Information on EC 3.5.3.15 - protein-arginine deiminase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota, Bacteria

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
3.5.3.15
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
protein-arginine deiminase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
protein L-arginine + H2O = protein L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
amidine hydrolysis
-
-
-
-
PATHWAY
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
protein citrullination
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
protein-L-arginine iminohydrolase
Also acts on N-acyl-L-arginine and, more slowly, on L-arginine esters.
SYNONYMS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
deiminase, protein (arginine)
-
-
-
-
HL-60 PAD
-
-
-
-
hPADI2
-
-
hPADI4
-
-
hPADVI
-
-
PAD
-
-
-
-
PAD
Q9ULC6
-
PAD
Q9Y2J8
-
PAD
Q8K3V4
-
PAD
Mus musculus C57BL/6-129S
-
-
-
PAD 1
-
isozyme
PAD 2
-
-
PAD 3
-
isozyme
PAD 4
-
isozyme
PAD II
-
-
PAD IV
Q9UM07
-
PAD type 2
-
-
PAD-4
-
-
PAD-H19
-
-
-
-
PAD-R11
-
-
-
-
PAD-R4
-
-
-
-
PAD1
-
-
PAD1
Q9ULC6
isoform
PAD1
O88806
-
PAD2
Q9Y2J8
isoform
PAD2
Mus musculus CD-1
Q08642
-
-
PAD3
Q9ULW8
isoform
PAD3
P70708
-
PAD4
-
isozyme
PAD4
Q9UM07
isoform
PAD4
Q9Y2J8
-
PAD4
-
-
PAD4
Q9Z183
-
PAD4
Mus musculus CD-1
Q9Z183
-
-
PAD4
O88807
-
PAD4
-
-
PAD6
-
-
PAD6
Q6TGC4
-
PAD6
Q6TGC4
isoform
PAD6
-
-
PADI1
-
-
PADI3
Q9ULW8
-
peptidyl arginine deiminas 4
-
-
peptidyl arginine deiminase
-
-
peptidyl arginine deiminase 2
P20717
-
peptidyl-arginine deiminase
-
-
peptidylarginine deiminase
-
-
-
-
peptidylarginine deiminase
-
-
peptidylarginine deiminase
-
-
peptidylarginine deiminase
Q6TGC4
-
peptidylarginine deiminase
Q9ULC6
-
peptidylarginine deiminase
Q9ULW8
-
peptidylarginine deiminase
Q9UM07
-
peptidylarginine deiminase
Q9Y2J8
-
peptidylarginine deiminase
-
-
peptidylarginine deiminase
Q08642
-
peptidylarginine deiminase
Q8K3V4
-
peptidylarginine deiminase
Mus musculus C57BL/6-129S
-
-
-
peptidylarginine deiminase
Mus musculus CD-1
Q08642
-
-
peptidylarginine deiminase
-
-
peptidylarginine deiminase
-
-
peptidylarginine deiminase
-
-
peptidylarginine deiminase 1
Q9ULC6
-
peptidylarginine deiminase 2
-
-
peptidylarginine deiminase 2
-
-
peptidylarginine deiminase 2
Q9Y2J8
-
peptidylarginine deiminase 2
-
-
peptidylarginine deiminase 2
Q08642
-
peptidylarginine deiminase 2
-
-
peptidylarginine deiminase 2
P20717
-
peptidylarginine deiminase 3
Q9ULW8
-
peptidylarginine deiminase 4
-
-
peptidylarginine deiminase 4
Q9UM07
-
peptidylarginine deiminase 4
Q9Y2J8
-
peptidylarginine deiminase 4
Q9Z183
-
peptidylarginine deiminase 4
Mus musculus CD-1
Q9Z183
-
-
peptidylarginine deiminase 6
-
-
peptidylarginine deiminase isoform VI
-
-
peptidylarginine deiminase IV
-
-
peptidylarginine deiminase IV
Q9UM07
-
peptidylarginine deiminase type 4
Q9UM07
-
Peptidylarginine deiminase type alpha
-
-
-
-
peptidylarginine deiminase type I
-
-
peptidylarginine deiminase type II
-
-
peptidylarginine deiminase type III
Q9ULW8
-
peptidylarginine deiminase type VI
-
-
peptidylarginine deiminase-4
-
-
protein arginine deiminase
-
-
-
-
protein arginine deiminase
-
-
protein arginine deiminase 4
-
-
protein arginine deiminase 4
-
isozyme
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY
75536-80-0
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SEQUENCE CODE
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
enzyme isoform PAD4
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
enzyme isoform V
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene padi4, isozyme PADI4
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozyme PAD1
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozyme PAD4
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozyme PAD4
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
PAD1
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
PAD1; isozyme PAD1
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
PAD2
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
PAD2; isozyme PAD2
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
PAD3; isozyme PAD3
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
PAD4
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
PAD6; isozyme PAD6
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
patients with Alzheimer's disease
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
peptidylarginine deiminase 1
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
peptidylarginine deiminase 2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
peptidylarginine deiminase 2, patients with rheumatoid arthitis and healthy controls; peptidylarginine deiminase 4, patients with rheumatoid arthitis and healthy controls
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
peptidylarginine deiminase 3
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
recombinant
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
rheumatoid arthritis patients
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
C57BL/6-129S mice
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
PAD2; CD-1 mice
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
PAD4; CD-1 mice
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
PAD6
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
peptidyl arginine deiminase I, II and III
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
peptidylarginine deiminase type II
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mus musculus C57BL/6-129S
C57BL/6-129S mice
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mus musculus CD-1
PAD2; CD-1 mice
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mus musculus CD-1
PAD4; CD-1 mice
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
female and male Wistar rats
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozyme PAD6
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
PAD1; isozyme PAD1
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
PAD2; isozyme PAD2
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
PAD3; isozyme PAD3
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
PAD4; isozyme PAD4
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Wistar rats
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
malfunction
-
overexpressing PAD2 reduces LPS-mediated COX-2 up-regulation by 50%. PAD2 overexpression also reduces NF-kappaB activity
physiological function
-
PAD4 is involved in cellular differentiation, is a transcriptional corepressor for the estrogen receptor and p53 (deiminates the GRIP1 (glutamate receptor interacting protein 1) binding domain of p300, facilitating its interaction with GRIP1 and thus activating transcription), and is participated in NET formation. PAD4 influences gene expression through the deimination of histones H2A, H3 and H4. PAD4 downregulates the expression of p21, a cell cycle inhibitor, as well as PUMA and OKL38 (pregnancy-induced growth inhibitor), which are inducers of apoptosis. Increased PAD4 activity contributes to the onset and progression of rheumatoid arthritis
physiological function
-
despite PAD2's normally inactive status, it becomes active and citrullinates cellular proteins, but only when the intracellular Ca2+ balance is upset during neurodegenerative changes. Abnormal protein citrullination by PAD2 is closely associated with the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimers disease and prion disease
physiological function
-
PAD2 plays a regulatory role in the expression of lactation related genes via histone citrullination during diestrus
physiological function
-
PAD negatively regulates enolase activity via citrullination and enolase activity is more inactive in patients with with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and Alzheimer's disease than in controls
physiological function
-
PAD negatively regulates enolase activity via citrullination. Thus, PAD-mediated citrullination regulates the diverse physiological activities of enolase
physiological function
-
incubation of purified PAD2 and IKKgamma proteins in the presence of Ca2+ citrullinate IKKgamma. Results demonstrate that PAD2 interacts with IKKgamma and suppresses NF-kappaB activity
physiological function
-
the target of citrullination is histone protein (H3), not B23. Therefore the presence of PAD4 and citrullinated histone H3 in oocytes and embryos suggests a possible role for PAD4 in preimplantation embryonic development
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                      
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
2-acetyl-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys + H2O
2-acetyl-Gly-Cit-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3-acetyl-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys + H2O
3-acetyl-Cit-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
Ac-Ala-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys + H2O
Ac-Ala-Gly-Cit-Gly-Lys + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
Ac-Ser-Ala-Arg-Gly-Lys + H2O
Ac-Ser-Ala-Cit-Gly-Lys + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
Ac-Ser-Gly-Ala-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Ala-Arg-His-Arg-Lys-Val + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Ala-Lys + H2O
Ac-Ser-Gly-Cit-Ala-Lys + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-acetyl-Lys-Gly-Gly-acetyl-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-acetyl-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-acetyl-Lys + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-acetyl-Lys-Gly-Gly-acetyl-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-acetyl-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-acetyl-Lys-Arg-His-Arg-acetyl-Lys-Val + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Ala + H2O
Ac-Ser-Gly-Cit-Gly-Ala + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys + H2O
Ac-Ser-Gly-Cit-Gly-Lys + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly + H2O
Ac-Ser-Gly-Cit-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala + H2O
Ac-Ser-Gly-Cit-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Ala-Arg-His-Arg-Ala-Val + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Ala-Arg-His-Arg-Lys-Val + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys + H2O
Ac-Ser-Gly-Cit-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys-Ala-His-Arg-Ala-Val + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys-Arg-His + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys-Arg-His-Ala-Ala-Val + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys-Arg-His-Arg-Lys-Val + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys-Lys-His-Lys-Ala-Val + H2O
Ac-Ser-Gly-Cit-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys-Lys-His-Lys-Ala-Val + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acety-L-Arg + H2O
acetyl-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-L-Arg + H2O
acetyl-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
acetyl-L-Arg + H2O
acetyl-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
peptidylarginine deiminase 1
-
-
?
acetyl-L-Arg methyl ester + H2O
acetyl-L-citrulline methyl ester + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
peptidylarginine deiminase 1
-
-
?
acetyl-L-Arg methyl ester + H2O
acetyl-L-citrulline methyl ester + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
peptidylarginine deiminase 2
-
-
?
acetyl-L-Arg methyl ester + H2O
acetyl-L-citrulline methyl ester + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
peptidylarginine deiminase 3
-
-
?
aldolase 1A L-Arg + H2O
aldolase 1A L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
aldolase 3C L-Arg + H2O
aldolase 3C L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
aldolase C L-Arg + H2O
aldolase C L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
alpha-enolase + H2O
[alpha-enolase]-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
alpha-enolase 1 L-Arg + H2O
alpha-enolase 1 L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
benzoyl-Arg + H2O
benzoyl-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
Q9UM07
-
-
-
?
benzoyl-Arg ethyl ester + H2O
benzoyl-citrulline ethyl ester + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
benzoyl-Arg ethyl ester + H2O
benzoyl-citrulline ethyl ester + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
benzoyl-Arg ethyl ester + H2O
benzoyl-citrulline ethyl ester + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
benzoyl-Arg ethyl ester + H2O
benzoyl-citrulline ethyl ester + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
benzoyl-Arg ethyl ester + H2O
benzoyl-citrulline ethyl ester + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
benzoyl-Arg ethyl ester + H2O
benzoyl-citrulline ethyl ester + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
benzoyl-Arg ethyl ester + H2O
benzoyl-citrulline ethyl ester + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
peptidyl arginine deiminase II shows highest activity towards
-
-
?
benzoyl-Arg methyl ester + H2O
benzoyl-citrulline methyl ester + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
benzoyl-Arg-4-methylcoumarin-7-amide + H2O
benzoyl-citrulline-4-methylcoumarin-7-amide + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
benzoyl-Arg-ethyl ester + H2O
benzoyl-citrulline-ethyl ester + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
hPADI2, hPADI4
-
-
?
benzoyl-Arg-methyl ester + H2O
benzoyl-citrulline-methyl ester + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
hPADI2, hPADI4
-
-
?
benzoyl-Arg-NH2 + H2O
benzoyl-citrulline-NH2 + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
hPADI2, hPADI4
-
-
?
benzoyl-D-Arg-p-nitroanilide + H2O
benzoyl-citrulline-p-nitroanilide + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
18% of the rate of the L-isomer
-
-
?
benzoyl-Gly-L-Arg + H2O
benzoyl-Gly-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
benzoyl-Gly-L-Arg + H2O
benzoyl-Gly-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
ir
benzoyl-Gly-L-Arg + H2O
benzoyl-Gly-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
benzoyl-Gly-L-Arg + H2O
benzoyl-Gly-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
benzoyl-homoarginine ethyl ester + H2O
(2S)-2-aminobenzoyl-6-[(aminocarbonyl)amino]hexanoic acid + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
benzoyl-L-Arg + H2O
benzoyl-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
benzoyl-L-Arg + H2O
benzoyl-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
benzoyl-L-Arg + H2O
benzoyl-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
benzoyl-L-Arg + H2O
benzoyl-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
ir
benzoyl-L-Arg + H2O
benzoyl-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
benzoyl-L-Arg + H2O
benzoyl-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
peptidylarginine deiminase 1
-
-
?
benzoyl-L-Arg + H2O
benzoyl-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
peptidylarginine deiminase 2
-
-
?
benzoyl-L-Arg + H2O
benzoyl-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
peptidylarginine deiminase 3
-
-
?
benzoyl-L-Arg ethyl ester + H2O
benzoyl-L-citrulline ethyl ester + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
benzoyl-L-Arg ethyl ester + H2O
benzoyl-L-citrulline ethyl ester + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
peptidylarginine deiminase 1
-
-
?
benzoyl-L-Arg ethyl ester + H2O
benzoyl-L-citrulline ethyl ester + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
peptidylarginine deiminase 2
-
-
?
benzoyl-L-Arg ethyl ester + H2O
benzoyl-L-citrulline ethyl ester + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
peptidylarginine deiminase 3
-
-
?
benzoyl-L-Arg-NH2 + H2O
benzoyl-L-citrullineamide + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
benzoyl-L-Arg-NH2 + H2O
benzoyl-L-citrullineamide + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
ir
benzoyl-L-Arg-NH2 + H2O
benzoyl-L-citrullineamide + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
benzoyl-L-Arg-NH2 + H2O
benzoyl-L-citrullineamide + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
benzoyl-L-Arg-NH2 + H2O
benzoyl-L-citrullineamide + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
peptidyl arginine deiminase I shows highest activity towards
-
-
?
benzoyl-L-Arg-p-nitroanilide + H2O
benzoyl-citrulline-p-nitroanilide + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
benzoyl-L-arginine + H2O
benzoyl-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
Q9UM07
-
-
-
?
benzoyl-L-arginine amide + H2O
benzoyl-L-citrulline amide + NH3
show the reaction diagram
Q9UM07
-
-
-
?
benzoyl-L-arginine amide + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
best small-molecule substrate for PAD4
-
-
?
benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester + H2O
benzoyl-L-citrulline ethyl ester + NH3
show the reaction diagram
Q9UM07
-
-
-
?
benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester + H2O
benzoyl-L-citrulline ethyl ester + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
benzoyl-L-arginine methyl ester + H2O
benzoyl-L-citrulline methyl ester + NH3
show the reaction diagram
Q9UM07
-
-
-
?
benzyloxycarbonyl-Arg-Arg-4-methylcoumarin-7-amide
? + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
benzyloxycarbonyl-Phe-Arg-4-methylcoumarin-7-amide + H2O
benzyloxycarbonyl-Phe-citrulline-4-methylcoumarin-7-amide + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
beta2-tubulin L-Arg + H2O
beta2-tubulin L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
CRGKA + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
Giardia lamblia ADI specifically binds to and citrullinates the arginine in the conserved CRGKA tail of variant-specific surface proteins affecting both antigenic switching and antibody mediated cell death
-
-
?
