Information on EC 4.1.1.1 - Pyruvate decarboxylase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Bacteria, Eukaryota, Archaea

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
4.1.1.1
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
Pyruvate decarboxylase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
a 2-oxo carboxylate = an aldehyde + CO2
show the reaction diagram
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
carboligation
decarboxylation
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
3-methylbutanol biosynthesis (engineered)
-
-
acetaldehyde biosynthesis II
-
-
acetoin biosynthesis III
-
-
Biosynthesis of antibiotics
-
-
Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
-
-
chitin degradation to ethanol
-
-
ethanol fermentation
-
-
Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis
-
-
L-leucine degradation III
-
-
leucine metabolism
-
-
long chain fatty acid ester synthesis (engineered)
-
-
Metabolic pathways
-
-
methionine metabolism
-
-
pyruvate fermentation to acetate VIII
-
-
pyruvate fermentation to ethanol II
-
-
valine metabolism
-
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
2-oxo-acid carboxy-lyase (aldehyde-forming)
A thiamine-diphosphate protein. Also catalyses acyloin formation.
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
9001-04-1
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
strain NCIB8618, i.e. ATCC 12874
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
pyruvate decarboxylase is one enzyme component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain IFO005, isoforms PDC I and PDC II
Swissprot
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain IFO005, isoforms PDC I and PDC II
Swissprot
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain LU57
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain LU57
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Citrus sp.
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain UNSW 70940
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain UNSW70940
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene FG09834.1
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene pdc
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene pdc
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain CBS 2359
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain JA-6
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain UNSW 510700
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain UNSW 510700
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Kluyveromyces sp.
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
i.e. Komagataella pastoris, has a single isozyme
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
i.e. Komagataella pastoris, has a single isozyme
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoforms Pdc11, Pdc12, Pdc13, overall enzyme activity is enhanced by glucose and oxygen limitation
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cultivar Pink Lady
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
variant Samsun
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
no activity in Malassezia pachydermatis
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
no activity in Rhodomicrobium vannielii
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
no activity in Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
no activity in Rhodospirillum rubrum
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
no activity in Vibrio vulnificus
enzyme FrsAis not a cofactor-independent pyruvate decarboxylase. No pyruvate decarboxylase activity is detected for recombinant crystallized FrsA protein. The barrier to C-C bond cleavage in the bound substrate is 28 kcal/mol, which is similar to that estimated for the uncatalyzed decarboxylation of pyruvate in water at 25C
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
pollen-specific isoform Pdc2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cultivar Modesto
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain Q
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain Q
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain UNSW 102200
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain WS34/70
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Sarcina ventriculi
Sarcina ventriculi Goodsir
strain Goodsir, ATCC 55887
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
CBS 6054
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
vatiant Desiree
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
W8CQR1: subunit alpha, W8CQB2: subunit beta, W8CQB1: subunit gamma, W8CR61: subunit delta
W8CQR1 and W8CQB2 and W8CQB1 and W8CR61
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
W8CQR1: subunit alpha, W8CQB2: subunit beta, W8CQB1: subunit gamma, W8CR61: subunit delta
W8CQR1 and W8CQB2 and W8CQB1 and W8CR61
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
activity in metronidazole- or iron-restricted cells is 20-30 times higher than in metronidazole-sensitive strain
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cv. Perlette, grafted on 140-R root stock, grape
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
i.e. Candida pelliculosa or Hansenula anomala, diploid type strain NRRL-Y-366, haploid strain NRRL-Y-366-8, gene pdc1
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain CBS 702
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain CBS 702
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene pdc
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
evolution
-
the enzyme is a member of the superfamily of thiamine diphosphate-dependent enzymes
malfunction
metabolism
physiological function
additional information
-
the enzyme forms filamentous structures
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
2-keto-4-methylhexanoic acid
3-methylpentanal + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-ketobutanoic acid
propanal + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-ketobutyrate
?
show the reaction diagram
lower activity than with pyruvate
-
?
2-ketobutyric acid
propanal + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-ketohexanoic acid
pentanal + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-ketopentanoic acid
butanal + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-ketovalerate
?
show the reaction diagram
lower activity than with pyruvate
-
?
