different signalling pathways ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
FEMS Yeast Res.
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40-47
2007
1
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2
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1
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682443
Agarwal
Production and phenotypic anal ...
Oryza sativa
Plant Physiol. Biochem.
45
637-646
2007
1
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1
1
1
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1
2
1
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3
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4
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1
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1
1
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4
1
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2
1
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-
678162
Joseph
Function of a conserved loop ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Biochemistry
45
13517-13527
2006
1
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1
-
10
-
-
1
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2
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1
1
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1
1
1
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1
1
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1
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1
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1
1
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10
-
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1
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-
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1
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-
1
1
1
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-
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1
1
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678576
Yep
Determinants of substrate spec ...
Lactococcus lactis
Bioorg. Chem.
34
325-336
2006
-
-
1
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4
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5
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2
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1
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4
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1
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4
1
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1
1
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4
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5
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1
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4
-
1
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4
1
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-
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-
678579
Baykal
Synthesis with good enantiomer ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Bioorg. Chem.
34
380-393
2006
-
1
1
-
2
-
-
1
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1
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1
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4
-
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1
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8
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1
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1
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1
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1
1
1
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2
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1
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1
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1
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1
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8
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
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-
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-
678843
Satianegara
Comparative studies on enzyme ...
Cyberlindnera jadinii, Cyberlindnera jadinii UNSW 70940
Biotechnol. Bioeng.
94
1189-1195
2006
4
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4
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4
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1
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6
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1
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1
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1
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4
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1
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4
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1
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-
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6
-
1
-
-
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1
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-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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679749
Kutter
The crystal structure of pyruv ...
Kluyveromyces lactis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae
FEBS J.
273
4199-4209
2006
4
-
2
1
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1
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2
2
2
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4
-
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2
-
-
-
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4
2
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2
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2
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4
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2
2
1
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1
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2
2
2
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2
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-
-
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4
2
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
683005
Fredlund
Oxygen and carbon source-regul ...
Wickerhamomyces anomalus
Yeast
23
1137-1149
2006
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
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1
1
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1
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4
-
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2
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1
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1
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1
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1
1
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1
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2
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-
-
-
-
-
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-
663808
Kaczowka
Recombinant production of Zymo ...
Zymomonas mobilis
Archaea
1
327-334
2005
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
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2
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7
-
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1
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1
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-
664077
Lie
Cofactor activation and substr ...
Zymomonas mobilis
Biochemistry
44
14792-14806
2005
-
-
-
-
-
-
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-
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2
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1
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-
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-
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-
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-
664698
Liu
Functional expression of bacte ...
Zymobacter palmae
Curr. Microbiol.
50
324-328
2005
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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1
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4
-
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1
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1
1
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1
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1
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1
1
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-
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-
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665776
Rosche
Role of pyruvate in enhancing ...
Cyberlindnera jadinii
J. Biotechnol.
115
91-99
2005
-
-
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1
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1
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-
-
-
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-
-
-
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-
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-
-
666155
Wang
Theoretical study toward under ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
J. Phys. Chem. B
109
18664-18672
2005
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-
-
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2
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1
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666578
Gass
Pyruvate decarboxylase provide ...
Petunia x hybrida
Plant Cell
17
2355-2368
2005
-
-
-
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1
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-
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1
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4
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1
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1
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1
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1
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1
-
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1
-
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-
-
-
-
-
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-
-
666806
Siegert
Exchanging the substrate speci ...
Zymomonas mobilis
Protein Eng. Des. Sel.
18
345-357
2005
-
-
-
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3
-
-
18
-
1
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-
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3
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6
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21
-
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1
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1
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3
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18
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1
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-
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6
-
-
-
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21
-
-
-
-
-
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-
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-
-
663644
Sutak
Pyruvate decarboxylase, the ta ...