CXC chemokine ligand 10 L-Arg + H2O
CXC chemokine ligand 10 citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
CXC chemokine ligand 11 L-arginine + H2O
CXC chemokine ligand 11 L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
CXCL17 L-Arg + H2O
CXCL17 L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
CXCL26 L-Arg + H2O
CXCL26 L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
CXCL5 L-Arg + H2O
CXCL5 L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
CXCL5-L-Arg + H2O
CXCL5-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
PAD site-specifically deiminates L-Arg9 in CXCL5 to L-citrulline
-
-
?
CXCL8 L-Arg + H2O
CXCL8 L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
citrullination of CXCL8 by peptidylarginine deiminase alters receptor usage, prevents proteolysis, and dampens tissue inflammation
-
-
?
fibrin L-arginine + H2O
fibrin L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-, citrullinated fibrin is a potential antigen of rheumatoid arthritis
-
-
?
Fibrinogen + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
human fibrinogen, hPADI2, human fibrinogen, hPADI4
-
-
?
fibrinogen + H2O
fibrinogen with citrullinated L-arginine residues
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
fibrinogen-L-arginine + H2O
fibrinogen-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-, Q6TGC4, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
PAD4, involvement in rheumatoid arthritis
-
-
ir
fibrinogen-L-arginine + H2O
fibrinogen-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-, Q6TGC4, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
PAD4
-
-
ir
filaggrin + H2O
? + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
filaggrin + H2O
? + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
deimination of protein-bound Arg residues to citrulline, the substrate has little structural order, the reaction proceeds rapidly to about 95% completion und results in loss of the organized structure
-
-
?
filaggrin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
human filaggrin, hPADI2, human filaggrin, hPADI4
-
-
?
filaggrin L-Arg + H2O
filaggrin citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
Q6TGC4
-
-
-
?
filaggrin L-Arg + H2O
filaggrin L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
filaggrin L-arginine + H2O
filaggrin L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
Q9ULC6
isoform PAD1, isoform PAD3
-
-
?
filaggrin L-arginine + H2O
filaggrin L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
peptidylarginine deiminase 1
-
-
?
filaggrin L-arginine + H2O
filaggrin L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
peptidylarginine deiminase 2
-
-
?
filaggrin L-arginine + H2O
filaggrin L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
peptidylarginine deiminase 3
-
-
?
filaggrin-L-arginine + H2O
filaggrin-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-, Q6TGC4, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
PAD4, involvement in rheumatoid arthritis
-
-
ir
filaggrin-L-arginine + H2O
filaggrin-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-, Q6TGC4, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
PAD4
-
-
ir
glial fibrillary acidic protein L-arginine + H2O
glial fibrillary acidic protein L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
Q9Y2J8
-
-
-
?
glial fibrillary acidic protein-L-Arg + H2O
glial fibrillary acidic protein-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
glial fibrillary acidic protein-L-arginine + H2O
glial fibrillary acidic protein-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-, Q6TGC4, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
PAD2, involvement in Alzheimer's diease
-
-
ir
glial fibrillary acidic protein-L-arginine + H2O
glial fibrillary acidic protein-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-, Q6TGC4, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
PAD2
-
-
ir
glycogen phosphorylase b + H2O
? + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
specific deimination by peptidylarginine deiminase has a pronounced effect on the binding of some allosteric effectors with the enzyme and hampers the association of phosphorylase b dimers into tetramers in the presence of AMP
-
-
?
glycogen phosphorylase b + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
specific deimination by peptidylarginine deiminase has a pronounced effect on the binding of some allosteric effectors with the enzyme and hampers the association of phosphorylase b dimers into tetramers in the presence of AMP
-
-
?
heat shock protein 8 L-Arg + H2O
heat shock protein 8 L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
histone H2A L-arginine + H2O
histone H2A L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
deimination occurs at Arg3 of the N-terminal sequence acetyl-SGRGK
-
-
?
histone H2A-L-arginine + H2O
histone H2A-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
histone H2A-L-arginine + H2O
histone H2A-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-, Q6TGC4, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
PAD4, involvement in rheumatoid arthritis
-
-
ir
histone H2A-L-arginine + H2O
histone H2A-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-, Q6TGC4, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
PAD4
-
-
ir
histone H3 L-Arg + H2O
histone H3 L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
citrullination activity is limited to diestrus with histone H3
-
-
?
histone H3 L-arginine + H2O
histone H3 L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
histone H3-L-Arg + H2O
histone H3-L-citrulline
show the reaction diagram
-
PADI4 is a histone H3-specific arginine deiminase. Deimination is a mechanism for antagonizing the transcriptional induction mediated by arginine methylation, PADI4 is a histone H3-specific arginine deiminase
-
-
?
histone H3-L-arginine + H2O
histone H3-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
histone H3-L-arginine + H2O
histone H3-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
Q9UM07
-
-
-
?
histone H3-L-arginine + H2O
histone H3-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-, Q6TGC4, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
PAD4, involvement in rheumatoid arthritis
-
-
ir
histone H3-L-arginine + H2O
histone H3-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-, Q6TGC4, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
PAD4
-
-
ir
histone H3-L-arginine + H2O
histone H3-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
PAD4 interacts with p53 and is recruited to the p21 promoter to regulate histone H3 L-Arg methylation and citrullination
-
-
?
histone H4 L-arginine + H2O
histone H4 L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
deimination occurs at Arg3 of the N-terminal sequence acetyl-SGRGK
-
-
?
histone H4-L-arginine + H2O
histone H4-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
histone H4-L-arginine + H2O
histone H4-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-, Q6TGC4, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
PAD4, involvement in rheumatoid arthritis
-
-
ir
histone H4-L-arginine + H2O
histone H4-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-, Q6TGC4, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
PAD4
-
-
ir
histone H4-L-arginine + H2O
histone H4-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
isozyme PAD4 deiminates histone H4 at arginines 3, 17, and 19 in vitro and arginine 3 in vivo
-
-
?
histone L-arginine + H2O
histone L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-, PAD4 mediates gene expression by regulating Arg methylation and citrullination in histones
-
-
?
KDRNW + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
keratin + H2O
? + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
keratin + H2O
? + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
peptidylarginine deiminase type I acts on the arginine residue in the V2 subdomain of mouse keratin more readily than peptidylarginine deiminase type II
-
-
?
keratin L-arginine + H2O
keratin L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
peptidylarginine deiminase 1
-
-
?
keratin L-arginine + H2O
keratin L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
peptidylarginine deiminase 2
-
-
?
keratin L-arginine + H2O
keratin L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
peptidylarginine deiminase 3
-
-
?
keratin-L-arginine + H2O
keratin-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
Q9ULC6
PAD1
-
-
ir
keratin-L-arginine + H2O
keratin-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-, Q6TGC4, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
PAD2, involvement in psoriasis
-
-
ir
keratin-L-arginine + H2O
keratin-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-, Q6TGC4, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
PAD2
-
-
ir
L-Arg + H2O
L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-Arg + H2O
L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-Arg + H2O
L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
negligible action
-
-
-
L-Arg + H2O
citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
P20717
-
-
-
?
L-Arg methyl ester + H2O
L-citrulline methyl ester + NH4+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
LDRGE + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
MWRHV + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
myelin basic protein + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
myelin basic protein + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
decreased methylation of myelin basic protein possibly by a shortage of S-adenosylmethionine or downregulation of the methyltransferase gen expression allows the peptidylarginine deiminase greater access to the arginyl groups of myelin basic protein
-
-
?
myelin basic protein L-arginine + H2O
myelin basic protein L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
myelin basic protein L-arginine + H2O
myelin basic protein L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
Q08642
-
-
-
?
myelin basic protein L-arginine + H2O
myelin basic protein L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
PAD2 overexpression in brain of transgenic mice leads to myelin loss in the central nervous system
-
-
?
myelin basic protein-L-Arg + H2O
myelin basic protein-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
myelin basic protein-L-arginine + H2O
myelin basic protein-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
Q08642, Q9Z183
-
-
-
?
myelin basic protein-L-arginine + H2O
myelin basic protein-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
PAD2 and PAD4 are involved in the pathogenesis of demyelination diseases such as multiple sclerosis, overview
-
-
?
myelin basic protein-L-arginine + H2O
myelin basic protein-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-, Q6TGC4, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
PAD2, involvement in multiple sclerosis
-
-
ir
myelin basic protein-L-arginine + H2O
myelin basic protein-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
amino acid sequence determination of the substrate protein by LC/MS, PAD2 deiminates 18 of 19 arginyl residues, whereas PAD4 deiminates 14 of 19 arginyl residues, determination of deimination residues, overview
-
-
?
myelin basic protein-L-arginine + H2O
myelin basic protein-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-, Q6TGC4, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
PAD2
-
-
ir
myelin basic protein-L-arginine + H2O
myelin basic protein-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
Mus musculus CD-1
Q08642, Q9Z183
-
-
-
?
N-acetyl-Arg methyl ester + H2O
N-acetyl-citrulline + NH4+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
N-alpha-benzoyl-L-arginine + H2O
N-alpha-benzoyl-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
N-alpha-benzoyl-L-arginine + H2O
N-alpha-benzoyl-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
N-alpha-benzoyl-L-arginine amide + H2O
N-alpha-benzoyl-L-citrulline amide + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
best small molecule substrate for isozyme PAD1
-
-
?
N-alpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester + H2O
N-alpha-benzoyl-L-citrulline ethyl ester + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
N-alpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester + H2O
N-alpha-benzoyl-L-citrulline ethyl ester + NH3
show the reaction diagram
Q9UM07
-
-
-
?
N-alpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester + H2O
N-alpha-benzoyl-L-citrulline ethyl ester + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
N-alpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester + H2O
N-alpha-benzoyl-L-citrulline ethyl ester + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
N-alpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester + H2O
N-alpha-benzoyl-L-citrulline ethyl ester + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
N-alpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester + H2O
N-alpha-benzoyl-L-citrulline ethyl ester + NH3
show the reaction diagram
Q9Y2J8
-
-
-
?
N-alpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester + H2O
N-alpha-benzoyl-L-citrulline ethyl ester + NH3
show the reaction diagram
Mus musculus C57BL/6-129S
-
-
-
-
?
N-alpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester + H2O
N-alpha-benzoyl-L-citrulline ethyl ester
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
N-alpha-benzoyl-L-arginine methyl ester + H2O
N-alpha-benzoyl-L-citrulline methyl ester + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
Nalpha-benzoyl L-arginine ethyl ester + H2O
Nalpha-benzoyl L-citrulline ethyl ester + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester
Nalpha-benzoyl-L-citrulline ethyl ester + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester + H2O
Nalpha-benzoyl-L-citrulline ethyl ester + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester + H2O
Nalpha-benzoyl-L-citrulline ethyl ester + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester + H2O
Nalpha-benzoyl-L-citrulline ethyl ester + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester + H2O
Nalpha-benzoyl-L-citrulline ethyl ester + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
neuron-specific enolase 2 L-Arg + H2O
neuron-specific enolase 2 L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
neuron-specific-enolase1 + H2O
[neuron-specific]-enolase1 L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p300-L-arginine + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
PAD4-L-arginine + H2O
PAD4-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
PAD4 is autodeiminated in a time-dependent manner
-
-
?
peptide H3-1-L-arginine + H2O
peptide H3-1-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
Q9UM07
i.e. Ac4KQTARKSTGG13
-
-
?
peptide H3-2-L-arginine + H2O
peptide H3-2-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
Q9UM07
i.e. Ac14KAPRKQLATK23
-
-
?
peptide H4-L-arginine + H2O
peptide H4-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
Q9UM07
-
i.e. Ac1SGRGKGGKGL10
-
?
peptidylprolyl isomerase A L-Arg + H2O
peptidylprolyl isomerase A L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
peroxiredoxin 1 L-Arg + H2O
peroxiredoxin 1 L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
Polyarginine + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
Polyarginine + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
protamine + H2O
? + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
peptidyl arginine deiminase III shows highest activity towards
-
-
?
protein L-Arg + H2O
protein L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
protein L-Arg + H2O
protein L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
protein L-Arg + H2O
protein L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
bradykinin
-
-
?
protein L-Arg + H2O
protein L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
[NV]-angiotensin II, fibronectin fragment, LHRH, chicken brain peptide, molluscan cardioexxitatory neuropeptide, bradykinin potentiator B, dynorphin A, [VA]-kemptide, neurotensin, bradykinin, K-bradykinin, MK-bradykinin, Y-bradykinin
-
-
?
protein L-Arg + H2O
protein L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
human myelin basic protein, no activity with histones
-
-
?
protein L-Arg + H2O
protein L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
bovine S-carboxymethylated prekeratin and myelin
-
-
?
protein L-Arg + H2O
protein L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
histone
-
-
-
protein L-Arg + H2O
protein L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
histone
-
-
?
protein L-Arg + H2O
protein L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
Q9Y2J8
peptidyl deiminase type II is the primary enzyme responsible for the conversion of protein bound arginine to citrulline in the central nervous system
-
-
?
protein L-Arg + H2O
protein L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
PAD catalyzes the deimination of the guanidino group from peptidylarginine residues of various peptides to produce peptidylcitrulline and ammonia
-
-
?
protein L-Arg + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
protein L-Arg + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
peptidylarginine deiminase, acting in concert with arginine-specific proteinases from Porphyromonas gingivalis, promotes the growth of the pathogen in the periodontal pocket, initially by enhancing its survivability and then by assisting the organism in its circumvention of host humoral defenses
-
-
?
protein L-Arg + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
post-translational modification enzyme
-
-
?
protein L-Arg + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
protein-modulating enzyme
-
-
?
protein L-Arg + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
all-trans retinoic acid increases peptidylarginine deiminase activity in a newborn rat keratinocyte cell line
-
-
?
protein L-Arg + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
epidermal cell membrane proteins
-
-
?
protein L-Arg + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
citrullyl residues in the membranous protein of horny cells of the epidermis of newborn rat are formed by the action of epidermal peptidylarginine deiminase
-
-
?
protein L-Arg + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
C-1, the most unmodified of the components of myelin basic protein, is an excellent substrate for the enzyme, thereby confirming that the origin of the citrulline in myelin basic protein arises by the action of this enzyme
-
-
?
protein L-Arg + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
the ureido group on the citrulline formed by the peptidylarginine deiminase modification functions to unfold proteins due to decrease in net charge, loss of potential ionic bonds, and interference with H bonds
-
-
?
protein L-Arg + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
expression of the enzyme in luminal and glandular epithelia of the uterus is controlled by amount of the steroid hormones estrogen and progesterone
-
-
?
protein L-Arg + H2O
protein citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
protein L-Arg + H2O
protein-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
protein-L-arginine + H2O
protein-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
protein-L-arginine + H2O
protein-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
protein-L-arginine + H2O
protein-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
Q9UM07
-
-
-
?
protein-L-arginine + H2O
protein-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
protein-L-arginine + H2O
protein-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
Q9ULC6, Q9Y2J8
-
-
-
?
protein-L-arginine + H2O
protein-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
Q9ULC6
-
-
-
ir
protein-L-arginine + H2O
protein-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
protein-L-arginine + H2O
protein-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
O88806, O88807, P20717, P70708, -
-
-
-
ir
protein-L-arginine + H2O
protein-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
protein-L-arginine + H2O
protein-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
Q9Y2J8
-
-
-
?
protein-L-arginine + H2O
protein-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
Q9UM07
-
-
-
?
protein-L-arginine + H2O
protein-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
Q9ULC6, Q9Y2J8
citrullination of proteins may exert a specific role in the course of PNS development and repair
-
-
?
protein-L-arginine + H2O
protein-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
citrullination of proteins may exert a specific role in the course of PNS development and repair
-
-
?
protein-L-arginine + H2O
protein-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-, Q6TGC4, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
PAD1
-
-
ir
protein-L-arginine + H2O
protein-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
Q9UM07
PAD4 is a transcriptional coregulator that catalyzes the calcium-dependent conversion of specific arginine residues in proteins to citrulline and plays a role in the onset and progression of the chronic autoimmune disorder rheumatoid arthritis
-
-
?
protein-L-arginine + H2O
protein-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
posttranslational convertion, PADI4 plays an essential role in immune cell differentiation and apoptosis, ionomycin-inducible PADI4-decreased cell viability and PADI4-enhanced apoptosis, overview
-
-
?
protein-L-arginine + H2O
protein-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
development and evaluation of a highly sensitive antibody-based assay method for PAD activity determination, overview
-
-
?
protein-L-arginine + H2O
protein-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
Q9Y2J8
development and evaluation of a highly sensitive antibody-based assay method for PAD activity determination, overview
-
-
?
protein-L-arginine + H2O
protein-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
Mus musculus C57BL/6-129S
-
-, development and evaluation of a highly sensitive antibody-based assay method for PAD activity determination, overview
-
-
?
