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Information on EC - xanthine oxidase

for references in articles please use BRENDA:EC1.17.3.2
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EC Tree
     1 Oxidoreductases
         1.17 Acting on CH or CH2 groups
             1.17.3 With oxygen as acceptor
       xanthine oxidase
IUBMB Comments
An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein (FAD) containing [2Fe-2S] centres. Also oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes, but is distinct from EC, aldehyde oxidase. Under some conditions the product is mainly superoxide rather than peroxide: RH + H2O + 2 O2 = ROH + 2 O2.- + 2 H+. The mammalian enzyme predominantly exists as an NAD-dependent dehydrogenase (EC, xanthine dehydrogenase). During purification the enzyme is largely converted to the O2-dependent xanthine oxidase form (EC The conversion can be triggered by several mechanisms, including the oxidation of cysteine thiols to form disulfide bonds [4,5,7,10] [which can be catalysed by EC, enzyme-thiol transhydrogenase (glutathione-disulfide) in the presence of glutathione disulfide] or limited proteolysis, which results in irreversible conversion. The conversion can also occur in vivo [4,6,10].
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Word Map
The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota, Bacteria
Reaction Schemes
xo, hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase, xanthine:xanthine oxidase, xanthine:oxygen oxidoreductase, xanthine oxygen oxidoreductase, more
xanthine + H2O + O2 = urate + H2O2
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