Tritrichomonas suis
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
48
2185-2189
2004
-
-
-
-
-
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1
2
1
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2
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5
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1
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1
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1
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1
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1
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2
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1
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1
1
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1
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-
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664985
de la Plaza
Biochemical and molecular char ...
Lactococcus lactis
FEMS Microbiol. Lett.
238
367-374
2004
1
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6
1
1
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3
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2
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1
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7
1
1
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1
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1
1
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6
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1
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1
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7
1
1
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1
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1
1
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-
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665422
Wang
Purification, characterization ...
Candida glabrata, Candida glabrata CBS 138
J. Biochem.
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447-455
2004
1
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2
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9
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1
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-
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2
1
2
1
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3
2
1
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1
1
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1
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1
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4
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2
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1
4
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1
-
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2
1
2
1
-
-
3
2
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
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665596
Zhang
C2-alpha-lactylthiamin diphosp ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
J. Biol. Chem.
279
54312-54318
2004
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-
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3
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3
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1
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1
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-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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665863
Li
The rice pyruvate decarboxylas ...
Oryza sativa
J. Exp. Bot.
55
145-146
2004
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-
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2
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2
-
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1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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666366
Moller
Pyruvate decarboxylases from t ...
Lachancea kluyveri
Mol. Genet. Genomics
270
558-568
2004
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1
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-
-
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5
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-
-
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4
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1
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-
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1
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-
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4
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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-
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666661
Moyano
-
Comparative study between two ...
Fragaria x ananassa
Plant Sci.
166
835-845
2004
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-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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1
2
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2
-
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-
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-
-
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2
1
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-
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-
-
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-
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1
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-
-
-
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-
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-
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1
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
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651741
Tylicki
Effect of oxythiamin on growth ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
J. Basic Microbiol.
43
522-529
2003
1
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1
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-
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1
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2
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1
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1
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1
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1
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1
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1
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2
-
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-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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-
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650144
Sergienko
New model for activation of ye ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Biochemistry
41
3952-3967
2002
2
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1
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1
1
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1
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1
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2
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1
1
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-
-
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3
1
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-
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1
-
-
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1
-
-
-
2
-
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1
-
1
-
-
1
-
1
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1
-
1
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-
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1
-
-
-
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3
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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650152
Wei
Solvent kinetic isotope effect ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Biochemistry
41
451-461
2002
2
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1
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5
-
1
1
-
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2
1
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2
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1
1
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1
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2
1
1
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3
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1
-
-
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2
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1
1
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5
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1
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1
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2
1
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-
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1
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1
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2
1
1
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3
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-
-
-
-
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650161
Sergienko
Yeast pyruvate decarboxylase t ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Biochemistry
41
6164-6169
2002
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-
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3
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-
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1
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1
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2
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1
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1
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3
1
1
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1
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1
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-
-
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1
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3
-
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-
-
-
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1
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1
-
-
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1
1
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-
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3
1
1
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-
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1
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650577
Killenberg-Jabs
Folding and stability of diffe ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Biophys. Chem.
96
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2002
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1
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2
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1
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1
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1
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2
4
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1
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1
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1
1
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2
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1
2
1
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1
1
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1
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2
4
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1
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650674
Shiao
Overexpression of alcohol dehy ...
Arabidopsis thaliana
Biotechnol. Bioeng.
77
455-461
2002
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1
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2
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1
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1
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1
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1
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2
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1
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1
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651124
Krieger
Pyruvate decarboxylase from Kl ...
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1
1
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1
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4
1
1
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1
1
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1
1
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2
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1
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-
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2
1
2
1
1
3
2
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1
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1
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4
1
1
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1
1
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649510
Chandra Raj
Pyruvate decarboxylase: a key ...
Acetobacter pasteurianus, Acetobacter pasteurianus NCIB 8618 / ATCC 12874
Arch. Microbiol.