S100A3-L-arginine + H2O
S100A3-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
Q6TGC4
-
-
-
?
SHQESTRGKSKGKAAAAA + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Q9Y2J8
-
-
-
?
SHQESTXGKSKGKAAAAA + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Q9Y2J8
X is citrulline
-
-
?
t-butyloxycarbonyl-Leu-Arg-Arg-4-methylcoumarin-7-amide + H2O
? + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
t-butyloxycarbonyl-Leu-Gly-Arg-4-methylcoumarin-7-amide + H2O
t-butyloxycarbonyl-Leu-Gly-citrulline-4-methylcoumarin-7-amide + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
t-butyloxycarbonyl-Leu-Lys-Arg-4-methylcoumarin-7-amide + H2O
t-butyloxycarbonyl-Leu-Lys-citrulline-4-methylcoumarin-7-amide + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
t-butyloxycarbonyl-Leu-Thr-Arg-4-methylcoumarin-7-amide + H2O
t-butyloxycarbonyl-Leu-Thr-citrulline-4-methylcoumarin-7-amide + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
t-butyloxycarbonyl-Val-Pro-Arg-4-methylcoumarin-7-amide + H2O
t-butyloxycarbonyl-Val-Pro-citrulline-4-methylcoumarin-7-amide + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
TKQTARKSTGGK + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
tosyl-Arg-ethyl ester + H2O
tosyl-citrulline-ethyl ester + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
hPADI2
-
-
?
tosyl-L-Arg ethyl ester + H2O
tosyl-L-citrulline ethyl ester + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
trichohyalin + H2O
? + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
trichohyalin + H2O
? + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
trichohyalin + H2O
? + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
deimination of protein-bound Arg residues to citrulline, the substrate has a highly alpha-helical structure, the reaction proceeds slowly to about 25% and can be forced to a maximum of about 65%
-
-
?
trichohyalin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
trichohyalin-L-arginine + H2O
trichohyalin-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-, Q6TGC4, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
PAD3, involvement in skin disease
-
-
ir
trichohyalin-L-arginine + H2O
trichohyalin-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-, Q6TGC4, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
PAD3
-
-
ir
TSTGGRQGSHH + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
variant-specific surface protein L-arginine + H2O
variant-specific surface protein L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
vimentin-L-arginine + H2O
vimentin-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
vimentin-L-arginine + H2O
vimentin-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-, Q6TGC4, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
PAD2, involvement in Alzheimer's disease
-
-
ir
vimentin-L-arginine + H2O
vimentin-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-, Q6TGC4, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
PAD2
-
-
ir
vimetin L-arginine + H2O
vimentin L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
Q9Y2J8
peptidylarginine deiminase 2, peptidylarginine deiminase 4
-
-
?
voltage-dependent anion channel 1 L-Arg + H2O
voltage-dependent anion channel 1 L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
WSRYH + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
WTRGE + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
YWRDH + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
[cofilin 1]-L-Arg + H2O
[cofilin 1]-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
[histone H4]-L-Arg + H2O
[histone H4]-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
[IKKgamma]-L-arginine + H2O
[IKKgamma]-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
malate dehydrogenase 2 L-Arg + H2O
malate dehydrogenase 2 L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme undergoes automodification
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
abnormal accumulation of citrullinated proteins and abnormal activation of PAD2 in hippocampi of patients with Alzheimer's disease, strongly suggests that peptidylarginine deiminase has an important role in the onset and progression of abnormal accumulation of citrullinated proteins and abnormal activation of PAD2 in hippocampi of Alzheimer's disease
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
peptidylarginine deiminase type 4 plays an essential role in pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis.Peptidylarginine deiminase type 4 may contribute to the disrupted apoptosis of tumors by caspase-mediated claevage of cytokeratin
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q08642
proteomics implicates peptidyl arginine deiminase 2 and optic nerve citrullination in glaucoma pathogenesis. Pressure-induced translational control of PAD2 expression is consistent with a possible role for PAD2 and citrullination in primary open-angle glaucoma
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-, Q8K3V4
the cortical granule enzyme plays a role in preimplantation embryonic development
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme catalyzes post-translational modification of protein through the conversion of arginine to citrulline in the presence of calcium ions. Peptidylarginine deiminase-mediated deimination of epithelial cell keratin resulting in cytoskeletal remodeling suggests a possible role for hPADVI in cytoskeletal reorganization in the egg and in early embryo development
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q9UM07
methylated Arg residues are quite poor substrates for full-length PAD4 in vitro, regardless of whether this residue is in the context of a small molecule or a peptide substrate
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q9ULW8
PADI3 expression is driven by Sp1/Sp3 and NF-Y binding to the promoter region
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q8K3V4
PAD 6 is essential for oocyte cytoskeletal sheet formation and female fertility, it plays an important role in germ-cell-specific structures in zygote/embryo development, citrullination is a regulator of fertility, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
PAD2 is involved in some processes of neurodegeneration and myelination in the central nervous system
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-, Q6TGC4, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
the enzyme is involved in autoimmune rheumatoid arthritis
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-, Q6TGC4, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
the enzyme is involved in autoimmune rheumatoid arthritis, isozyme PAD2 is also implicated in neurological diseases with or without ocular manifestations, e.g. multiple sclerosis, autoimmune encephalomyelitis, Alzheimer's disease, and glaucoma
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
O88806, O88807, P20717, P70708, -
no activity with free L-arginine, which is converted by EC 1.14.13.39, nitric oxide synthase, the enzyme is not identical with bacterial arginine deiminase, EC 3.5.3.6
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-, Q6TGC4, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
no activity with free L-arginine, which is converted by EC 1.14.13.39, nitric oxide synthase, the enzyme is not identical with bacterial arginine deiminase, EC 3.5.3.6, PADs are involved in diverse diseases, e.g. PAD2 in glaucoma of the optic nerve, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-, Q6TGC4, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
no activity with free L-arginine, which is converted by EC 1.14.13.39, nitric oxide synthase, the enzyme is not identical with bacterial arginine deiminase, EC 3.5.3.6, PADs are involved in diverse diseases, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q9UM07
substrate binding structure, sequence specificity, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
a methylated lysine residue flanking the targeted arginine influences PAD-4-mediated deimination
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
does not citrullinate interleukin-1beta
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
no activity toward PVRAK, DQRTA, DVRIA, and EPRLF
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
IKKgamma and PAD2 can coimmunoprecipitate in the presence of the Ca2+ ionophore
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the binding affinity of autodeiminated PAD4 for p53 and H3 are similar to non-deiminated PAD4. In contrast, the affinity of autodeiminated PAD4 for HDAC1, PRMT1, and Cit H3 is reduced by 3.7, 4.5, and 10fold, respectively. Results suggest that the autodeimination of PAD4 in vivo could affect its functional activity by regulating its ability to interact with binding partners
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
PAD II not only binds with the beta-amyloid peptides Abeta1-40, Abeta22-35, Abeta17-28,Abeta25-35 and Abeta32-35 but assists in the proteolytic degradation of these peptides with the concomitant formation of insoluble fibrils
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
possible 14-3-3 protein binding sites in human PAD6 are identified by in silico methods. Two of these sites are confirmed as 14-3-3 binding sites by fluorescence polarization competition and X-ray crystallography
-
-
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
fibrin L-arginine + H2O
fibrin L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
citrullinated fibrin is a potential antigen of rheumatoid arthritis
-
-
?
fibrinogen-L-arginine + H2O
fibrinogen-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-, Q6TGC4, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
PAD4, involvement in rheumatoid arthritis
-
-
ir
filaggrin-L-arginine + H2O
filaggrin-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-, Q6TGC4, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
PAD4, involvement in rheumatoid arthritis
-
-
ir
glial fibrillary acidic protein L-arginine + H2O
glial fibrillary acidic protein L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
Q9Y2J8
-
-
-
?
glial fibrillary acidic protein-L-arginine + H2O
glial fibrillary acidic protein-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-, Q6TGC4, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
PAD2, involvement in Alzheimer's diease
-
-
ir
glycogen phosphorylase b + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
specific deimination by peptidylarginine deiminase has a pronounced effect on the binding of some allosteric effectors with the enzyme and hampers the association of phosphorylase b dimers into tetramers in the presence of AMP
-
-
?
histone H2A-L-arginine + H2O
histone H2A-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-, Q6TGC4, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
PAD4, involvement in rheumatoid arthritis
-
-
ir
histone H3-L-Arg + H2O
histone H3-L-citrulline
show the reaction diagram
-
PADI4 is a histone H3-specific arginine deiminase. Deimination is a mechanism for antagonizing the transcriptional induction mediated by arginine methylation
-
-
?
histone H3-L-arginine + H2O
histone H3-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
Q9UM07
-
-
-
?
histone H3-L-arginine + H2O
histone H3-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-, Q6TGC4, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
PAD4, involvement in rheumatoid arthritis
-
-
ir
histone H4-L-arginine + H2O
histone H4-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-, Q6TGC4, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
PAD4, involvement in rheumatoid arthritis
-
-
ir
histone L-arginine + H2O
histone L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
PAD4 mediates gene expression by regulating Arg methylation and citrullination in histones
-
-
?
keratin-L-arginine + H2O
keratin-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
Q9ULC6
PAD1
-
-
ir
myelin basic protein-L-arginine + H2O
myelin basic protein-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
Q08642, Q9Z183
-
-
-
?
myelin basic protein-L-arginine + H2O
myelin basic protein-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
PAD2 and PAD4 are involved in the pathogenesis of demyelination diseases such as multiple sclerosis, overview
-
-
?
myelin basic protein-L-arginine + H2O
myelin basic protein-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-, Q6TGC4, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
PAD2, involvement in multiple sclerosis
-
-
ir
myelin basic protein-L-arginine + H2O
myelin basic protein-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
Mus musculus CD-1
Q08642, Q9Z183
-
-
-
?
protein L-Arg + H2O
protein L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
protein L-Arg + H2O
protein L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
Q9Y2J8
peptidyl deiminase type II is the primary enzyme responsible for the conversion of protein bound arginine to citrulline in the central nervous system
-
-
?
protein L-Arg + H2O
protein L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
PAD catalyzes the deimination of the guanidino group from peptidylarginine residues of various peptides to produce peptidylcitrulline and ammonia
-
-
?
protein L-Arg + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
protein L-Arg + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
peptidylarginine deiminase, acting in concert with arginine-specific proteinases from Porphyromonas gingivalis, promotes the growth of the pathogen in the periodontal pocket, initially by enhancing its survivability and then by assisting the organism in its circumvention of host humoral defenses
-
-
?
protein L-Arg + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
post-translational modification enzyme
-
-
?
protein L-Arg + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
protein-modulating enzyme
-
-
?
protein L-Arg + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
all-trans retinoic acid increases peptidylarginine deiminase activity in a newborn rat keratinocyte cell line
-
-
?
protein L-Arg + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
epidermal cell membrane proteins
-
-
?
protein L-Arg + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
citrullyl residues in the membranous protein of horny cells of the epidermis of newborn rat are formed by the action of epidermal peptidylarginine deiminase
-
-
?
protein L-Arg + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
C-1, the most unmodified of the components of myelin basic protein, is an excellent substrate for the enzyme, thereby confirming that the origin of the citrulline in myelin basic protein arises by the action of this enzyme
-
-
?
protein L-Arg + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
the ureido group on the citrulline formed by the peptidylarginine deiminase modification functions to unfold proteins due to decrease in net charge, loss of potential ionic bonds, and interference with H bonds
-
-
?
protein L-Arg + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
expression of the enzyme in luminal and glandular epithelia of the uterus is controlled by amount of the steroid hormones estrogen and progesterone
-
-
?
protein L-Arg + H2O
protein citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
protein L-Arg + H2O
protein-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
protein-L-arginine + H2O
protein-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
protein-L-arginine + H2O
protein-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
protein-L-arginine + H2O
protein-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
Q9ULC6
-
-
-
ir
protein-L-arginine + H2O
protein-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
O88806, O88807, P20717, P70708, -
-
-
-
ir
protein-L-arginine + H2O
protein-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
protein-L-arginine + H2O
protein-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
Q9Y2J8
-
-
-
?
protein-L-arginine + H2O
protein-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
Q9UM07
-
-
-
?
protein-L-arginine + H2O
protein-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
Q9ULC6, Q9Y2J8
citrullination of proteins may exert a specific role in the course of PNS development and repair
-
-
?
protein-L-arginine + H2O
protein-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
citrullination of proteins may exert a specific role in the course of PNS development and repair
-
-
?
protein-L-arginine + H2O
protein-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-, Q6TGC4, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
PAD1
-
-
ir
protein-L-arginine + H2O
protein-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
Q9UM07
PAD4 is a transcriptional coregulator that catalyzes the calcium-dependent conversion of specific arginine residues in proteins to citrulline and plays a role in the onset and progression of the chronic autoimmune disorder rheumatoid arthritis
-
-
?
protein-L-arginine + H2O
protein-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
posttranslational convertion, PADI4 plays an essential role in immune cell differentiation and apoptosis, ionomycin-inducible PADI4-decreased cell viability and PADI4-enhanced apoptosis, overview
-
-
?
protein-L-arginine + H2O
protein-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
Mus musculus C57BL/6-129S
-
-
-
-
?
trichohyalin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
trichohyalin-L-arginine + H2O
trichohyalin-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-, Q6TGC4, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
PAD3, involvement in skin disease
-
-
ir
vimentin-L-arginine + H2O
vimentin-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-, Q6TGC4, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
PAD2, involvement in Alzheimer's disease
-
-
ir
keratin-L-arginine + H2O
keratin-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-, Q6TGC4, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
PAD2, involvement in psoriasis
-
-
ir
additional information
?
