Information on EC 4.1.1.31 - phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Bacteria, Eukaryota, Archaea

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
4.1.1.31
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
phosphate + oxaloacetate = phosphoenolpyruvate + HCO3-
show the reaction diagram
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
carboxylation
decarboxylation
-
-
-
-
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
C4 and CAM-carbon fixation
-
-
C4 photosynthetic carbon assimilation cycle, NAD-ME type
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C4 photosynthetic carbon assimilation cycle, NADP-ME type
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C4 photosynthetic carbon assimilation cycle, PEPCK type
-
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Carbon fixation in photosynthetic organisms
-
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Carbon fixation pathways in prokaryotes
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CO2 fixation into oxaloacetate (anaplerotic)
-
-
ethylene biosynthesis V (engineered)
-
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formaldehyde assimilation I (serine pathway)
-
-
gluconeogenesis
-
-
gluconeogenesis II (Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum)
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-
L-glutamine biosynthesis III
-
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Metabolic pathways
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-
Methane metabolism
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Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum biosynthetic metabolism
-
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Microbial metabolism in diverse environments
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mixed acid fermentation
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partial TCA cycle (obligate autotrophs)
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photosynthesis
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Pyruvate metabolism
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reductive TCA cycle I
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-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
phosphate:oxaloacetate carboxy-lyase (adding phosphate; phosphoenolpyruvate-forming)
This enzyme replenishes oxaloacetate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle when operating in the reverse direction. The reaction proceeds in two steps: formation of carboxyphosphate and the enolate form of pyruvate, followed by carboxylation of the enolate and release of phosphate.
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
9067-77-0
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ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Amaranthus edulis
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
photosynthetic type: single cell C4
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
hybrid cv. Mulato
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bryophyllum fedtschenkoi
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain CW-15 cc1883
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Coccochloris peniocystis
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Crassula argentea
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cultivar Coker 315
Uniprot
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
harsh hakea
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
photosynthetic type: Kranz C4
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain GM2
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cultivar Hinomoto
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
golden delicious, cox's orange Pippin
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicum
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-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Molinema dessetae
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Musa cavendishii
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Panicum schenckii
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Uniprot
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain P4 (soil-isolate)
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain P4 (soil-isolate)
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain ATCC 13525
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain No.7
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain No.7
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Sorghum sp.
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain ATCC 90893
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain A3(2)
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain A3(2)
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
photosynthetic type: single cell C4
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
photosynthetic type: Kranz C4
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
photosynthetic type: C3
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
photosynthetic type: Kranz C4
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
malfunction
metabolism
physiological function
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
ADP + phosphoenolpyruvate + CO2
ATP + oxaloacetate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphate + oxaloacetate
H2O + phosphoenolpyruvate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphate + oxaloacetate
phosphoenolpyruvate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphate + oxaloacetate
phosphoenolpyruvate + HCO3-
show the reaction diagram
Phosphoenolpyruvate + CO2
?
show the reaction diagram
phosphoenolpyruvate + CO2
phosphate + oxaloacetate
show the reaction diagram
phosphoenolpyruvate + HCO3-
phosphate + oxaloacetate
