Information on EC 1.11.1.9 - glutathione peroxidase and Organism(s) Homo sapiens

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Homo sapiens


The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota, Bacteria


The taxonomic range for the selected organisms is: Homo sapiens

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
1.11.1.9
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RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
glutathione peroxidase
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
oxidation
-
-
-
-
redox reaction
-
-
-
-
reduction
-
-
-
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PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
glutathione-peroxide redox reactions
-
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reactive oxygen species degradation
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arachidonic acid metabolism
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Glutathione metabolism
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Arachidonic acid metabolism
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SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
glutathione:hydrogen-peroxide oxidoreductase
A protein containing a selenocysteine residue. Steroid and lipid hydroperoxides, but not the product of reaction of EC 1.13.11.12 lipoxygenase on phospholipids, can act as acceptor, but more slowly than H2O2 (cf. EC 1.11.1.12 phospholipid-hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase).
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
9013-66-5
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ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
malfunction
-
methylmercury neurotoxicity is associated with inhibition of glutathione peroxidase
physiological function
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
1-palmitoyl-2-(13-hydroperoxy-cis-9, trans-11-octadecadienoyl)-L-3-phosphatidylcholine + 2 GSH
1-palmitoyl-2-(13-hydroxy-cis-9, trans-11-octadecadienoyl)-L-3-phosphatidylcholine + GSSG + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2 glutathione + H2O2
glutathione disulfide + 2 H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
5-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid + 2 GSH
5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid + GSSG + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
cumene hydroperoxide + GSH
?
show the reaction diagram
glutathione + ROOH
glutathione disulfide + ROH + H2O
show the reaction diagram
H2O2 + GSH
H2O + GSSG
show the reaction diagram
H2O2 + ROOH
H2O + ROH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
H2O2 + thioredoxin
H2O + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
linolenic acid hydroperoxide + GSH
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lipid peroxide + GSH
? + GSSG
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
protamine + H2O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
snGPx acts as a protamine cysteine thiol peroxidase
-
-
?
tert-butyl hydroperoxide + 2 GSH
tert-butyl alcohol + GSSG + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
tert-butyl hydroperoxide + GSH
tert-butyl alcohol + GSSG + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
tert-butylhydroperoxide + 3-carboxy-4-nitrobenzenethiol
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
additional information
?
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NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
5-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid + 2 GSH
5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid + GSSG + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
cumene hydroperoxide + GSH
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
glutathione + ROOH
glutathione disulfide + ROH + H2O
show the reaction diagram
H2O2 + GSH
H2O + GSSG
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
linolenic acid hydroperoxide + GSH
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
tert-butyl hydroperoxide + 2 GSH
tert-butyl alcohol + GSSG + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
selenium
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
CN-
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no inhibition if simultaneously incubated with 2-mercaptoethanol, glutathione or dithiothreitol
docosahexaenoic acid
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0.1 mM reduces the level of protein expression of GPx-4 by at least 50%
Mercaptosuccinate
-
-
additional information
-
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
etoposide
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activates p53, wich induces the expression of glutathione peroxidase
genistein
-
-
additional information
-
KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.006
cumene hydroperoxide
-
-
0.022 - 1.33
glutathione
0.2 - 11.1
GSH
0.02 - 19.08
H2O2
0.026
L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide
-
-
-
0.024
tert-butylhydroperoxide
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TURNOVER NUMBER [1/s]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
4.8 - 683
glutathione
14.48 - 408.3
GSH
4.7 - 727.8
H2O2
kcat/KM VALUE [1/mMs-1]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
216.7
glutathione
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mutant C2S/C78S/C115S/C156S/C202S, presence of 0.03 mM H2O2, pH 7.4, 37°C; mutant C2S/C78S/C115S/C156S/C202S, presence of 0.10 mM H2O2, pH 7.4, 37°C
231.7
H2O2
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mutant C2S/C78S/C115S/C156S/C202S, presence of 10 mM GSH, pH 7.4, 37°C; mutant C2S/C78S/C115S/C156S/C202S, presence of 3 mM GSH, pH 7.4, 37°C
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
0.52
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wild-type, pH 7.4, 37°C
2.24
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5
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Saos-2
5.28
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mutant C2S/C78S/C115S/C156S/C202S, pH 7.4, 37°C
5.5
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Saos-2 treated with etoposide
6.7
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U2-OS
8.5
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mutant with all Cys residues changed to Ser, substrate 1-palmitoyl-2-(13-hydroperoxy-cis-9, trans-11-octadecadienoyl)-L-3-phosphatidylcholine, pH 7.4, 37°C
11.9
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U2-OS treated with etoposide
25
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mutant with all Cys residues changed to Ser, substrate H2O2, pH 7.4, 37°C
pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
8
-
assay at
8.9
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mutant with all Cys residues changed to Ser
9
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mutant C2S/C78S/C115S/C156S/C202S
pH RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
7.4
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26% of maximum activity, mutant C2S/C78S/C115S/C156S/C202S
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
25
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assay at
37
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mutant C2S/C78S/C115S/C156S/C202S