-
-
abnormal accumulation of citrullinated proteins and abnormal activation of PAD2 in hippocampi of patients with Alzheimer's disease, strongly suggests that peptidylarginine deiminase has an important role in the onset and progression of abnormal accumulation of citrullinated proteins and abnormal activation of PAD2 in hippocampi of Alzheimer's disease
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
peptidylarginine deiminase type 4 plays an essential role in pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis.Peptidylarginine deiminase type 4 may contribute to the disrupted apoptosis of tumors by caspase-mediated claevage of cytokeratin
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q08642
proteomics implicates peptidyl arginine deiminase 2 and optic nerve citrullination in glaucoma pathogenesis. Pressure-induced translational control of PAD2 expression is consistent with a possible role for PAD2 and citrullination in primary open-angle glaucoma
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-, Q8K3V4
the cortical granule enzyme plays a role in preimplantation embryonic development
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme catalyzes post-translational modification of protein through the conversion of arginine to citrulline in the presence of calcium ions. Peptidylarginine deiminase-mediated deimination of epithelial cell keratin resulting in cytoskeletal remodeling suggests a possible role for hPADVI in cytoskeletal reorganization in the egg and in early embryo development
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q8K3V4
PAD 6 is essential for oocyte cytoskeletal sheet formation and female fertility, it plays an important role in germ-cell-specific structures in zygote/embryo development, citrullination is a regulator of fertility, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
PAD2 is involved in some processes of neurodegeneration and myelination in the central nervous system
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-, Q6TGC4, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
the enzyme is involved in autoimmune rheumatoid arthritis
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-, Q6TGC4, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
the enzyme is involved in autoimmune rheumatoid arthritis, isozyme PAD2 is also implicated in neurological diseases with or without ocular manifestations, e.g. multiple sclerosis, autoimmune encephalomyelitis, Alzheimer's disease, and glaucoma
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
a methylated lysine residue flanking the targeted arginine influences PAD-4-mediated deimination
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
IKKgamma and PAD2 can coimmunoprecipitate in the presence of the Ca2+ ionophore
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the binding affinity of autodeiminated PAD4 for p53 and H3 are similar to non-deiminated PAD4. In contrast, the affinity of autodeiminated PAD4 for HDAC1, PRMT1, and Cit H3 is reduced by 3.7, 4.5, and 10fold, respectively. Results suggest that the autodeimination of PAD4 in vivo could affect its functional activity by regulating its ability to interact with binding partners
-
-
-
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
Ba2+
-
Ba2+ activates isozymes PAD 1 and 3 to about 15% and 2.5%, respectively, of the level of Ca2+
Ca2+
-
10 mM, 11% of the activity with Ca2+; maximal activity in presence of 8-10 mM CaCl2; required
Ca2+
-
maximal activity at 2 mM; required
Ca2+
-
maximal activity at 2 mM
Ca2+
-
half-maximal activity: 2 mM for peptidyl arginine deiminase I and 4 mM for peptidyl arginine deiminase III
Ca2+
-
required
Ca2+
-
-
Ca2+
Q9UM07
five binding sites, Ca2+-binding induces conformational changes
Ca2+
Q9Y2J8
peptidylarginine deiminase 2 is activated only when sufficient Ca2+ is available (0.01 mM/l), at high concentrations that are normally not present in living cells
Ca2+
-
increase activity of hPADI4. 50% of maximal activity at 0.75 mM; increases activity of hPADI2. 50% of maximal activity at 0.62 mM
Ca2+
-
PAD4 activity is highly specific for calcium. Calcium activation of PAD4 catalysis exhibits positive cooperativity. ca2+ causes conformational change
Ca2+
-, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
1.5 mM required for maximal deimination of filaggrin, peptidylarginine deiminase 3, maximal deimination of benzoyl-L-Arg ethyl ester at 4 mM or above; 1 mM required for maximal deimination of filaggrin, peptidylarginine deiminase 1. Maximal deamination of benzoyl-L-Arg ethyl ester at 4 mM or above; 2.5 mM required for maximal deamination of filaggrin, peptidylarginine deiminase 2. Maximal deimination of benzoyl-L-Arg ethyl ester at 4 mM or above
Ca2+
Q9UM07
dependent on, binding structure, overview
Ca2+
Q9ULC6, Q9Y2J8
dependent on; dependent on; dependent on
Ca2+
-
dependent on
Ca2+
-, Q6TGC4, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
required for activity; required for activity; required for activity; required for activity; required for activity
Ca2+
O88806, O88807, P20717, P70708, -
required for activity; required for activity; required for activity; required for activity; required for activity
Ca2+
Q9ULC6
required for activity, calcium increases the expression of PAD1 and PAD2
Ca2+
-
dependent on, phoshatidylserine and phosphatidylcholine reduce the Ca2+-dependence by almost 2fold
Ca2+
Q6TGC4
Ca2+ is not only the indispensable factor in the environment of deimination reaction, but is also considered as a major regulator of PAD genes at the transcriptional level; Ca2+ is not only the indispensable factor in the environment of deimination reaction, but is also considered as a major regulator of PAD genes at the transcriptional level; Ca2+ is not only the indispensable factor in the environment of deimination reaction, but is also considered as a major regulator of PAD genes at the transcriptional level; Ca2+ is not only the indispensable factor in the environment of deimination reaction, but is also considered as a major regulator of PAD genes at the transcriptional level; Ca2+ is not only the indispensable factor in the environment of deimination reaction, but is also considered as a major regulator of PAD genes at the transcriptional level
Ca2+
-
dependent on
Ca2+
-
dependent on, the concentration of calcium required for half-maximal activity is in the mid to high micromolar range
Ca2+
-
high concentrations of Ca2+ (more than 0.1 mM) are required for activity, the enzyme has 5 Ca2+ binding sites
Ca2+
-
dependent on
Sr2+
-
10 mM, 85% of the activity with Ca2+
Ca2+
-
required
additional information
-
little to no activity is observed with Mg2+, Mn2+, Zn2+ even after long incubation times (up to 2 h)
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
1-[[4-(benzoylamino)-5-(ethylamino)-5-oxopentyl]amino]-2-chloroethaniminium
-
-
1-[[4-(benzoylamino)-5-(ethylamino)-5-oxopentyl]amino]-2-fluoroethaniminium
-
-
1-[[6-amino-5-(benzoylamino)-6-oxohexyl]amino]-2-chloroethaniminium
-
potent, irreversible and specific PAD3 inhibitor
1-[[6-amino-5-(benzoylamino)-6-oxohexyl]amino]-2-fluoroethaniminium
-
potent, irreversible and specific PAD3 inhibitor
2-chloroacetamidine
-
irreversible
2-chloroacetamidine
-, Q6TGC4, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
inhibits PAD4, inactivates covalent modification on Cys645
2-chloroacetamidine
-
-
4-chloromercuribenzoate
-, Q6TGC4, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
inhibits PAD3
5-aminosalicylic acid
-
-
antipain
-
8 mM, 41% inhibition
Azathioprine
-
-
azithromycin
-
-
BAPTA-AM
-, Q6TGC4, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
inhibits PAD2; inhibits PAD2
benzoyl-N-dimethyl-Arg
-, Q6TGC4, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
inhibits PAD4
benzoyl-N-methyl-Arg
-, Q6TGC4, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
inhibits PAD4
benzoyl-Ngamma,Ngamma-dimethyl-Arg
-
IC50: 0.4 mM
benzoyl-Ngamma-methyl-Arg
-
-
chlortetracycline
-
-
Cl-amidine
-, Q6TGC4, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
inhibits PAD4, inactivates covalent modification on Cys645
Cl-amidine
-
inhibits PAD4 by covalent modification Cys-645 at the active site of the enzyme, Cl-amidine inhibits more than 50% of the PAD4 activity at the 0.05 mM concentration, whereas over 90% inhibition is reached with 0.2 mM
Cl-amidine
-
inhibits isozymes PAD1, PAD3, and PAD4
Cl-amidine
-
inactivates isozyme PAD4 by the covalent modification of an active-site cysteine that is critical for catalysis
Cl-amidine
-
highly potent PAD4 inactivator, inactivates the enzyme via the alkylation of Cys645
clindamycin
-
-
Cys
-
25 mM, complete inhibition
F-amidine
-, Q6TGC4, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
inhibits PAD4, inactivates covalent modification on Cys645
F-amidine
-
PAD1/4 selective inhibitor
F-amidine
-
inactivates isozyme PAD4 by the covalent modification of an active-site cysteine that is critical for catalysis
F-amidine
-
highly potent PAD4 inactivator, inactivates the enzyme via the alkylation of Cys645
interferon beta
-, Q6TGC4, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
inhibits PAD2
-
iodoacetamide
-
PAD exhibits pseudo first-order loss of activity in the presence of 0.1-10 mM iodoacetamide. When substrate (0.8 mM N-alpha-benzoyl-L-arginine) is present in the inactivation reaction, PAD retains 88% activity after a 4 min incubation, compared to only 32% residual activity under the same reaction conditions in the absence of substrate
iodoacetamide
-
-
iodoacetate
-, Q6TGC4, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
inhibits PAD3
iodoacetate
-
PAD exhibits pseudo first-order loss of activity in the presence of 0.5-20 mM iodoacetate
L-canavanine
-
suicide substrate
leflunomide
-
-
Leupeptin
-
5 mM, complete inhibition
lipid vesicle
Q08642, Q9Z183
binding of substrate myelin basic protein to lipid vesicles, consisting of 7.8% phosphatidylserine and 92.2% phosphatidylcholine, increases deimination activity, but in the 40 mino acid C-terminal region, where the arginyl residues are no longer deiminated, while they are deiminated in aqueous solution; binding of substrate myelin basic protein to lipid vesicles, consisting of 7.8% phosphatidylserine and 92.2% phosphatidylcholine, increases deimination activity, but in the 40 mino acid C-terminal region, where the arginyl residues are no longer deiminated, while they are deiminated in aqueous solution
-
methotrexate
-
-
minocycline
-
a mixed type inhibitor
N-alpha-benzoyl-N5-(2-chloro-1-iminoethyl)-L-ornithine amide
-
-
N-alpha-benzoyl-N5-(2-chloro-1-iminoethyl)-L-ornithine amide
Q9UM07
i.e. Cl-amidine, a PAD4 inactivator with enhanced potency
N-alpha-benzoyl-N5-(2-chloro-1-iminoethyl)-L-ornithine ethyl ester
-
complete inhibition of recombinant PAD4 at 2 mM
N-alpha-benzoyl-N5-(2-chloro-1-iminoethyl)-L-ornithine ethyl ester
-
-
N-alpha-benzoyl-N5-(2-fluoro-1-iminoethyl)-L-ornithine amide
Q9UM07
i.e. F-amidine, a potent and bioavailable irreversible inactivator of PAD4, structure of the PAD4-F-amidine-calcium complex, overview
N-{(2S)-1-amino-5-[(2-chloroethanimidoyl)amino]-1-oxopentan-2-yl}benzamide
-
-
N-{(2S)-1-amino-5-[(2-fluoroethanimidoyl)amino]-1-oxopentan-2-yl}benzamide
-
-
N2-benzoyl-N5-(N,N-dimethylcarbamimidoyl)-L-ornithine
-
inhibits PAD4 at high micromolar to millimolar concentrations
Nalpha-L-Arg methyl ester
-
12.5 mM, 48% inhibition
paclitaxel
-
complete inhibition of amidine hydrolysis of benzoyl-Arg ethyl ester by 12.5 mM, complete inhibition of amidine hydrolysis of myelin basic protein by 0.5 mM, non-competitive
paclitaxel
-, Q6TGC4, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
inhibits PAD2
paclitaxel
-
inhibits PAD4 at high micromolar to millimolar concentrations
streptomycin
-
a competitive inhibitor of PAD4
sulfamethoxazole
-
-
sulfapyridine
-
-
tetracycline
-
-
thiocitrulline
-
12.5 mM, complete inhibition
Thiourea
-
50 mM, complete inhibition
tosyl-L-leucinechloromethyl ketone
-
12.5 mM, 98% inhibition
trimethoprim
-
-
monoiodoacetate
-
-
additional information
Q9UM07
IC50 values for amidine derivatives, overview, inhibition mechanism and structure-activity relationships, overview
-
additional information
-
PAD4 inhibitor screening based on a PAD4-targeted activity-based protein profiling reagent, denoted rhodamine-conjugated F-amidine, RFA, rapid competitive assay method development, overview
-
additional information
-, Q6TGC4, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
methylated Arg derivatives are very poor or inactive inhibitors of PAD4
-
additional information
-
the methyl ester side chain of paclitaxel alone does not inhibit activity of PAD2
-
additional information
-
substrate protects the enzyme from inactivation
-
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
dithiothreitol
-
enhances activity, maximal activation at 2 mM
lipid vesicle
Q08642, Q9Z183
binding of substrate myelin basic protein to lipid vesicles, consisting of 7.8% phosphatidylserine and 92.2% phosphatidylcholine, increases deimination activity, but in the 40 amino acid residue C-terminal region, where the arginyl residues are no longer deiminated, while they are deiminated in aqueous solution; binding of substrate myelin basic protein to lipid vesicles, consisting of 7.8% phosphatidylserine and 92.2% phosphatidylcholine, increases deimination activity, but in the 40 amino acid residue C-terminal region, where the arginyl residues are no longer deiminated, while they are deiminated in aqueous solution
-
additional information
-
activity is increased by hypoxic conditions
-
additional information
-
ionomycin induces PADI4 expression
-
additional information
-
smoking increases peptidylarginine deiminase 2 enzyme expression in human lungs and increases citrullination in BAL cells
-
additional information
-
overexpression of PAD2 increases expression of PAD4 but not other PAD enzymes; overexpression of PAD2 increases expression of PAD4 enzyme
-
KM VALUE [mM]
KM VALUE [mM] Maximum
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.11
-
2-acetyl-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys
-
isozyme PAD1, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
0.18
-
2-acetyl-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys
-
isozyme PAD4, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
0.32
-
3-acetyl-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys
-
isozyme PAD4, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
0.36
-
3-acetyl-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys
-
isozyme PAD1, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
0.3
-
Ac-Ala-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys
-
isozyme PAD1, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
0.95
-
Ac-Ala-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys
-
isozyme PAD3, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
0.69
-
Ac-Ser-Ala-Arg-Gly-Lys
-
isozyme PAD3, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
0.8
-
Ac-Ser-Ala-Arg-Gly-Lys
-
isozyme PAD1, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
0.44
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Ala-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Ala-Arg-His-Arg-Lys-Val
-
isozyme PAD1, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
1.75
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Ala-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Ala-Arg-His-Arg-Lys-Val
-
isozyme PAD4, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
0.58
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Ala-Lys
-
isozyme PAD1, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
0.15
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-acetyl-Lys-Gly-Gly-acetyl-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-acetyl-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-acetyl-Lys
-
isozyme PAD1, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
0.59
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-acetyl-Lys-Gly-Gly-acetyl-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-acetyl-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-acetyl-Lys
-
isozyme PAD3, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
1.07
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-acetyl-Lys-Gly-Gly-acetyl-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-acetyl-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-acetyl-Lys
-
isozyme PAD4, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
0.37
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Ala
-
isozyme PAD1, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
0.86
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly
-
isozyme PAD4, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
0.16
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala
-
isozyme PAD1, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
0.58
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala
-
isozyme PAD4, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
0.17
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Ala-Arg-His-Arg-Ala-Val
-
isozyme PAD4, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
0.34
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Ala-Arg-His-Arg-Ala-Val
-
isozyme PAD1, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
0.43
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Ala-Arg-His-Arg-Lys-Val
-
isozyme PAD4, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
0.66
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Ala-Arg-His-Arg-Lys-Val
-
isozyme PAD1, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
0.15
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys
-
isozyme PAD3, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
0.2
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys
-
isozyme PAD1, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
0.59
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys
