Oryza sativa is transformed with a plant-expression-optimized synthetic gene using Biolistic-mediated transformation. The atlD gene is integrated into the rice genome of selected plants and is inherited in a Mendelian manner
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ArDH enzyme expression in tobacco chloroplasts confers tolerance to NaCl (up to 400 mM). Transgenic plants compared to wild-type survived for only 4-5 weeks on 400 mM NaCl whereas plants remain green and grow normal on concentrations up to 350 mM NaCl. A-week-old seedlings are also challenged with PEG up to 6% in the liquid medium, considering that membranes and proteins are protected under stress conditions due to accumulation of arabitol in chloroplasts. Seedlings are tolerant to 6% PEG, suggesting that ARDH enzyme maintains integrity of membranes in chloroplasts under drought conditions via metabolic engineering