2-oxo-4-phenylbutanoic acid
3-phenylpropanal + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-oxo-4-phenylbutanoic acid
?
show the reaction diagram
2-oxo-5-phenylpentanoic acid
4-phenylbutanal + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-oxo-5-phenylpentanoic acid
?
show the reaction diagram
2-Oxobutanoate
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
2-oxobutanoate
propionaldehyde + CO2
show the reaction diagram
2-oxobutanoic acid
?
show the reaction diagram
2-oxobutanoic acid
propanal + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-oxohexanoic acid
?
show the reaction diagram
2-oxohexanoic acid
n-pentanal + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-oxohexanoic acid
pentanal + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
the structural basis for KdcA, a branched chain 2-keto acid decarboxylase, EC 4.1.1.72, substrate recognition involving residues Ser286, Phe381, Val461 and Met358 of the substrate binding pocket, mutation of Ser286 and Phe381 converts the enzyme to a pyruvate decarboxylase, homology modeling, overview
-
-
?
2-oxoisocaproate
3-methylbutanal + CO2
show the reaction diagram
22.7% of the activity with 2-oxoisovalerate
-
-
?
2-Oxoisopentanoate
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
2-oxoisovalerate
2-methylpropanal + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
2-oxomethylvalerate
?
show the reaction diagram
16.7% of the activity with 2-oxoisovalerate
-
-
?
2-oxooctanoic acid
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-oxooctanoic acid
n-hexanal + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-Oxopentanoate
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
2-oxopentanoate
butyraldehyde + CO2
show the reaction diagram
2-oxopentanoic acid
?
show the reaction diagram
2-oxopentanoic acid
butanal + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
the structural basis for KdcA, a branched chain 2-keto acid decarboxylase, EC 4.1.1.72, substrate recognition involving residues Ser286, Phe381, Val461 and Met358 of the substrate binding pocket, mutation of Ser286 and Phe381 converts the enzyme to a pyruvate decarboxylase, homology modeling, overview
-
-
?
2-oxopentanoic acid
n-butanal + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3-(1H-indol-3-yl)-2-oxopropanoic acid
1H-indol-3-ylacetaldehyde + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3-(1H-indol-3-yl)-2-oxopropanoic acid
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3-fluoro-2-oxopropanoic acid
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3-fluoro-2-oxopropanoic acid
fluoroacetaldehyde + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3-Fluoropyruvate
acetate + F- + CO2
show the reaction diagram
3-Hydroxypyruvate
Glycolaldehyde + CO2
show the reaction diagram
3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3-methyl-2-oxopentanoic acid
2-methylbutanal + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3-methyl-2-oxopentanoic acid
?
show the reaction diagram
3-phenylpyruvate
2-phenylethanal + CO2
show the reaction diagram
8.8% of the activity with 2-oxoisovalerate
-
-
?
4-methyl-2-oxohexanoic acid
3-methylpentanal + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-methyl-2-oxohexanoic acid
?
show the reaction diagram
4-methyl-2-oxopentanoate
?
show the reaction diagram
4-methyl-2-oxopentanoic acid
3-methylbutanal + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-methyl-2-oxopentanoic acid
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-methylthio-2-oxobutanoate
3-methylthiopropanal + CO2
show the reaction diagram
7.2% of the activity with 2-oxoisovalerate
-
-
?
a 2-oxo acid
an aldehyde + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetaldehyde + acetaldehyde
(S)-acetoin + ?
show the reaction diagram
acetaldehyde + acetaldehyde
acetoin
show the reaction diagram
acetaldehyde + benzaldehyde
(1R)-phenylacetylcarbinol
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
acetaldehyde + benzaldehyde
(R)-1-phenyl-1-hydroxy-propane-2-one
show the reaction diagram
acetaldehyde + benzaldehyde
(R)-phenylacetylcarbinol
show the reaction diagram
acetylphosphinate
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
benzaldehyde + acetaldehyde
(R)-phenylacetylcarbinol
show the reaction diagram
-
-
reaction proceeds under in vitro assay conditions, colorimetric assay based on reaction
-
?
benzaldehyde + pyruvate
(1R)-phenylacetylcarbinol
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
ir
benzaldehyde + pyruvate
(R)-phenylacetylcarbinol
show the reaction diagram
-
-
transformation is enhanced by maintenance of neutral pH-value
-
?
benzaldehyde + pyruvate
L-phenylacetylcarbinol + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
benzaldehyde + pyruvate + H+
(1R)-phenylacetylcarbinol + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Benzoylformate
Benzaldehyde + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
substrate only for mutant mutant I472A
-
-
?
beta-hydroxypyruvate
2,4-dihydroxymethyl-3-oxo-butanoic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
D28A YPDC variant, via an enamine intermediate bound to the thiamine diphosphate cofactor
-
-
?