-
isozyme PAD4, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
1.7
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys-Ala-His-Arg-Ala-Val
-
isozyme PAD4, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
0.22
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys-Arg-His
-
isozyme PAD1, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
0.52
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys-Arg-His
-
isozyme PAD4, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
1.95
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys-Arg-His
-
isozyme PAD3, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
0.48
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys-Arg-His-Ala-Ala-Val
-
isozyme PAD1, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
2.16
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys-Arg-His-Ala-Ala-Val
-
isozyme PAD4, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
0.21
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys-Arg-His-Arg-Lys-Val
-
isozyme PAD1, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
0.42
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys-Arg-His-Arg-Lys-Val
-
isozyme PAD3, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
0.64
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys-Arg-His-Arg-Lys-Val
-
isozyme PAD4, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
0.48
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys-Lys-His-Lys-Ala-Val
-
isozyme PAD1, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
0.86
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys-Lys-His-Lys-Ala-Val
-
isozyme PAD3, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
3.27
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys-Lys-His-Lys-Ala-Val
-
isozyme PAD4, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
0.91
-
acetyl-L-Arg
-, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
pH 7.6, 55C, peptidylarginine deiminase 1
10.67
-
acetyl-L-Arg
-
recombinant enzyme
11.3
-
acetyl-L-Arg
-
native enzyme
1.19
-
acetyl-L-Arg methyl ester
-, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
pH 7.6, 55C, peptidylarginine deiminase 1
2.96
-
acetyl-L-Arg methyl ester
-
native enzyme
3.24
-
acetyl-L-Arg methyl ester
-
recombinant enzyme
3.73
-
acetyl-L-Arg methyl ester
-, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
pH 7.6, 55C, peptidylarginine deiminase 2
66.3
-
acetyl-L-Arg methyl ester
-, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
pH 7.6, 55C, peptidylarginine deiminase 3
0.33
-
benzoyl-Arg ethyl ester
-
-
0.5
-
benzoyl-Arg ethyl ester
-
native enzyme
0.54
-
benzoyl-Arg ethyl ester
-
recombinant enzyme
0.78
-
benzoyl-Arg ethyl ester
-
Km-value of the high activity binding site
0.15
-
benzoyl-Arg-ethyl ester
-
pH 7.6, 37C, hPADI2 expressed by baculovirus
0.73
-
benzoyl-Arg-ethyl ester
-
pH 7.6, 37C, hPADI2 expressed in Escherichia coli
0.91
-
benzoyl-Arg-ethyl ester
-
pH 7.6, 37C, hPADI4 expressed in Escherichia coli
0.63
-
benzoyl-Arg-methyl ester
-
pH 7.6, 37C, hPADI4 expressed in Escherichia coli
0.77
-
benzoyl-Arg-methyl ester
-
pH 7.6, 37C, hPADI2 expressed by baculovirus
1.97
-
benzoyl-Arg-methyl ester
-
pH 7.6, 37C, hPADI2 expressed in Escherichia coli
0.16
-
Benzoyl-Arg-NH2
-
pH 7.6, 37C, hPADI4 expressed in Escherichia coli
1.01
-
Benzoyl-Arg-NH2
-
pH 7.6, 37C, hPADI2 expressed in Escherichia coli
1.23
-
Benzoyl-Arg-NH2
-
pH 7.6, 37C, hPADI2 expressed by baculovirus
0.028
-
benzoyl-Gly-L-Arg
-
-
0.0029
-
benzoyl-L-Arg
-
-
0.38
-
benzoyl-L-Arg
-, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
pH 7.6, 55C, peptidylarginine deiminase 1
1.49
-
benzoyl-L-Arg
-, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
pH 7.6, 55C, peptidylarginine deiminase 2
2.28
-
benzoyl-L-Arg
-
native enzyme
2.58
-
benzoyl-L-Arg
-
recombinant enzyme
33.6
-
benzoyl-L-Arg
-, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
pH 7.6, 55C, peptidylarginine deiminase 3
0.35
-
benzoyl-L-Arg ethyl ester
-, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
pH 7.6, 55C, peptidylarginine deiminase 1
0.5
-
benzoyl-L-Arg ethyl ester
-, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
pH 7.6, 55C, peptidylarginine deiminase 2
0.874
-
benzoyl-L-Arg ethyl ester
-
-
7.5
-
benzoyl-L-Arg ethyl ester
-, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
pH 7.6, 55C, peptidylarginine deiminase 3
0.53
-
benzoyl-L-Arg methyl ester
-
recombinant enzyme
0.54
-
benzoyl-L-Arg methyl ester
-
native enzyme
0.152
-
benzoyl-L-Arg-NH2
-
-
-
1.37
-
benzoyl-L-Arg-NH2
-
native enzyme
-
1.39
-
benzoyl-L-Arg-NH2
-
recombinant enzyme
-
0.41
-
benzoyl-L-arginine
-
37C
0.25
-
benzoyl-L-arginine amide
-
37C
1.36
-
benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester
-
37C
1.66
-
benzoyl-L-arginine methyl ester
-
37C
11.2
-
benzoylarginine ethyl ester
-
Km-value of the low activity binding site
0.047
-
bradykinin
-
-
0.013
-
Fibrinogen
-
hPADI2
-
0.055
-
Fibrinogen
-
hPADI4
-
0.001
-
filaggrin
-
hPADI2
-
0.064
-
filaggrin
-
hPADI4
-
0.14
-
histone H4-L-arginine
-
isozyme PAD4, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
-
0.325
-
KDRNW
-
in 60 mM MOPS buffer, pH 7.5 and 10 mM CaCl2, at 37C
33.4
-
L-Arg
-
native enzyme
36.3
-
L-Arg
-
recombinant enzyme
23.49
-
L-Arg methyl ester
-
recombinant enzyme
26.45
-
L-Arg methyl ester
-
native enzyme
0.45
-
LDRGE
-
in 60 mM MOPS buffer, pH 7.5 and 10 mM CaCl2, at 37C
0.27
-
MWRHV
-
in 60 mM MOPS buffer, pH 7.5 and 10 mM CaCl2, at 37C
0.16
-
N-alpha-benzoyl-L-arginine amide
-
isozyme PAD1, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
0.25
-
N-alpha-benzoyl-L-arginine amide
-
isozyme PAD4, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
13.9
-
N-alpha-benzoyl-L-arginine amide
-
isozyme PAD3, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
17.5
-
N-alpha-benzoyl-L-arginine amide
-
mutant PAD3 enzyme G374R, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
0.19
-
N-alpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester
-
isozyme PAD1, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
1.36
-
N-alpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester
-
isozyme PAD4, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
0.37
-
N-alpha-benzoyl-L-arginine methyl ester
-
isozyme PAD1, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
1.66
-
N-alpha-benzoyl-L-arginine methyl ester
-
isozyme PAD4, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
10.8
-
N-alpha-benzoyl-L-arginine methyl ester
-
isozyme PAD3, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
0.44
-
Nalpha-benzoyl L-arginine ethyl ester
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant S55G
0.45
-
Nalpha-benzoyl L-arginine ethyl ester
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R484K; 37C, pH 7.6, mutant R484Q
0.48
-
Nalpha-benzoyl L-arginine ethyl ester
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R205Q
0.5
-
Nalpha-benzoyl L-arginine ethyl ester
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R156K
0.58
-
Nalpha-benzoyl L-arginine ethyl ester
-
37C, pH 7.6, wild-type
0.69
-
Nalpha-benzoyl L-arginine ethyl ester
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R639K
0.72
-
Nalpha-benzoyl L-arginine ethyl ester
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R419K
0.8
-
Nalpha-benzoyl L-arginine ethyl ester
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant A112G
0.86
-
Nalpha-benzoyl L-arginine ethyl ester
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R123K
0.87
-
Nalpha-benzoyl L-arginine ethyl ester
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R419Q
0.89
-
Nalpha-benzoyl L-arginine ethyl ester
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R609Q
1.2
-
Nalpha-benzoyl L-arginine ethyl ester
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R374Q; 37C, pH 7.6, mutant R639Q
1.35
-
Nalpha-benzoyl L-arginine ethyl ester
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant A82V
1.4
-
Nalpha-benzoyl L-arginine ethyl ester
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R123Q
1.5
-
Nalpha-benzoyl L-arginine ethyl ester
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R205K; 37C, pH 7.6, mutant R609K
1.6
-
Nalpha-benzoyl L-arginine ethyl ester
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R156Q
1.7
-
Nalpha-benzoyl L-arginine ethyl ester
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R374K
0.31
-
Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester
-
wild-type, pH 7.4, 25C
0.35
-
Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester
-
mutant D273A/R544A, pH 7.4, 25C
0.36
-
Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester
-
mutant D547A, pH 7.4, 25C; mutant Y237A, pH 7.4, 25C
0.38
-
Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester
-
mutant Y237A/E281A, pH 7.4, 25C
0.4
-
Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester
-
mutant R8A/D547A, pH 7.4, 25C
0.45
-
Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester
-
mutant E281A, pH 7.4, 25C
0.47
-
Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester
-
mutant R8A, pH 7.4, 25C; mutant R8H, pH 7.4, 25C
0.5
-
Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester
-
mutant R8K, pH 7.4, 25C
0.6
-
Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester
-
mutant R8Q , pH 7.4, 25C
0.72
-
Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester
-
mutant D547E, pH 7.4, 25C
0.86
-
Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester
-
mutant D547N, pH 7.4, 25C
1.06
-
Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester
-
mutant R8E, pH 7.4, 25C
1.35
-
Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester
-
pH 7.5, 68C
1.36
-
Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester
-
mutant R8L, pH 7.4, 25C
2.33
-
Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester
-
mutant Y435A, pH 7.4, 25C
2.73
-
Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester
-
mutant Y435N, pH 7.4, 25C
2.77
-
Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester
-
mutant R8E/D547E, pH 7.4, 25C
0.372
-
TKQTARKSTGGK
-
in 60 mM MOPS buffer, pH 7.5 and 10 mM CaCl2, at 37C
1.63
-
tosyl-Arg-ethyl ester
-
pH 7.6, 37C, hPADI2 expressed by baculovirus
5.61
-
tosyl-Arg-ethyl ester
-
pH 7.6, 37C, hPADI2 expressed in Escherichia coli
0.575
-
TSTGGRQGSHH
-
in 60 mM MOPS buffer, pH 7.5 and 10 mM CaCl2, at 37C
0.12
-
WSRYH
-
in 60 mM MOPS buffer, pH 7.5 and 10 mM CaCl2, at 37C
0.345
-
WTRGE
-
in 60 mM MOPS buffer, pH 7.5 and 10 mM CaCl2, at 37C
0.187
-
YWRDH
-
in 60 mM MOPS buffer, pH 7.5 and 10 mM CaCl2, at 37C
0.088
-
[histone H4]-L-Arg
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R374K
-
0.094
-
[histone H4]-L-Arg
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R639Q
-
0.1
-
[histone H4]-L-Arg
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R123Q
-
0.11
-
[histone H4]-L-Arg
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R156Q
-
0.14
-
[histone H4]-L-Arg
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R419K
-
0.15
-
[histone H4]-L-Arg
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R374Q; 37C, pH 7.6, mutant R639K
-
0.17
-
[histone H4]-L-Arg
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant A112G
-
0.18
-
[histone H4]-L-Arg
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R156K; 37C, pH 7.6, mutant R609Q
-
0.2
-
[histone H4]-L-Arg
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant S55G
-
0.21
-
[histone H4]-L-Arg
-
37C, pH 7.6, wild-type
-
0.22
-
[histone H4]-L-Arg
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R419Q
-
0.24
-
[histone H4]-L-Arg
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R123K
-
0.26
-
[histone H4]-L-Arg
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R484K
-
0.3
-
[histone H4]-L-Arg
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R484Q
-
0.35
-
[histone H4]-L-Arg
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant A82V
-
TURNOVER NUMBER [1/s]
TURNOVER NUMBER MAXIMUM[1/s]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.45
-
2-acetyl-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys
-
isozyme PAD1, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
0.48
-
3-acetyl-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys
-
isozyme PAD1, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
0.21
-
Ac-Ala-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys
-
isozyme PAD3, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
0.59
-
Ac-Ala-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys
-
isozyme PAD1, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
0.62
-
Ac-Ser-Ala-Arg-Gly-Lys
-
isozyme PAD3, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
1.13
-
Ac-Ser-Ala-Arg-Gly-Lys
-
isozyme PAD1, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
1.46
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Ala-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Ala-Arg-His-Arg-Lys-Val
-
isozyme PAD1, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
0.98
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Ala-Lys
-
isozyme PAD1, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
0.57
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-acetyl-Lys-Gly-Gly-acetyl-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-acetyl-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-acetyl-Lys
-
isozyme PAD1, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
1.08
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-acetyl-Lys-Gly-Gly-acetyl-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-acetyl-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-acetyl-Lys
-
isozyme PAD3, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
0.93
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Ala
-
isozyme PAD1, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
2.83
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly
-
isozyme PAD4, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
0.75
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala
-
isozyme PAD1, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
2.53
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala
-
isozyme PAD4, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
0.77
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Ala-Arg-His-Arg-Ala-Val
-
isozyme PAD1, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
0.87
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Ala-Arg-His-Arg-Lys-Val
-
isozyme PAD1, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
0.08
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys
-
isozyme PAD3, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
0.6
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys
-
isozyme PAD1, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
2.3
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys
-
isozyme PAD4, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
0.64
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys-Arg-His
-
isozyme PAD1, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
2.29
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys-Arg-His
-
isozyme PAD4, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
4.92
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys-Arg-His
-
isozyme PAD3, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
1.83
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys-Arg-His-Ala-Ala-Val
-
isozyme PAD1, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
0.31
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys-Arg-His-Arg-Lys-Val
-
isozyme PAD3, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
0.81
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys-Arg-His-Arg-Lys-Val
-
isozyme PAD1, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
3.39
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys-Arg-His-Arg-Lys-Val
-
isozyme PAD4, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
0.34
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys-Lys-His-Lys-Ala-Val
-
isozyme PAD3, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
0.56
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys-Lys-His-Lys-Ala-Val
-
isozyme PAD1, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
0.32
-
acetyl-L-Arg
-
recombinant enzyme
0.37
-
acetyl-L-Arg
-
native enzyme
13.68
-
acetyl-L-Arg
-, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
pH 7.6, 55C, peptidylarginine deiminase 1
0.057
0.65
acetyl-L-Arg methyl ester
-, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
pH 7.6, 55C, peptidylarginine deiminase 1
1.93
-
acetyl-L-Arg methyl ester
-, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
pH 7.6, 55C, peptidylarginine deiminase 3
4.11
-
acetyl-L-Arg methyl ester
-
native enzyme
4.41
-
acetyl-L-Arg methyl ester
-
recombinant enzyme
6.22
-
acetyl-L-Arg methyl ester
-, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
pH 7.6, 55C, peptidylarginine deiminase 2
11.28
-
acetyl-L-Arg methyl ester
-, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
pH 7.6, 55C, peptidylarginine deiminase 1
10.7
-
benzoyl-Arg ethyl ester
-
recombinant enzyme
10.8
-
benzoyl-arginine ethyl ester
-
native enzyme
0.52
-
benzoyl-L-Arg
-, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
pH 7.6, 55C, peptidylarginine deiminase 1
0.79
-
benzoyl-L-Arg
-, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
pH 7.6, 55C, peptidylarginine deiminase 3
1.11
-
benzoyl-L-Arg
-
native enzyme
1.41
-
benzoyl-L-Arg
-
recombinant enzyme
3.15
-
benzoyl-L-Arg
-, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
pH 7.6, 55C, peptidylarginine deiminase 2
14.43
-
benzoyl-L-Arg
-, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
pH 7.6, 55C, peptidylarginine deiminase 1
0.057
0.65
benzoyl-L-Arg ethyl ester
-, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
pH 7.6, 55C, peptidylarginine deiminase 1
0.55
-
benzoyl-L-Arg ethyl ester
-, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
pH 7.6, 55C, peptidylarginine deiminase 2
1.73
-
benzoyl-L-Arg ethyl ester
-, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
pH 7.6, 55C, peptidylarginine deiminase 3
11.31
-
benzoyl-L-Arg ethyl ester
-, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
pH 7.6, 55C, peptidylarginine deiminase 1
15.24
-
benzoyl-L-Arg ethyl ester
-, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
pH 7.6, 55C, peptidylarginine deiminase 2
5.69
-
benzoyl-L-Arg methyl ester
-
recombinant enzyme
5.74
-
benzoyl-L-Arg methyl ester
-
native enzyme
5.31
-
benzoyl-L-Arg-NH2
-
recombinant enzyme
-
5.51
-
benzoyl-L-Arg-NH2
-
native enzyme
-
3.35
-
benzoyl-L-arginine
-
37C
2.76
-
benzoyl-L-arginine amide
-
37C
3
6
benzoyl-L-arginine amide
-
37C
5.94
-
benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester
-
37C
5.57
-
benzoyl-L-arginine methyl ester
-
37C
2
-
KDRNW
-
in 60 mM MOPS buffer, pH 7.5 and 10 mM CaCl2, at 37C
0.22
-
L-Arg
-
recombinant enzyme
0.52
-
L-Arg
-
native enzyme
0.17
-
L-Arg methyl ester
-
recombinant enzyme
0.31
-
L-Arg methyl ester
-
native enzyme
2.9
-
LDRGE
-
in 60 mM MOPS buffer, pH 7.5 and 10 mM CaCl2, at 37C
2
-
MWRHV
-
in 60 mM MOPS buffer, pH 7.5 and 10 mM CaCl2, at 37C
1.85
-
N-alpha-benzoyl-L-arginine amide
-
isozyme PAD3, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
2.1
-
N-alpha-benzoyl-L-arginine amide
-
mutant PAD3 enzyme G374R, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
2.76
-
N-alpha-benzoyl-L-arginine amide
-
isozyme PAD4, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
3.57
-
N-alpha-benzoyl-L-arginine amide
-
isozyme PAD1, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
0.27
-
N-alpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester
-
isozyme PAD1, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
5.94
-
N-alpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester
-
isozyme PAD4, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
1.26
-
N-alpha-benzoyl-L-arginine methyl ester
-
isozyme PAD3, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
3.85
-
N-alpha-benzoyl-L-arginine methyl ester
-
isozyme PAD1, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
5.57
-
N-alpha-benzoyl-L-arginine methyl ester
-
isozyme PAD4, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
0.55
-
Nalpha-benzoyl L-arginine ethyl ester
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R419Q
0.76
-
Nalpha-benzoyl L-arginine ethyl ester
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R156K
1.1
-
Nalpha-benzoyl L-arginine ethyl ester
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R484K
1.2
-
Nalpha-benzoyl L-arginine ethyl ester
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R205Q; 37C, pH 7.6, mutant R484Q
1.5
-
Nalpha-benzoyl L-arginine ethyl ester
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant A112G
1.6
-
Nalpha-benzoyl L-arginine ethyl ester
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R639Q
1.9
-
Nalpha-benzoyl L-arginine ethyl ester
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R609Q; 37C, pH 7.6, mutant R639K
2.3
-
Nalpha-benzoyl L-arginine ethyl ester
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R123Q; 37C, pH 7.6, mutant R374Q
2.6
-
Nalpha-benzoyl L-arginine ethyl ester
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R609K
2.7
-
Nalpha-benzoyl L-arginine ethyl ester
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant A82V
2.8
-
Nalpha-benzoyl L-arginine ethyl ester
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant S55G; 37C, pH 7.6, wild-type
3
-
Nalpha-benzoyl L-arginine ethyl ester
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R374K
3.1
-
Nalpha-benzoyl L-arginine ethyl ester
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R419K
3.6
-
Nalpha-benzoyl L-arginine ethyl ester
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R156Q
3.7
-
Nalpha-benzoyl L-arginine ethyl ester
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R123K
3.8
-
Nalpha-benzoyl L-arginine ethyl ester
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R205K
3.3
-
Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester
-
mutant R8E/D547E, pH 7.4, 25C
4
-
Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester
-
mutant Y435N, pH 7.4, 25C
5.3
-
Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester
-
mutant R8L, pH 7.4, 25C
5.9
-
Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester
-
mutant Y435A, pH 7.4, 25C
7.3
-
Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester
-
mutant R8E, pH 7.4, 25C
8.9
-
Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester
-
mutant D547E, pH 7.4, 25C
10.08
-
Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester
-
mutant R8K, pH 7.4, 25C
10.7
-
Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester
-
mutant R8A/D547A, pH 7.4, 25C
11.6
-
Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester
-
mutant D547A, pH 7.4, 25C
12.1
-
Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester
-
mutant E281A, pH 7.4, 25C
12.2
-
Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester
-
mutant D547N, pH 7.4, 25C; mutant R8A, pH 7.4, 25C; mutant R8Q , pH 7.4, 25C
13.2
-
Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester
-
mutant Y237A/E281A, pH 7.4, 25C
13.3
-
Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester
-
mutant R8H, pH 7.4, 25C
13.4
-
Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester
-
wild-type, pH 7.4, 25C
13.5
-
Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester
-
mutant D273A/R544A, pH 7.4, 25C
13.9
-
Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester
-
mutant Y237A, pH 7.4, 25C
0.7
-
TKQTARKSTGGK
-
in 60 mM MOPS buffer, pH 7.5 and 10 mM CaCl2, at 37C
1.3
-
TSTGGRQGSHH
-
in 60 mM MOPS buffer, pH 7.5 and 10 mM CaCl2, at 37C
1.8
-
WSRYH
-
in 60 mM MOPS buffer, pH 7.5 and 10 mM CaCl2, at 37C
3.3
-
WTRGE
-
in 60 mM MOPS buffer, pH 7.5 and 10 mM CaCl2, at 37C
2.3
-
YWRDH
-
in 60 mM MOPS buffer, pH 7.5 and 10 mM CaCl2, at 37C
0.49
-
[histone H4]-L-Arg
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R374K
-
0.77
-
[histone H4]-L-Arg
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R374Q
-
0.78
-
[histone H4]-L-Arg
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R639Q
-
0.79
-
[histone H4]-L-Arg
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R156Q
-
0.9
-
[histone H4]-L-Arg
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R123Q
-
1
-
[histone H4]-L-Arg
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant A112G
-
1.1
-
[histone H4]-L-Arg
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant S55G
-
1.2
-
[histone H4]-L-Arg
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R419Q
-
1.3
-
[histone H4]-L-Arg
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R419K; 37C, pH 7.6, mutant R639K
-
1.4
-
[histone H4]-L-Arg
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant A82V; 37C, pH 7.6, mutant R156K
-
1.5
-
[histone H4]-L-Arg
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R609Q
-
1.6
-
[histone H4]-L-Arg
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R484K; 37C, pH 7.6, mutant R484Q
-
1.7
-
[histone H4]-L-Arg
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R123K
-
2.1
-
[histone H4]-L-Arg
-
37C, pH 7.6, wild-type
-
kcat/KM VALUE [1/mMs-1]
kcat/KM VALUE [1/mMs-1] Maximum
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.2
-
2-acetyl-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys
-
isozyme PAD3, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
28114
4.2
-
2-acetyl-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys
-
isozyme PAD1, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
28114
5.7
-
2-acetyl-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys
-
isozyme PAD4, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
28114
0.001
-
3-acetyl-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys
-
kcat_Km value less than 0.001 mM-1*sec-1, isozyme PAD3, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
28115
1.4
-
3-acetyl-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys
-
isozyme PAD1, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol; isozyme PAD4, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
28115
0.22
-
Ac-Ala-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys
-
isozyme PAD3, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
19398
2
-
Ac-Ala-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys
-
isozyme PAD1, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
19398
3.5
-
Ac-Ala-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys
-
isozyme PAD4, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
19398
0.9
-
Ac-Ser-Ala-Arg-Gly-Lys
-
isozyme PAD3, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
19399
1.4
-
Ac-Ser-Ala-Arg-Gly-Lys
-
isozyme PAD1, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
19399
5.8
-
Ac-Ser-Ala-Arg-Gly-Lys
-
isozyme PAD4, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
19399
0.01
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Ala-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Ala-Arg-His-Arg-Lys-Val
-
isozyme PAD3, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
28118
0.58
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Ala-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Ala-Arg-His-Arg-Lys-Val
-
isozyme PAD4, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
28118
3.3
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Ala-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Ala-Arg-His-Arg-Lys-Val
-
isozyme PAD1, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
28118
0.08
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Ala-Lys
-
isozyme PAD3, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
41369
1.7
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Ala-Lys
-
isozyme PAD1, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
41369
6.6
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Ala-Lys
-
isozyme PAD4, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
41369
1.8
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-acetyl-Lys-Gly-Gly-acetyl-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-acetyl-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-acetyl-Lys
-
isozyme PAD3, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
15129
3.4
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-acetyl-Lys-Gly-Gly-acetyl-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-acetyl-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-acetyl-Lys
-
isozyme PAD4, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
15129
3.9
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-acetyl-Lys-Gly-Gly-acetyl-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-acetyl-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-acetyl-Lys
-
isozyme PAD1, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
15129
0.05
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Ala
-
isozyme PAD3, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
41370
2.5
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Ala
-
isozyme PAD1, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
41370
16
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Ala
-
isozyme PAD4, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
41370
0.001
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly
-
kcat_Km value less than 0.001 mM-1*sec-1, isozyme PAD1, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
41371
0.085
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly
-
isozyme PAD3, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
41371
3.3
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly
-
isozyme PAD4, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
41371
2
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala
-
isozyme PAD3, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
19397
4.4
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala
-
isozyme PAD4, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
19397
4.6
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala
-
isozyme PAD1, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
19397
1
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Ala-Arg-His-Arg-Ala-Val
-
isozyme PAD3, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
28117
2.3
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Ala-Arg-His-Arg-Ala-Val
-
isozyme PAD1, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
28117
19
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Ala-Arg-His-Arg-Ala-Val
-
isozyme PAD4, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
28117
0.7
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Ala-Arg-His-Arg-Lys-Val
-
isozyme PAD3, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
28116
1.3
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Ala-Arg-His-Arg-Lys-Val
-
isozyme PAD1, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
28116
14
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Ala-Arg-His-Arg-Lys-Val
-
isozyme PAD4, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
28116
0.5
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys
-
isozyme PAD3, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
12154
3.1
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys
-
isozyme PAD1, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
12154
3.9
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys
-
isozyme PAD4, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
12154
0.3
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys-Ala-His-Arg-Ala-Val
-
isozyme PAD3, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
84058
0.6
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys-Ala-His-Arg-Ala-Val
-
isozyme PAD1, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
84058
2.7
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys-Ala-His-Arg-Ala-Val
-
isozyme PAD4, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
84058
2.5
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys-Arg-His
-
isozyme PAD3, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
12153
3
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys-Arg-His
-
isozyme PAD1, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
12153
4.4
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys-Arg-His
-
isozyme PAD4, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
12153
0.001
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys-Arg-His-Ala-Ala-Val
-
kcat_Km value less than 0.001 mM-1*sec-1, isozyme PAD3, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
28119
0.4
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys-Arg-His-Ala-Ala-Val
-
isozyme PAD4, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
28119
3.7
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys-Arg-His-Ala-Ala-Val
-
isozyme PAD1, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
28119
0.7
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys-Arg-His-Arg-Lys-Val
-
isozyme PAD3, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
12152
4
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys-Arg-His-Arg-Lys-Val
-
isozyme PAD1, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
12152
5.3
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys-Arg-His-Arg-Lys-Val
-
isozyme PAD4, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
12152
0.4
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys-Lys-His-Lys-Ala-Val
-
isozyme PAD3, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
15128
0.5
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys-Lys-His-Lys-Ala-Val
-
isozyme PAD4, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
15128
1.2
-
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys-Lys-His-Lys-Ala-Val
-
isozyme PAD1, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
15128
0.7
-
histone H4-L-arginine
-
isozyme PAD3, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
0
4.3
-
histone H4-L-arginine
-
isozyme PAD1, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
0
9
-
histone H4-L-arginine
-
isozyme PAD4, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
0
0.13
-
N-alpha-benzoyl-L-arginine amide
-
isozyme PAD3, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
7913
11
-
N-alpha-benzoyl-L-arginine amide
-
isozyme PAD4, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
7913
22
-
N-alpha-benzoyl-L-arginine amide
-
isozyme PAD1, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
7913
120000
-
N-alpha-benzoyl-L-arginine amide
-
mutant PAD3 enzyme G374R, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
7913
0.025
-
N-alpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester
-
isozyme PAD3, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
3102
1.5
-
N-alpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester
-
isozyme PAD1, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
3102
4.4
-
N-alpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester
-
isozyme PAD4, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
3102
13800
-
N-alpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester
-
mutant PAD3 enzyme G374R, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
3102
0.12
-
N-alpha-benzoyl-L-arginine methyl ester
-
isozyme PAD3, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
9340
3.3
-
N-alpha-benzoyl-L-arginine methyl ester
-
isozyme PAD4, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
9340
10.4
-
N-alpha-benzoyl-L-arginine methyl ester
-
isozyme PAD1, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
9340
0.63
-
Nalpha-benzoyl L-arginine ethyl ester
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R419Q
1851
1.3
-
Nalpha-benzoyl L-arginine ethyl ester
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R639Q
1851
1.5
-
Nalpha-benzoyl L-arginine ethyl ester
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R156K
1851
1.6
-
Nalpha-benzoyl L-arginine ethyl ester
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R123Q
1851
1.7
-
Nalpha-benzoyl L-arginine ethyl ester
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R609K
1851
1.8
-
Nalpha-benzoyl L-arginine ethyl ester
