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Literature summary for 1.14.13.128 extracted from

  • Dash, S.S.; Gummadi, S.N.
    Catabolic pathways and biotechnological applications of microbial caffeine degradation (2006), Biotechnol. Lett., 28, 1993-2002.
    View publication on PubMed

Application

Application Comment Organism
medicine methylxanthine intermediates of caffeine catabolism obtained by the action of N-demethylases have many applications. In medicine, theobromine and theophylline are used as diuretics, vasodilators, and myocardial stimulants. Monomethylxanthines can be converted to effective caffeine derivatives by chemical derivatization and hence can serve as interesting alternatives to caffeine. Xanthine also finds pharmaceutical application in drugs for treatment of asthma. The biotechnological potential of N-demethylases therefore lies not only in general decaffeination purposes but also in specific product recovery from caffeine Pseudomonas putida
pharmacology methylxanthine intermediates of caffeine catabolism obtained by the action of N-demethylases have many applications. In medicine, theobromine and theophylline are used as diuretics, vasodilators, and myocardial stimulants. Monomethylxanthines can be converted to effective caffeine derivatives by chemical derivatization and hence can serve as interesting alternatives to caffeine. Xanthine also finds pharmaceutical application in drugs for treatment of asthma. The biotechnological potential of N-demethylases therefore lies not only in general decaffeination purposes but also in specific product recovery from caffeine Pseudomonas putida

Inhibitors

Inhibitors Comment Organism Structure
Zn2+ theobromine demethylase enzyme is inhibited by Zn2+, which generates the accumulation of theobromine Pseudomonas putida

KM Value [mM]

KM Value [mM] KM Value Maximum [mM] Substrate Comment Organism Structure
1.1
-
3,7-Dimethylxanthine theobromine demethylase, pH and temperature not specified in the publication Pseudomonas putida

Molecular Weight [Da]

Molecular Weight [Da] Molecular Weight Maximum [Da] Comment Organism
41000
-
x * 41000, theobromine demethylase, SDS-PAGE, x * 36600-43500, caffeine demethylase complex, SDS-PAGE Pseudomonas putida

Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates)

Natural Substrates Organism Comment (Nat. Sub.) Natural Products Comment (Nat. Pro.) Rev. Reac.
1,3,7-trimethylxanthine + O2 + NAD(P)H + H+ Pseudomonas putida i.e. caffeine 3,7-dimethylxanthine + formaldehyde + NAD(P)+ i.e. theobromine ?
1,3,7-trimethylxanthine + O2 + NADPH + H+ Pseudomonas putida i.e. caffeine 1,3-dimethylxanthine + formaldehyde + NADP+ + H2O i.e. theophylline ?
1,3,7-trimethylxanthine + O2 + NADPH + H+ Pseudomonas putida i.e. caffeine 1,7-dimethylxanthine + formaldehyde + NADP+ + H2O i.e. paraxanthine ?
additional information Pseudomonas putida the metabolite is 1,3-dimethylxanthine, i.e. theophylline, is produced by the demethylation in the 7th position of the purine ring, mainly in fungi, overview ?
-
?

Organism

Organism UniProt Comment Textmining
Pseudomonas putida
-
-
-

Purification (Commentary)

Purification (Comment) Organism
native heteroxanthine demethylase partially Pseudomonas putida

Storage Stability

Storage Stability Organism
similar to caffeine demethylase, heteroxanthinedemethylase is also unstable and loss of activity occurs upon storage Pseudomonas putida

Substrates and Products (Substrate)

Substrates Comment Substrates Organism Products Comment (Products) Rev. Reac.
1,3,7-trimethylxanthine + O2 + NAD(P)H + H+ i.e. caffeine Pseudomonas putida 3,7-dimethylxanthine + formaldehyde + NAD(P)+ i.e. theobromine ?
1,3,7-trimethylxanthine + O2 + NADPH + H+ i.e. caffeine Pseudomonas putida 1,3-dimethylxanthine + formaldehyde + NADP+ + H2O i.e. theophylline ?
1,3,7-trimethylxanthine + O2 + NADPH + H+ i.e. caffeine Pseudomonas putida 1,7-dimethylxanthine + formaldehyde + NADP+ + H2O i.e. paraxanthine ?
3,7-dimethylxanthine + O2 + NAD(P)H + H+ theobromine demethylase Pseudomonas putida monomethylxanthine + formaldehyde + NADP+
-
?
7-methylxanthine + O2 + NAD(P)H + H+ heteroxanthine demethylase, substrate-selective Pseudomonas putida xanthine + formaldehyde + NADP+
-
?
additional information the metabolite is 1,3-dimethylxanthine, i.e. theophylline, is produced by the demethylation in the 7th position of the purine ring, mainly in fungi, overview Pseudomonas putida ?
-
?
additional information no activity of the heteroxanthine demethylase, when either caffeine or dimethylxanthines are used as substrates Pseudomonas putida ?
-
?

Subunits

Subunits Comment Organism
? x * 41000, theobromine demethylase, SDS-PAGE, x * 36600-43500, caffeine demethylase complex, SDS-PAGE Pseudomonas putida

Synonyms

Synonyms Comment Organism
caffeine demethylase
-
Pseudomonas putida
heteroxanthine demethylase
-
Pseudomonas putida
N-demethylase
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Pseudomonas putida
theobromine demethylase
-
Pseudomonas putida

Temperature Optimum [┬░C]

Temperature Optimum [┬░C] Temperature Optimum Maximum [┬░C] Comment Organism
22 24 caffeine demethylase Pseudomonas putida
30 35 heteroxanthine demethylase Pseudomonas putida

pH Optimum

pH Optimum Minimum pH Optimum Maximum Comment Organism
6
-
caffeine demethylase Pseudomonas putida
7.3
-
heteroxanthine demethylase Pseudomonas putida

Cofactor

Cofactor Comment Organism Structure
NAD(P)H dependent on Pseudomonas putida

General Information

General Information Comment Organism
evolution catabolism of caffeine in microorganisms commences via two possible mechanisms: demethylation and oxidation. Through the demethylation route, the major metabolite formed in fungi is theophylline, whereas theobromine is the major metabolite in bacteria Pseudomonas putida
metabolism catabolism of caffeine in microorganisms commences via two possible mechanisms: demethylation and oxidation. Through the demethylation route, the major metabolite formed in fungi is theophylline, whereas theobromine is the major metabolite in bacteria. Catabolism of caffeine in microorganisms, overview Pseudomonas putida