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
ADP + phosphoenolpyruvate + CO2
ATP + oxaloacetate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphate + oxaloacetate
phosphoenolpyruvate + HCO3-
show the reaction diagram
Phosphoenolpyruvate + CO2
?
show the reaction diagram
phosphoenolpyruvate + CO2
phosphate + oxaloacetate
show the reaction diagram
phosphoenolpyruvate + HCO3-
phosphate + oxaloacetate
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
-
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
acetyl-CoA
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
Cd2+
-
28% of the activation with Mg2+
Fe2+
-
12% of the activation with Mg2+
K+
-
12 mM, stimulates by 40%
NaCl
Coccochloris peniocystis
-
activation between 25 and 200 mM to a maximum of 14% a at 75 mM
phosphate
Zn2+
Coccochloris peniocystis
-
60% of the activation with Mg2+
additional information
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
(+)-catechin
2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3-phenyl-quinoxaline
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-
2-oxoglutarate
2-phosphoglycerate
-
-
3,3-dichloro-2-(dihydroxyphosphinoylmethyl) propenoate
-
micromolar inhibitor
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3-Mercaptopropionate
-
-
3-phosphoglycerate
-
-
AG 1433
alpha-Hydroxy-2-pyridylmethanesulfonate
Coccochloris peniocystis
-
-
alpha-ketoglutarate
10 mM, 9% inhibition
aspartate
baicalein
-
-
Baicalin
-
-
Chloroquine
-
-
citrate
Cl-
-
-
D-fructose
10 mM, 19% inhibition
D-Fructose 1-phosphate
10 mM, 26% inhibition
D-fructose 2,6-diphosphate
0.3 mM, 35% inhibition
D-fructose 6-phosphate
99% residual activity at 2 mM
D-glucose 1-phosphate
95% residual activity at 2 mM
D-glucose 6-phosphate
93% residual activity at 2 mM
D-Phospholactate
-
-
diethyl dicarbonate
-
causes dissociation of the enzyme into dimers and monomers
DL-isocitrate
-
-
epigallocatechin gallate
fisetin
-
-
fructose 1,6-diphosphate
-
-
fumarate
glucose 6-phosphate
-
-
glutamate
-
IC50 of phospho-PEPC1: 2.1 mM, IC50 of dephospho-PEPC1: 2.2 mM; IC50 of phospho-PEPC2: 4.1 mM, IC50 of dephospho-PEPC2: 7.0 mM, enzyme form PEPC2
glycerol 3-phosphate
98% residual activity at 2 mM
guanidine hydrochloride
-
-
Hg2+
-
5 mM, in presence of 5 mM Mg2+
isocitrate
Coccochloris peniocystis
-
-
kaempferol
-
-
KCl
Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicum
-
0.05-1.0 M, 60% inhibition at 0.25 M, 27% inhibition at 0.1 M
L-aspartate
L-lactate
-
-
L-Malate
L-phospholactate
-
-
lyso-phosphatidic acid
Maleate
malonate
methyl phosphate
-
-
Mg-(1,2-epoxypropylphosphonic acid) complex
-
-
-
Mg2+
-
free, non-competitive. Substrate inhibition by Mg-phosphoenolpyruvate is caused by inhibition by high Mg2+ and ionic strength
microcystin-LR
-
PEPC2
myricetin
-
-
oxalate
-
-
oxaloacetate
p-hydroxymercuribenzoate
-
glutathione protects
phosphate
phosphatidic acid
phosphatidylinositol
phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate
phosphatidylserine
phosphite
-
-
phosphoenolpyruvate
-
above 1 mM
Phosphoglycolate
-
-
Picolinic acid
Coccochloris peniocystis
-
-
pyruvate
quercetin
quercitrin
-
-
quinolinic acid
Coccochloris peniocystis
-
-
SO42-
Coccochloris peniocystis
-
-
succinate
Tartrate
-
-
additional information
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
1,2-Epoxypropylphosphonic acid
-
-
2-mercaptoethanol
-
activates
3-phosphoglycerate
slight stimulation
3-Phosphoglyceric acid
6-benzylaminopurine
-
natural cytokinin BAP
acetoacetyl-CoA
-
activates
acetyl-CoA
-
allosteric activator, PPC activity in extracts decreases by more than 75% in assays lacking acetyl-CoA
alpha-glycerophosphate
-
activates
Butyryl-CoA
-
activates
D-fructose 6-phosphate
D-glucose 1-phosphate
-
2 mM, 1.2fold increase of activity of PEPC2 at pH 7.3, activity of PEPC2 at pH 8 is nearly identical to activity without glucose 6-phosphate
D-glucose 6-phosphate
dihydroxyacetone phosphate
dioxane
ethanol
-
activates
ethylene glycol
-
-
fructose 1,6-bisphosphate
fructose 1,6-diphosphate
activates
fructose 6-phosphate
fructose diphosphate
-
activates
fusicoccin
-
rapid activation, reduces sensitivity towards the feedback-inhibitor malate
galactose 6-phosphate
Bryophyllum fedtschenkoi
-
activates at pH 7.8
Gln
slight stimulation
Glu
slight stimulation
glucose 1-phosphate
glucose 6-phosphate
glutamine
glycerol
-
activates
glycerol 3-phosphate
-
2 mM, 1.2fold increase of activity of PEPC2 at pH 7.3, activity of PEPC2 at pH 8 is nearly identical to activity without glucose 6-phosphate; 2 mM, 1.83fold increase of activity of PEPC1 at pH 7.3, 1.16fold increase in activity of PEPC1 at pH 8
glycine
GTP
-
activates
heptanoyl-CoA
-
activates
Hexanoyl-CoA
-
activates
His
-
stimulates
L-glucose 6-phosphate
malate
-
2 mM, 1.2fold increase of activity of PEPC2 at pH 7.3, activity of PEPC2 at pH 8 is nearly identical to activity without glucose 6-phosphate
malonate
Bryophyllum fedtschenkoi
-
inhibits at pH 7.8, increases activity at pH 5.8
N-isopropoxycarbonyl-4-chlorophenylcarbamoyl-ethanolamine
-
synthetic preparation exhibiting cytokinin activity: kartolin-4
O-isopropyl-N-2-hydroxyethylcarbamate
-
synthetic preparation exhibiting cytokinin activity: kartolin-2
phosphate
-
dry heat, dark, 25C: 222% activation, 45C: 275% activation/dry heat, light, 25C: 321% activation, 45C: 636% activation/wet heat, dark, 25C: 225% activation, 45C: 315% activation/wet heat, light, 25C: 368% activation, 45C: 687% activation
phosphoenolpyruvate
-
free, allosteric activator
Polyethylene glycol
Bryophyllum fedtschenkoi
-
required for maximal activity
propionyl-CoA
pyruvate
Coccochloris peniocystis
-
activates
succinyl-CoA
-
activates
thidiazuron
-
synthetic preparation exhibiting cytokinin activity: TDZ
valeryl-CoA
-
activates
additional information