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R374K
1851
1.9
-
Nalpha-benzoyl L-arginine ethyl ester
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant A112G; 37C, pH 7.6, mutant R374Q
1851
2.1
-
Nalpha-benzoyl L-arginine ethyl ester
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant A82V; 37C, pH 7.6, mutant R609Q
1851
2.2
-
Nalpha-benzoyl L-arginine ethyl ester
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R156Q
1851
2.4
-
Nalpha-benzoyl L-arginine ethyl ester
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R484K
1851
2.5
-
Nalpha-benzoyl L-arginine ethyl ester
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R205K; 37C, pH 7.6, mutant R205Q
1851
2.7
-
Nalpha-benzoyl L-arginine ethyl ester
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R484Q
1851
2.8
-
Nalpha-benzoyl L-arginine ethyl ester
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R639K
1851
4.3
-
Nalpha-benzoyl L-arginine ethyl ester
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R123K; 37C, pH 7.6, mutant R419K
1851
4.8
-
Nalpha-benzoyl L-arginine ethyl ester
-
37C, pH 7.6, wild-type
1851
6.4
-
Nalpha-benzoyl L-arginine ethyl ester
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant S55G
1851
0.0031
-
[histone H4]-L-Arg
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R372K, value below
0
0.012
-
[histone H4]-L-Arg
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R372Q, value below
0
2.1
-
[histone H4]-L-Arg
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R205Q
0
3.7
-
[histone H4]-L-Arg
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R205K
0
4
-
[histone H4]-L-Arg
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant A82V
0
4.9
-
[histone H4]-L-Arg
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R609K
0
5.1
-
[histone H4]-L-Arg
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R374Q
0
5.3
-
[histone H4]-L-Arg
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R484Q
0
5.5
-
[histone H4]-L-Arg
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R419Q; 37C, pH 7.6, mutant S55G
0
5.6
-
[histone H4]-L-Arg
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R374K
0
5.9
-
[histone H4]-L-Arg
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant A112G
0
6.2
-
[histone H4]-L-Arg
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R484K
0
7.1
-
[histone H4]-L-Arg
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R123K
0
7.2
-
[histone H4]-L-Arg
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R156Q
0
7.8
-
[histone H4]-L-Arg
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R156K
0
8.3
-
[histone H4]-L-Arg
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R609Q; 37C, pH 7.6, mutant R639Q
0
8.7
-
[histone H4]-L-Arg
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R639K
0
9
-
[histone H4]-L-Arg
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R123Q
0
9.3
-
[histone H4]-L-Arg
-
37C, pH 7.6, mutant R419K
0
10
-
[histone H4]-L-Arg
-
37C, pH 7.6, wild-type
0
Ki VALUE [mM]
Ki VALUE [mM] Maximum
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
20
-
2-chloroacetamidine
-
IC50 above 0.5 mM, in 100 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.6), CaCl2 (10 mM), dithiothreitol (5 mM), at 37C
0.18
-
Cl-amidine
-
in 100 mM HEPES (pH 7.6), CaCl2 (10 mM), TCEP (0.5 mM), NaCl (50 mM), temperature not specified in the publication
0.0059
-
N-alpha-benzoyl-N5-(2-chloro-1-iminoethyl)-L-ornithine amide
Q9UM07
-
0.0216
-
N-alpha-benzoyl-N5-(2-fluoro-1-iminoethyl)-L-ornithine amide
Q9UM07
-
0.33
-
F-amidine
-
in 100 mM HEPES (pH 7.6), CaCl2 (10 mM), TCEP (0.5 mM), NaCl (50 mM), temperature not specified in the publication
additional information
-
additional information
Q9UM07
inhibition kinetics
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
inhibition kinetics
-
IC50 VALUE [mM]
IC50 VALUE [mM] Maximum
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.0028
-
1-[[4-(benzoylamino)-5-(ethylamino)-5-oxopentyl]amino]-2-chloroethaniminium
-
isozyme PAD1, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
0.0041
-
1-[[4-(benzoylamino)-5-(ethylamino)-5-oxopentyl]amino]-2-chloroethaniminium
-
isozyme PAD4, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
0.026
-
1-[[4-(benzoylamino)-5-(ethylamino)-5-oxopentyl]amino]-2-chloroethaniminium
-
isozyme PAD3, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
0.0243
-
1-[[4-(benzoylamino)-5-(ethylamino)-5-oxopentyl]amino]-2-fluoroethaniminium
-
isozyme PAD4, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
0.04
-
1-[[4-(benzoylamino)-5-(ethylamino)-5-oxopentyl]amino]-2-fluoroethaniminium
-
isozyme PAD1, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
0.157
-
1-[[4-(benzoylamino)-5-(ethylamino)-5-oxopentyl]amino]-2-fluoroethaniminium
-
isozyme PAD3, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
0.5
-
2-chloroacetamidine
-
IC50 above 0.5 mM, in 100 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.6), CaCl2 (10 mM), dithiothreitol (5 mM), at 37C
10
-
5-aminosalicylic acid
-
above, pH 7.6, 37C, recombinant PAD4
8.1
-
Azathioprine
-
pH 7.6, 37C, recombinant PAD4
10
-
azithromycin
-
above, pH 7.6, 37C, recombinant PAD4
0.4
-
benzoyl-Ngamma,Ngamma-dimethyl-Arg
-
IC50: 0.4 mM
0.1
-
chlortetracycline
-
in 100 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.6), CaCl2 (10 mM), dithiothreitol (2 mM) and NaCl (50 mM) at 37C
0.0008
-
Cl-amidine
-
isozyme PAD1, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
0.0062
-
Cl-amidine
-
isozyme PAD3, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
0.022
-
Cl-amidine
-
in 100 mM HEPES (pH 7.6), CaCl2 (10 mM), TCEP (0.5 mM), NaCl (50 mM), temperature not specified in the publication
5.1
-
clindamycin
-
pH 7.6, 37C, recombinant PAD4
0.0216
-
F-amidine
-
isozyme PAD4, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
0.022
-
F-amidine
-
in 100 mM HEPES (pH 7.6), CaCl2 (10 mM), TCEP (0.5 mM), NaCl (50 mM), temperature not specified in the publication
0.0295
-
F-amidine
-
isozyme PAD1, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
0.35
-
F-amidine
-
isozyme PAD3, at 37C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
2.4
-
leflunomide
-
pH 7.6, 37C, recombinant PAD4
10
-
methotrexate
-
above, pH 7.6, 37C, recombinant PAD4
0.5
-
N-alpha-benzoyl-N5-(2-chloro-1-iminoethyl)-L-ornithine ethyl ester
-
recombinant PAD4, pH 7.6, 37C
0.0074
-
N-{(2S)-1-amino-5-[(2-chloroethanimidoyl)amino]-1-oxopentan-2-yl}benzamide
-
in 100 mM HEPES (pH 7.6), CaCl2 (10 mM), TCEP (0.5 mM), NaCl (50 mM), temperature not specified in the publication
0.024
-
N-{(2S)-1-amino-5-[(2-fluoroethanimidoyl)amino]-1-oxopentan-2-yl}benzamide
-
in 100 mM HEPES (pH 7.6), CaCl2 (10 mM), TCEP (0.5 mM), NaCl (50 mM), temperature not specified in the publication
0.4
-
N2-benzoyl-N5-(N,N-dimethylcarbamimidoyl)-L-ornithine
-
in 100 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.6), CaCl2 (10 mM), dithiothreitol (1 mM), at 37C
5
-
paclitaxel
-
IC50 is about 5 mM, at 52C for 30 min in 50 mM HEPES (pH 7.6), CaCl2 (5 mM), dithiothreitol (2 mM)
1.8
-
streptomycin
-
pH 7.6, 37C, recombinant PAD4
10
-
sulfamethoxazole
-
above, pH 7.6, 37C, recombinant PAD4
10
-
sulfapyridine
-
above, pH 7.6, 37C, recombinant PAD4
0.78
-
tetracycline
-
in 100 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.6), CaCl2 (10 mM), dithiothreitol (2 mM) and NaCl (50 mM) at 37C
7.5
-
trimethoprim
-
pH 7.6, 37C, recombinant PAD4
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
0.00077
-
-
-
0.434
-
-, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
substrate: benzoyl-L-Arg ethyl ester, 55C, peptidylarginine deiminase 2
0.583
-
-, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
substrate: benzoyl-L-Arg ethyl ester, 55C, peptidylarginine deiminase 1
1.1
-
-
-
1.28
-
-
-
8.45
-
-
-
10.14
-
-
muscle enzyme
59
-
-
pH 7.5, 68C
additional information
-
-
development and evaluation of a highly sensitive antibody-based assay method for PAD activity determination, overview
additional information
-
-
development and evaluation of a highly sensitive antibody-based assay method for PAD activity determination, calibration using PAD from rabbit skeletal muscle, overview
pH OPTIMUM
pH MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
7
-
-
hPADI2
7.2
-
-
assay at
7.4
-
-, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
deamination of fillagrin, peptidylarginine deiminase 3
7.4
-
-
assay at
7.4
-
-
assay at
7.5
-
-
hPADI4
7.5
-
-
assay at
7.5
-
-
-
7.6
-
-
-
7.6
-
-
assay at
7.6
-
-
assay at
8
-
-, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
deamination of fillagrin, peptidylarginine deiminase 1; deamination of fillagrin, peptidylarginine deiminase 2
8
-
Q9UM07
assay at
8
-
-
assay at
pH RANGE
pH RANGE MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
5.2
8.9
-, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
pH 5.2: about 60% of maximal activity, pH 8.9: about 85% of maximal activity, deamination of fillagrin, peptidylarginine deiminase 1; pH 5.2: about 70% of maximal activity, pH 8.9: about 50% of maximal activity, deimination of fillagrin, peptidylarginine deiminase 3; pH 5.2: about 70% of maximal activity, pH 8.9: about 75% of maximal activity, deimination of fillagrin, peptidylarginine deiminase 2
6
10
-
pH 6.0: about 75% of maximal activity, pH 10.0: about 50% of maximal activity, hPADI2
6.5
8
-
pH 6.5: about 50% of maximal activity, pH 8.0: about 70% of maximal activity
6.5
9
-
pH 6.5: about 70% of maximal activity, pH 9.0: about 50% of maximal activity, hPADI4
7
11
-
pH 7.0: about 45% of maximal activity, pH 11.0: about 40% of maximal activity
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
25
-
-
assay at
37
-
-
assay at
37
-
Q9UM07
assay at
37
-
-
assay at
37
-
-
assay at
37
-
-
assay at
50
-
-
-
50
-
-
assay at
55
-
-
assay at
68
-
-
-
TEMPERATURE RANGE
TEMPERATURE MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
20
60
-
-
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
strong expression by adenocarconoma from colon, gall bladder, lung, pancreas, thyroid, uterus, prostate, stomach, parotid, rectum, ovary, esophagus and duodenum, strong expression. Moderate expression by adenocarcinoma from small intestine
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
thyroid, moderate expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
pressure-treated astrocytes exhibit elevated PAD2 and citrullination without apparent change in PAD2 mRNA
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-, Q6TGC4, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
cortical; cortical; cortical; cortical; cortical
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
O88806, O88807, P20717, P70708, -
cortical; cortical; cortical; cortical; cortical
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
PAD2 immunoreactivity is increased in Scrapie-infected brains, with staining detected primarily in reactive astrocytes
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
brain, moderate expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
PADI4 is significantly overexpressed in blood of rheumatoid arthritis. Genetic variation within PADI4 is not a major risk factor for rheumatoid arzhritis in Caucasians
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
much of the enzyme is localized to myelin
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
abnormal accumulation of citrullinated proteins and abnormal activation of PAD2 in hippocampi of patients with Alzheimer's disease
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
low activity
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
of healthy persons and of multiple sclerosis patients
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q08642, Q9Z183
;
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
expression levels of PAD2 protein as well as its enzyme activity are significantly increased in brain sections of Scrapie-infected mice, including hippocampus, brain stem, and striatum
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mus musculus C57BL/6-129S
-
low activity
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mus musculus CD-1
-
;
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q9ULC6, Q9Y2J8
; high amount of PAD2
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
in Purkinje cells of the cerebellum
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
in neuronal cells of the cerebral cortex
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mus musculus CD-1
-
;
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
embryonal, isozyme expression analysis, PAD2 expression occurs also in 19- to 21-day-old embryos at a developmental stage well before myelination begins, overview
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q9ULC6, Q9Y2J8
high amount of PAD2
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q8K3V4
PAD6
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
peptidyl arginine deiminase I and III
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
peptidylarginine deiminase 1; peptidylarginine deiminase 2; peptidylarginine deiminase 3
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
expression of isoform PAD3 is restricted to granular layer and lower stratum corneum; isoform PAD1 is detected in all layers of the epidermis, including the stratum corneum
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q9ULC6
isozyme PAD1
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q6TGC4
isoform PAD2 is mainly detected in both the spinous and granular layers with a more intense staining of the latter; isoform PAD3 expression is restricted to the granular layer and lower stratum corneum; PAD1 is detected in the entire epidermis with an increasing intensity gradient from the basal to the granular layer
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q8K3V4
male and female, unique expression of PAD6
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
peptidyl arginine deiminase III
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
anagen hair follicle, PAD1 is present in non-cornified Huxley layer, cornified Huxley layer, non-cornified inner root sheath cuticle, companion layer and arrector pili muscles; anagen hair follicle, PAD2 is present in arrector pili muscles; anagen hair follicle, PAD3 is present in non-cornified Henle layer, non-cornified Huxley layer, non-cornified inner root sheath cuticle and medulla
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q6TGC4
inner root sheath and cuticle of the hair follicles; inner root sheath and cuticle of the hair follicles
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q9ULC6
low expression level of PAD1
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
strong expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
abnormal accumulation of citrullinated proteins and abnormal activation of PAD2 in hippocampi of patients with Alzheimer's disease
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
embryonal, in the prospective dentate gyrus, microglial marker-negative cells show expression of PAD isozyme 2, but not of isozymes PAD1,3, and 4, overview
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
T-cell leukemia cell line with tetracycline resistance
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
normal epidermal keratinocyte
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
expression of isoform PAD2 in all layers of living keratinocytes with a gradient of expression increasing from the basal (very low detection) to the granular layer, where the protein is located at the cell periphery
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q9ULC6
epidermal, isozyme PAD1, PAD1 and MFZ1 increase both during differentiation
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
low activity
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mus musculus C57BL/6-129S
-
low activity
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
moderate expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
in adult mainly expressed in ovary and peripheral blood leukocytes
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
slight expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
low activity
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
slight expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
low activity
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mus musculus C57BL/6-129S
-
low activity
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
moderate expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q9Y2J8
peptidylarginine deiminase 2, cell from patients with rheumatoid arthitis and healthy controls show identical expression patterns
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
mammary alveolar luminal epithelial cell
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q6TGC4
; isoform PAD3
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
peptidylarginine deiminase type 4 is initially expressed in CD34+ cells of bone marrow and then distributed in derives of the multi-potent progenitor cells in diverse tissues
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
embryonal, in the prospective medulla
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q9Y2J8
peptidylarginine deiminase 2, cell from patients with rheumatoid arthitis and healthy controls show identical expression patterns; peptidylarginine deiminase 4, cell from patients with rheumatoid arthitis and healthy controls show identical expression patterns
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
skeletal muscle
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
high activity
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
quantitative determination of PAD2 and PAD4 by immunohistochemistry
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mus musculus CD-1
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q9ULC6, Q9Y2J8
fetal, increased amounts of PAD3
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