beta-hydroxypyruvate
glycolaldehyde + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
beta-hydroxypyruvate + glycolaldehyde
1,3,4-trihydroxy-2-butanone
show the reaction diagram
-
E477Q and D28A YPDC variants, via an enamine intermediate bound to the thiamine diphosphate cofactor
-
-
?
fluoropyruvate
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
indole-3-pyruvate
2-(indol-3-yl)-ethanal + CO2
show the reaction diagram
0.1% of the activity with 2-oxoisovalerate
-
-
?
oxo(phenyl)acetic acid
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
oxo(phenyl)acetic acid
benzaldehyde + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
Phenylpyruvate
?
show the reaction diagram
Phenylpyruvate
Phenylacetaldehyde + CO2
show the reaction diagram
phenylpyruvate + acetaldehyde
3-hydroxy-1-phenyl-butan-2-one + CO2
show the reaction diagram
pyruvate
(S)-acetolactate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
D28A YPDC variant, not E477Q YPDC variant, via an enamine intermediate bound to the thiamine diphosphate cofactor, stereospecific reaction, overview
-
-
?
Pyruvate
Acetaldehyde + CO2
show the reaction diagram
pyruvate
ethanal + CO2
show the reaction diagram
0.6% of the activity with 2-oxoisovalerate
-
-
?
pyruvate + acetaldehyde
acetoin + CO2
show the reaction diagram
pyruvate + benzaldehyde
(R)-phenylacetylcarbinol + CO2
show the reaction diagram
pyruvate + phenylacetaldehyde
3-hydroxy-4-phenyl-butan-2-one + CO2
show the reaction diagram
enzyme catalyzes a carboligation as side reaction
-
?
Pyruvic acid
Acetaldehyde + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
the structural basis for KdcA, a branched chain 2-keto acid decarboxylase, EC 4.1.1.72, substrate recognition involving residues Ser286, Phe381, Val461 and Met358 of the substrate binding pocket, mutation of Ser286 and Phe381 converts the enzyme to a pyruvate decarboxylase, homology modeling, overview
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
a 2-oxo acid
an aldehyde + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
Pyruvate
Acetaldehyde + CO2
show the reaction diagram
pyruvate + acetaldehyde
acetoin + CO2
show the reaction diagram
pyruvate + benzaldehyde
(R)-phenylacetylcarbinol + CO2
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
-
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
CoA
-
desulfocoenzyme A can substitute for CoA showing that the cofactor plays a structural rather than a catalytic role
thiamine diphosphate
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
Ca2+
-
0.5 mM, metal ions activate in descending order: Mg2+, Zn2+, Mn2+, Ca2+
Mn2+
-
0.5 mM, metal ions activate in descending order: Mg2+, Zn2+, Mn2+, Ca2+
Zn2+
-
0.5 mM, metal ions activate in descending order: Mg2+, Zn2+, Mn2+, Ca2+
additional information
-
-
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
(E)-4-(4-Chlorophenyl)-2-oxo-3-butenoic acid
([2-[1-(4-amino-2-methylpyrimidin-5-ylmethyl)-1H-[1,2,3]triazol-4-yl]ethoxy]hydroxyphosphoryldifluoromethyl)phosphonic acid
-
-
([2-[1-(4-amino-2-methylpyrimidin-5-ylmethyl)-1H-[1,2,3]triazol-4-yl]ethoxy]hydroxyphosphorylmethyl) phosphonic acid
-
-
1,10-phenanthroline
1 mM, 95% inhibition
2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol
-
0.1 mM, weak inhibition
2-Hydroxy-5-nitrobenzyl-dimethylsulfonium bromide
-
-
2-p-Toluidinonaphthalene-6-sulfonate
-
-
2-[1-(4-amino-2-methylpyrimidin-5-ylmethyl)-1H-[1,2,3]triazol-4-yl]ethanol
-
-
2-[1-(4-amino-2-methylpyrimidin-5-ylmethyl)-1H-[1,2,3]triazol-4-yl]ethyl diphosphate
-
-
2-[1-(4-amino-2-methylpyrimidin-5-ylmethyl)-5-methyl-1H-[1,2,3]triazol-4-yl]ethyl diphosphate
-
-
2-[1-[(4-amino-2-methylpyrimidin-5-yl)methyl]-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl]ethyl trihydrogen diphosphate
-