176
443-451
2001
1
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1
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4
1
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1
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1
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1
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1
1
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1
1
2
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1
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4
1
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1
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-
650049
Wang
Consequences of a modified put ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Zymomonas mobilis
Biochemistry
40
1755-1763
2001
3
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2
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1
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1
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4
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1
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3
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1
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3
-
3
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1
1
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4
1
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650079
Sergienko
Catalytic acid-base groups in ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Biochemistry
40
7369-7381
2001
-
-
1
-
5
-
1
1
-
1
-
1
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3
-
-
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1
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5
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3
1
1
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1
1
1
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1
4
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1
1
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5
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1
4
1
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1
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1
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5
-
3
1
1
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1
1
1
-
-
-
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-
-
-
650080
Sergienko
Catalytic acid-base groups in ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Biochemistry
40
7382-7403
2001
2
-
-
-
10
-
1
1
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1
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1
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2
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1
1
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1
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1
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3
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1
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10
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1
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1
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3
1
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1
1
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-
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-
-
-
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650671
Goetz
Continuous production of (R)-p ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Zymomonas mobilis
Biotechnol. Bioeng.
74
317-325
2001
-
1
1
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1
2
5
1
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4
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2
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6
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1
2
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2
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1
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2
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5
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1
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6
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2
1
2
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2
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-
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651094
Killenberg-Jabs
Active oligomeric states of py ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Eur. J. Biochem.
268
1698-1704
2001
1
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1
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1
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2
1
1
2
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1
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4
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1
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2
4
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1
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-
-
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653155
Talarico
Production of the gram-positiv ...
Clostridium ventriculi, Clostridium ventriculi Goodsir / ATCC 55887
Microbiology
147
2425-2435
2001
1
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1
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-
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2
2
1
1
2
2
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10
-
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1
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2
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4
1
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2
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1
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1
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2
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1
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2
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1
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2
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4
1
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2
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1
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1
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-
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-
-
650009
Chang
Effects of deletions at the ca ...
Zymomonas mobilis
Biochemistry
39
9430-9437
2000
-
-
1
1
1
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4
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1
2
1
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2
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1
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1
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4
1
1
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5
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-
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-
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-
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650447
Neuser
Purification, characterisation ...
Zygosaccharomyces bisporus, Zygosaccharomyces bisporus CBS 702
Biol. Chem.
381
349-353
2000
1
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1
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2
1
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3
2
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7
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1
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11
1
1
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2
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1
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1
1
11
1
1
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1
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651089
Lu
The structural basis of substr ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae WS34/70
Eur. J. Biochem.
267
861-868
2000
2
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4
1
1
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1
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653553
Or
Fermentative metabolism in gra ...
Vitis vinifera
Plant Sci.
156
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2000
-
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1
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4
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1
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2
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736396
Dickinson
An investigation of the metabo ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
J. Biol. Chem.
275
10937-10942
2000
-
-
-
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-
-
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3
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649662
Chang
-
Aspartate-27 and glutamate-473 ...
Zymomonas mobilis
Biochem. J.
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1999
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1
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6
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1
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2
1
1
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-
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-
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-
649851
Li
Effects of substitution of try ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Biochemistry
38
10004-10012
1999
1
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1
1
2
1
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1
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1
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2
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1
1
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1
1
2
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1
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3
6
1
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1
1
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1
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1
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1
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1
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1
1
2
1
1
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3
6
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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649910
Li
Role of glutamate 91 in inform ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Biochemistry
38
9992-10003
1999
2
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1
-
3
-
-
1
1
1
3
1
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2
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1
1
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1
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1
1
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4
5
1
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1
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1
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3
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1
1
1
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1
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1
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1
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3
1
1
-
4
5
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
650541
Hajipour
The linkage of catalysis and r ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
7
887-894
1999
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
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1
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2
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1
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4
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1
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4
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1
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-
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-
114299
Candy
Structure and properties of py ...