45
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mutant with all Cys residues changed to Ser
TEMPERATURE RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
50
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75% of maximum activity, mutant C2S/C78S/C115S/C156S/C202S
55
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almost completely inactive
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
SOURCE
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GPx1 is highly expressed in adrenal glands
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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GPx-3 is detected at very low levels under basal conditions
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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human endothelial cell line Ea.hy926
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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GPx-3 is detected at very low levels under basal conditions
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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human primary pulmonary artery endothelial cells
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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a non-transformed lung epithelial cell line
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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GPx-3 is detected at very low levels under basal conditions
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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GPX2
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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GPX1; GPX3
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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GPX1; GPX3
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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upregulated Gpx-1 activity is associated with neuroprotection in vitro
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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GPx3 is widely inactivated in prostate cancer cells
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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GPX4; GPX5
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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GPX2
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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GPx3 is exclusively expressed in thyrocytes
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
20000
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SDS-PAGE
24000
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SDS-PAGE, truncated and active form of snGPx produced by cleavage at the N-terminal end
34000
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SDS-PAGE, inactive full-length enzyme
75000 - 85500
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gel filtration
90000 - 100000
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gel filtration
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
dimer
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GPX5
homotetramer
monomer
tetramer
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GPX1; GPX2; GPX3
Crystallization/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
molecular modeling of mutant with all Cys residues changed to Ser
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molecular modeling of the structure of seleno-hGPx2
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pH STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
5
-
extremely unstable below
396616
7.4 - 8.9
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743791
9.8
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93% loss of activity
743791
additional information
-
unstable at low pH
396643
GENERAL STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
selenoprotein P protects endothelial cells from oxidative damage by stimulation of glutathione peroxidase expression and activity
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stabilization by 2-mercaptoethanol
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stabilization by glutathione or dithiothreitol
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STORAGE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
4°C, more than 4 months
-
Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
nickel-agarose column chromatography
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Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
expressed in Escherichia coli
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expressed in Mus musculus
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expressed in PC-3 cells, LNCaP cells, and DU-145 cells
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expression constructs encoding full-length (1-201) and C-terminal deletion (1-100) versions of human GPX1 (Sec47Cys) for overexpression in HEK-293 cells
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expression in Escherichia coli
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expression in MCF-7c1 cells
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human enzyme expressed in transgenic mice. Overexpression of glutathione peroxidase with two isoforms of superoxide dismutase protects mouse islets from oxidative injury and improves islet graft function
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overexpression of Gpx4 in mice
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the human GPx-1 gen is expressed in transgenic mice
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EXPRESSION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
GPx-3 is induced by MG132 in HUVEC cells with an exponential increase in GPx-3 mRNA up to 120fold of control levels within 48 h. GPx-3 is still upregulated by a factor of 3-4 even after 72 and 96 h of proteasome inhibition. HAEC cells upregulate GPx-3 by more than 40fold in response to MG132. Proteasome inhibition clearly induces GPx-3 in HAoSMCs by a factor of 18
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ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
C2S/C78S/C115S/C156S/C202S
-
about 10fold increase in activity compared to wild-type. Mutant displays a typical ping-pong mechanism
S14A
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mutant shows reduced selenium content and strongly reduced glutathione peroxidase activity
S15A
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mutant shows reduced selenium content and reduced glutathione peroxidase activity
additional information
APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
analysis
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activity is important in predicting tissue redox state
synthesis
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construction of recombinant proteins carrying both the activity of human glutathione peroxidase and Alvinella pompejana superoxide dismutase and expression in a single protein production system. The best construct displays excellent antioxidant capacity and synergistic effects of hte two activities