a thiamine diphosphate analogue, almost irreversible inhibition
2-[1-[(4-amino-2-methylpyrimidin-5-yl)methyl]-5-methyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl]ethyl trihydrogen diphosphate
-
a methyl triazole analogue of thiamine diphosphate, almost irreversible inhibition
3-deazathiamine diphosphate
-
12-step synthesis of the isoelectronic thiophene analogue of thiamine diphosphate, overview
3-hydroxypyruvate
-
-
acetaldehyde
Ag+
complete inhibition at 20 mM
Be2+
-
-
benzaldehyde
Cd2+
-
-
Co2+
-
slight
Cr2+
-
-
Cu+
complete inhibition at 20 mM
Cu2+
1 mM, 95% inhibition
ethylendiaminetetraacetate
1 mM, 95% inhibition
glyoxalate
glyoxylate
complete inhibition
Guanidinium chloride
-
6 M, denaturates
Hg2+
-
0.15 mM, 50% inhibition
iodoacetamide
-
-
KCN
-
-
KH2PO4
-
-
Lactate
-
-
Li+
-
-
LiCl
-
-
maleate buffer
Sarcina ventriculi
inhibits at low pyruvate concentrations
-
Mn2+
-
slight
mono(2-[1-(4-amino-2-methylpyrimidin-5-ylmethyl)-1H-[1,2,3]triazol-4-yl]ethyl) iminodiacetate
-
-
mono[2-[1-(4-amino-2-methylpyrimidin-5-ylmethyl)-1H-[1,2,3]triazol-4-yl]ethyl] malonate
-
-
N-([2-[1-(4-amino-2-methylpyrimidin-5-ylmethyl)-1H-[1,2,3]triazol-4-yl]ethoxy]sulfonyl)phosphoramidic acid
-
-
NH4Cl
-
-
Ni2+
-
slight
O-2-[1-(4-amino-2-methylpyrimidin-5-ylmethyl)-1H-[1,2,3]triazol-4-yl]ethyl sulfamate
-
-
Omeprazole
-
50% inhibition at 0.016 mg/ml for enzyme from metronidazole-resistant strain or from cells grown under iron-limited conditions, little effect on enzyme from metronidazole-susceptible strain
p-chloromercuribenzoate
p-hydroxymercuribenzoate
1 mM, 40% inhibition
Pb2+
-
-
phenylpyruvate
10 mM, 81% inhibition
phosphate
phosphoramidon
1 mM, 48% inhibition
Pyruvamide
pyruvate
Sr2+
-
slight
thiamine diphosphate
PDC I, complete inhibition at 75 mM, PDC II, complete inhibition at 100 mM
Urea
-
8 M, denaturates
[(2-[1-[(4-amino-2-methylpyrimidin-5-yl)methyl]-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl]ethoxy)sulfonyl]phosphoramidic acid
-
a phosphoramidic acid thiamine diphosphate analogue
[[(2-[1-[(4-amino-2-methylpyrimidin-5-yl)methyl]-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl]ethoxy)(hydroxy)phosphoryl](difluoro)methyl]phosphonic acid
-
a difluoromethylenediphosphonate ester thiamine diphosphate analogue
[[(2-[1-[(4-amino-2-methylpyrimidin-5-yl)methyl]-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl]ethoxy)(hydroxy)phosphoryl]methyl]phosphonic acid
-
a methylenediphosphonate ester thiamine diphosphate analogue
additional information
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
chromate
-
sulfur starvation and chromate treatment induce the expression of Pdc6, PDC6 mRNA level is increased more than 100fold following chromate treatment with toxic doses (0.005, 0.01, and 0.02 mM) but remains unchanged at the lower dose 0.0025 mM
CO2
-
PDC activity increases when fruit is treated with 20% CO2 than when fruit is stored in air
ergosterol
-
-
Ketomalonate
-
activates
Met32 protein
-
dependent upon Met32 protein
-
NaCl
up to 3fold increase in activity at pH 5.4
phosphatidylcholine
-
activates at 2 mg/ml
Pyruvamide
pyruvate
sodium bis(2-ethyl-1-hexyl)sulfosuccinate
-
a synthetic surfactant
additional information
KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
1.7 - 40
2-keto-4-methylhexanoic acid
4.7 - 50
2-ketobutanoic acid
2.86
2-Ketobutyrate
-
30C, wild-type PDC
2.2
2-ketobutyric acid
-
in 100 mM MES buffer (pH 5.6), 5 mM MgCl2, 1 mM dithiothreitol, and 1 mM thiamine diphosphate, at 25C
0.2 - 12.7
2-ketohexanoic acid
2.5 - 11
2-ketopentanoic acid
12.9
2-Ketovalerate
-
30C, wild-type PDC
1.27
2-oxoisopentanoate
-
-
1.9
2-oxoisovalerate
pH 6.5, 37C
1.8 - 4.4
benzoylformate
0.042 - 50
pyruvate
18 - 65
Pyruvic acid
additional information
additional information