Acetobacter sp., Aspergillus sp., Canavalia ensiformis, Citrus sp., Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium ventriculi, Erwinia amylovora, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Ipomoea batatas, Kluyveromyces sp., Neurospora crassa, Pastinaca sativa, Pisum sativum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces pastorianus, Saccharomyces uvarum, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Zea mays, Zymomonas mobilis
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
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6
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1
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6
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26
6
-
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-
-
-
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-
-
-
-
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-
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114300
Baburina
Reactivity at the substrate ac ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Biochemistry
37
1245-1255
1998
1
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6
-
2
-
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2
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1
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1
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6
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-
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1
-
-
-
-
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-
-
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114305
Dobritzsch
High resolution crystal struct ...
Zymomonas mobilis
J. Biol. Chem.
273
20196-20204
1998
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1
1
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-
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3
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1
1
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1
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1
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-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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-
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114309
Lu
Cloning and characterization o ...
Scheffersomyces stipitis
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
64
94-97
1998
-
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1
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-
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1
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6
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2
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1
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2
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736040
Pohl
Active site mutants of pyruvat ...
Zymomonas mobilis
Eur. J. Biochem.
257
538-546
1998
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8
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6
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2
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6
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8
-
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6
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-
-
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2
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6
-
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723667
Ma
Pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreduc ...
Pyrococcus furiosus
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA
94
9608-9613
1997
-
-
-
-
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1
2
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1
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1
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1
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1
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1
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1
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1
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2
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1
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1
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1
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1
1
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114301
Killenberg-Jabs
Purification and characterizat ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Biol. Chem. Hoppe-Seyler
377
313-317
1996
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-
-
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1
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1
1
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1
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1
2
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1
-
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1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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114304
Mucke
Pyruvate decarboxylase from Pi ...
Pisum sativum
Eur. J. Biochem.
237
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1996
-
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1
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2
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1
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1
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-
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-
-
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2
-
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1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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Hossain
Characterization of pyruvate d ...
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31
761-770
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1
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1
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1
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1
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114302
Mucke
Purification and characterisat ...
Pisum sativum
Biol. Chem. Hoppe-Seyler
376
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1
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3
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2
1
1
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1
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1
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1
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3
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2
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1
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2
1
1
3
1
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-
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1
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735789
Ohba
-
Improvement of the thermostabi ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
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59
1581-1583
1995
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1
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1
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2
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1
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1
-
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-
2
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-
-
-
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-
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114307
Holloway
The nucleotide sequence and in ...
Hanseniaspora uvarum
Yeast
10
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1994
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-
-
-
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1
1
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2
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1
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1
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1
1
1
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1
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1
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1
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1
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-
2
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1
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1
-
1
1
1
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1
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1
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657568
Cheetham
-
Case studies in applied biocat ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Appl. Biocat.
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87-89
1994
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1
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1
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114312
Muller
A thiamin diphosphate binding ...
Saccharomyces uvarum
Structure
1
95-103
1993
-
-
-
1
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1
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1
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1
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1
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1
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1
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114313
Hiromasa
Purification of pyruvate dehyd ...
Bacillus caldolyticus
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1062-1066
1993
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1
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1
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1
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1
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-
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2
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2
1
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1
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3
1
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1
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1
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114306
Lowe
Purification and characterizat ...
Clostridium ventriculi
J. Gen. Microbiol.
138
803-807
1992
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4
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4
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3
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4
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1
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1
-
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3
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-
114310
Miczka
Purification and primary struc ...
Zymomonas mobilis
Biotechnol. Appl. Biochem.
15
192-206
1992
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1
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1
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3
1
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2
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1
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1
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1
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2
1
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-
114298
Kelley
Characterization of the maize ...
Zea mays
Plant Mol. Biol.
17
1259-1261
1991
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1
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2
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1
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114291
Knig
Cross-linking of pyruvate deca ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Biomed. Biochim. Acta
49
465-471
1990
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2
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114303
Rivoal
Purification and partial chara ...
Oryza sativa
Eur. J. Biochem.
194
791-797
1990
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-
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3
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1
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4
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1
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1
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1
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1
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1
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1
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1
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1
1
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1
1
1
-
-
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-
-
-
-
114308
Leblova
-
Isolation and characterization ...
Zea mays
Biologia (Bratisl. )
44
329-337
1989
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1
16
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1
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1
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1
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1
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16
1
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1
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1
1
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1
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-
114281
Zehender
Improved purification of pyruv ...
Triticum aestivum
Eur. J. Biochem.
167
149-154
1987
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-
-
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2
1
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1
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4
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1
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1
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1
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1
1
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114282
Neale
Pyruvate decarboxylase of Zymo ...
Zymomonas mobilis
J. Bacteriol.
169
1024-1028
1987
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1
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1
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2
1
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3
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2
1
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1
1
-
-
-
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-
-
-
-
114283
Bringer-Meyer
-
Pyruvate decarboxylase from Zy ...
Zymomonas mobilis
Arch. Microbiol.
146
105-110
1986
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-
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1
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1
2
1
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1
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1
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1
1
2
1
-
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-
114284
Kuo
Resolution of brewers' yeast p ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
J. Biol. Chem.
261
3316-3319
1986
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-
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1
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2
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1
1
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114296
Crout
-
Acetoin metabolism: stereochem ...
Triticum aestivum
J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans. I
1986
105-108
1986
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1
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1
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1
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114285
Lee
Pyruvate decarboxylase from Ze ...
Zea mays
Plant Physiol.
79
242-247
1985
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5
1
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1
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2
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1
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4
2
1
2
1
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5
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4
2
1
2
1
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1
1
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-
114290
Davies
-
The enzymatic decarboxylation ...
Triticum aestivum
Phytochemistry
24
231-234
1985
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1
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1
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1
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114286
Chen
Brewers' yeast pyruvate decarb ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Biochemistry
23
3576-3582
1984
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2
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1
1
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1
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-
114287
Hoppner
-
Purification and kinetic chara ...
Zymomonas mobilis
Eur. J. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
17
152-157
1983
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1
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1
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1
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1
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-
2
-
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-
114288
Oba
Pyruvate decarboxylase from sw ...
Ipomoea batatas
Methods Enzymol.
90
528-532
1982
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-
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2
1
-
4
2
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2
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1
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1
1
1
1
1
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1
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4
2
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1
1
1
1
1
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1
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114292
Hopmann
Hydroxyl-ion-induced subunit d ...
Saccharomyces pastorianus
Eur. J. Biochem.
110
311-318
1980
-
-
-
-
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2
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2
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1
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1
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1
1
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114289
Oba
Purification and characterizat ...
Ipomoea batatas
J. Biochem.
77
1205-1213
1975
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-
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-
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4
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4
2
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2
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1
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1
2
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1
1
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1
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4
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4
2
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1
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1
2
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1
1
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1
-
-
-
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-
-
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-
114293
Gounaris
Pyruvate decarboxylase III. Sp ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
405
492-499
1975
-
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1
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2
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114294
Ludewig
A new procedure to prepare hig ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
FEBS Lett.
45
340-343
1974
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2
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1
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-
114295
Hussain Qadri
Pyruvic decarboxylase and acet ...
no activity in Rhodomicrobium vannielii, no activity in Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides, no activity in Rhodospirillum rubrum, Phaeospirillum molischianum, Rhodobacter capsulatus, Rhodopseudomonas palustris, Rhodopseudomonas palustris Q, Rubrivivax gelatinosus
Can. J. Microbiol.
19
1137-1143
1973
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1
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8
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5
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1
1
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1
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-
5
-
-
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-
1
1
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-
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-
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114297
Lehmann
The influence of steric and el ...
Saccharomyces pastorianus
Eur. J. Biochem.
32
83-87
1973
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2
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1
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1
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