juvenile, increased amounts of PAD3
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q9ULC6, Q9Y2J8
PAD2
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mus musculus CD-1
-
;
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-, Q8K3V4
cortical granules of unfertilized oocytes
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q8K3V4
PAD6
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
Pad6 mRNA expression is localized to oocytes from primordial through antral follicles, but excluded from granulosa cells, theca cells, and corpora lutea
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
from older, glaucomatous DBA/2J mice (primary open-angle glaucoma), but not in younger DGB/2J or control C57BL6J mice
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-, Q6TGC4, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
glaucomatous; glaucomatous; glaucomatous; glaucomatous; glaucomatous, increased expression of PAD2
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
strong expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
in adult mainly expressed in ovary and peripheral blood leukocytes
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
Pad6 mRNA is detected preferentially in adult ovaries
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mus musculus C57BL/6-129S
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
moderate expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q9ULC6, Q9Y2J8
; majority of PAD2 staining in immature cell stages, overview
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
majority of PAD2 staining in immature cell stages, overview
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q9ULC6, Q9Y2J8
fetal; fetal, increased amounts of PAD2
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
juvenile, increased amounts of PAD2
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q9ULC6, Q9Y2J8
;
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
slight expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
PAD2 and PAD4
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
low activity
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mus musculus C57BL/6-129S
-
low activity
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
isoform PAD1; isoform PAD3 is expressed in granular level of stratum corneum
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
expression of isoform PAD2
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
PAD1 is present in secretory cells and myoepithelial cells; PAD2 is present in secretory cells and myoepithelial cells
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
high abundance of PADI14 in the synovial membrane is a prominent feature of rheumatoid arthritis
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
hPADI2; hPADI4
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
slight expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
slight expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
moderate expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
ovariectomized, amount of the enzyme in the uterus is considerably diminished by ovariectomy, the expression of the enzyme in luminal andd glandular epithelia is controlled by the amount of the steroid hormones estrogen and progesterone
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
peptidyl arginine deiminase I
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
the level of the enzyme in theses cells decreases as the cells differentiate
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
no activity detected in spleen, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, pancreas, serum and heart
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
Q9Y2J8
no activity in macrophages
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
PAD1 is not detected in sebaceous gland; PAD2 is not detected in sebaceous gland; PAD3 is not detected in sebaceous gland and sweat gland
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
tissue distribution, no activity in testis and liver, overview
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
Q9ULC6, Q9Y2J8
PAD tissue expression pattern, overview; PAD tissue expression pattern, overview; PAD tissue expression pattern, overview
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
PAD tissue expression pattern, overview
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
PAD is not detected in gallbladder and appendix
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
hPADI2; hPADI4
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
during encystation ADI translocates from the cytoplasm to the nucleus
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
PAD4 primarily localizes in the cytoplasm in pig oocytes and parthenogenetic embryos
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-, Q6TGC4, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
PAD1; PAD2; PAD3; PAD6
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
O88806, O88807, P20717, P70708, -
PAD1; PAD2; PAD3; PAD6
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q08642, Q9Z183
; PAD2
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mus musculus CD-1
-
; PAD2
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q9UM07
PAD4 contains nuclear localization signal region in the subdomain 1
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q9ULC6, Q9Y2J8
PAD3, exclusively
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
PAD3, exclusively
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-, Q6TGC4, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
PAD4
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
O88806, O88807, P20717, P70708, -
PAD4
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q08642, Q9Z183
PAD4 associated with chromatin and with intermediate filaments in the axon
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
during encystation ADI translocates from the cytoplasm to the nucleus
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
in mouse in vitro fertilized embryos, nuclear translocation starts from the 2-cell stage and gradually increases up to blastocyst
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
nuclear translocation of PAD4 is observed in late germinal vesicle stage oocytes prior to germinal vesicle breakdown and is localized around the metaphase (M)I and II spindle. Nucleus-localized PAD4 is noticed partially in blastocysts
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mus musculus CD-1
-
PAD4 associated with chromatin and with intermediate filaments in the axon
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
90% of the deiminase activity is cell- or membrane vesicle-associated
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
MOLECULAR WEIGHT MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
47000
-
-
gel filtration
48000
-
-
gel filtration
54000
-
-
peptidyl arginine deiminase I, gel filtration
60880
-
-
calculated mass of truncated PAD with its poly-His and Xpress epitope tags
60890
-
-
MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry
64000
-
-
estimated from amino acid sequence
75000
-
-, Q8K3V4
-
75000
-
-
SDS-PAGE
75000
-
-
active enzyme, SDS-PAGE
85000
-
-
sumoylated enzyme
100000
-
-
peptidyl arginine deiminase II and III, gel filtration
125000
-
-
gel filtration
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
?
-
x * 85000, SDS-PAGE
?
-
x * 76260, calculation from nucleotide sequence
?
-
x * 83000, SDS-PAGE
?
-
x * 76000, peptidyl arginine deiminase III, SDS-PAGE; x * 81000, peptidyl arginine deiminase II, SDS-PAGE
?
-
x * 75036, calculation from nucleotide sequence; x * 76000, peptidyl arginine deiminase III, SDS-PAGE
?
-
x * 75000, SDS-PAGE
dimer
-
dimerization of PAD4 is essential for full enzyme activity and calcium-binding cooperativity
monomer
-
1 * 46600, SDS-PAGE
monomer
-
crystallization data
monomer
-
monomeric PAD4 maintains 25-50% enzyme activity compared to the dimeric enzyme
POSTTRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
side-chain modification
-
methylation of Arg106 is a naturally occuring modification of the enzyme that affects deimination of Arg residues
sumoylation
-
ADI is also sumoylated, which may modulate its activity
proteolytic modification
-
PAD4 autodeimination does not alter the activity, substrate specificity, or calcium dependence of this isozyme. Six in vitro sites of autodeimination are identified: R123, R156, R205, R419, R484, and R639. Autodeimination of PAD4 reduces protein-protein interactions
side-chain modification
-
methylation of Arg107 is a naturally occuring modification of the enzyme that affects deimination of Arg residues
no modification
-
the potential Asn-linked glycosylation site, Asn542-Glu543-Ser544 has no carbohydrate moiety
Crystallization/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
Ca2+-free enzyme
Q9UM07
crystal structures of a Ca2+-bound PAD4 mutant C645A in complex with three histone N-terminal peptides, each consisting of 10 amino acid residues that include one target arginine residue for the enzyme (H3/Arg-8, H3/Arg-17, and H4/Arg-3). hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method; purified recombinant GST-tagged PAD4 mutant C645A in complex with Ca2+ and histone-derived N-terminal peptide substrates, hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method, soaking of Ca2+-free crystals in crystallization buffer containing 5 mM CaCl2 and each histone N-terminal peptide for 8 h at 20C, X-ray diffraction structure determination and anaylsis at 2.0-2.225 A resolution, molecular replacement
Q9UM07
TEMPERATURE STABILITY
TEMPERATURE STABILITY MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
68
-
-
enzyme loses 50% of its activity within 38 min
GENERAL STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
FMN or FAD stabilize
-
the PAD2 level is relatively higher for immobilized astrocytes in polyethylene set up compared to astrocytes not subjected to immobilization or in glass bead set up. Elevation in PAD2 and deimination level is observed in astrocytes subjected to mechanical stretching or hydrostatic pressure.
P20717
STORAGE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
-80C, 10% 10 mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.0, 1 mM EDTA, 500 mM NaCl, 1 mM DTT and 10% glycerol, stable for several months
-
-20C or -80C, in presence of the stabilizing factors FMN or FAD, at pH 5.5, 7.5 or 9.0, no appreciable loss of activity
-
4C, appreciable loss of activity after overnight storage
-
Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
PAD is purified in 12.5% yield and 137fold from bovine brain by chromatography on diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-sephacel
-
partial
-
glutathione-Sepharose 4B column chromatography
-
recombinant
-
recombinant GST-tagged PAD4 mutant C645A by glutathione affinity chromatography
Q9UM07
recombinant Pad4
Q9UM07
recombinant peptidylarginine deiminase 1; recombinant peptidylarginine deiminase 2
-, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
recombinant enzyme
-
the GST-NXHD fusion protein is purified by affinity chromatography
-
peptidyl arginine deiminase III
-
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 cells as a fusion protein with glutathione S-transferase
-
expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21, HEK-293T, and MCF-7 cell lines
-
expressed in Mus musculus; expressed in Mus musculus
-
expression analysis; expression analysis; expression analysis
Q9ULC6, Q9Y2J8
expression of PAD4
Q9UM07
gene padi4, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis of wild-type and mutant enzymes
-
hPADI2 is expressed in Escherichia coli; hPADI4 is expressed in Escherichia coli
-
overexpression in Escherichia coli
-
overexpression of GST-tagged PAD4 mutant C645A
Q9UM07
PAD2 and PAD4 from spleen, expression of N-terminally His-tagged enzymes in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3)
-
promoter sequence determination and anaylsis 195 base pairs upstream from the transcription initiation site, primer extension method and determination of minimal promoter sequence, the promoter activity depends on MFZ1 and Sp1/Sp3 binding to their specific sites
Q9ULC6
3'-untranslated nucleotide sequence
-
expressed in Escherichia coli BL21-pLysS cells
-
expression in Escherichia coli
-
expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)pLysS cells
-
expression analysis
-
expression in Escherichia coli
-
EXPRESSION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
PAD2 expression is low in anestrus
-
estrogen or progesterone do not upregulate PAD2 transcription and translation
-
epidermal growth factor upregulates PAD2 transcription and translation. PAD2 expression varies across the estrous cycle, with expression initiating during mammary gland proliferation in estrus/early diestrus and increasing through lactation during diestrus. PAD2 mRNA and protein levels are highest in alveolar unit epithelium during late diestrus
-
camptothecin and staurosporine fail to stimulate PAD activity in HL-60 cells
-
PAD immunopositivity in the hepatocytes increases with the stage of hepatic fibrosis. PAD immunopositivity by hepatocytes significantly increases with the increase in the CD38 by the hepatic stellate cells. PAD immunopositivity increases with Metavir activity
-
PAD4 is elevated in patients with multiple sclerosis, ankylosing spondylitis, and osteoarthritis, and PAD4 levels are elevated in the blood of patients with malignant cancers
-
peptidylarginine deiminase 6 is downregulated in newborn ovary homeobox-null ovaries
-
PAD2 mRNA expression is detected in the brains of mice as early as embryonic day 15, and its expression in cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum increases significantly as the animals age from 3 to 30 months old, PAD2 mRNA levels in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and hippocampus at 30 months were about 1.6fold,1.5fold, and 1.6fold higher, respectively, than in 3-month-old animals
-
ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
A112G
-
K0.5 for Ca2+ higher than wild-type, kcat/Km ([histone H4]-L-Arg) lower than wild-type, kcat/Km (Nalpha-benzoyl L-arginine ethyl ester) lower than wild-type
A82V
-
K0.5 for Ca2+ lower than wild-type, kcat/Km ([histone H4]-L-Arg) lower than wild-type, kcat/Km (Nalpha-benzoyl L-arginine ethyl ester) lower than wild-type
A82V/A112G
-
naturally occuring single-nucleotide polymorphisms and site-directed mutagenesis, the SNP-PADI4 mutant haplotype shows a higher risk of rheumatoid arthritis due to correlation with the RA gene, because the mutant shows increased activity, compared to the wild-type PADI4, which promotes the autoimmune disease and apoptosis, overview
C645A
Q9UM07
no enzymic activity, catalytic residue
C645A
Q9UM07
inactive mutant; site-directed mutagemesis, inactive mutant, substrate-bound structure analysis
D273A/R544A
-
Km (Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester): 0.35 mM, kcat (Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester): 13.5/sec, quaternary structure: dimer, Kd: 0.68 microM
D350A
Q9UM07
no enzymic activity, catalytic residue
D369A
Q9UM07
no enzymic activity, ligand for Ca2 coordination
D388A
Q9UM07
81% of wild type activity, ligand for Ca4 coordination
D473A
Q9UM07
no enzymic activity, catalytic residue
D547A
-
Km (Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester): 0.36 mM, kcat (Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester): 11.6/sec, quaternary structure: monomer/dimer, Kd: 6.4 microM
D547E
-
Km (Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester): 0.72 mM, kcat (Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester): 8.9/sec, quaternary structure: monomer/dimer, Kd: 11.2 microM
D547N
-
Km (Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester): 0.86 mM, kcat (Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester): 12.2/sec, quaternary structure: monomer/dimer, Kd: 4.9 microM
E281A
-
Km (Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester): 0.45 mM, kcat (Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester): 12.1/sec, quaternary structure: dimer, Kd: 0.1 microM
E351A
Q9UM07
33% of wild type activity, ligand for Ca2 coordination
E353A
Q9UM07
no enzymic activity, ligand for Ca1 coordination
E411A
Q9UM07
no enzymic activity, ligand for Ca1 coordination
G374R
-
the PAD3 mutant does not display PAD4-like kinetics with benzoylated arginine derivatives
N373A
Q9UM07
no enzymic activity, ligand for Ca2 coordination
N648A
Q9UM07
37% of wild type activity, ligand for water-mediated Ca1 coordination
Q349A
Q9UM07
no enzymic activity, ligand for Ca1 coordination
R123K
-
K0.5 for Ca2+ lower than wild-type, kcat/Km ([histone H4]-L-Arg) lower than wild-type, kcat/Km (Nalpha-benzoyl L-arginine ethyl ester) comparable to wild-type
R123Q
-
K0.5 for Ca2+ higher than that obtained with the R123K mutant, but lower than wild-type, kcat/Km ([histone H4]-L-Arg) comparable to wild-type, kcat/Km (Nalpha-benzoyl L-arginine ethyl ester) comparable to wild-type
R156K
-
K0.5 for Ca2+ lower than wild-type, kcat/Km ([histone H4]-L-Arg) lower than wild-type, kcat/Km (Nalpha-benzoyl L-arginine ethyl ester) lower than wild-type
R156Q
-
K0.5 for Ca2+ comparable to wild-type, kcat/Km ([histone H4]-L-Arg) lower than wild-type, kcat/Km (Nalpha-benzoyl L-arginine ethyl ester) lower than wild-type
R205K
-
K0.5 for Ca2+ lower than wild-type, kcat/Km ([histone H4]-L-Arg) lower than wild-type, kcat/Km (Nalpha-benzoyl L-arginine ethyl ester) lower than wild-type
R205Q
-
K0.5 for Ca2+ lower than wild-type, kcat/Km ([histone H4]-L-Arg) lower than wild-type, kcat/Km (Nalpha-benzoyl L-arginine ethyl ester) lower than wild-type
R372K
-
830fold decreased in kcat/M with either substrate [histone H4]-L-Arg or Nalpha-benzoyl L-arginine ethyl ester
R372Q
-
830fold decreased in kcat/M with either substrate [histone H4]-L-Arg or Nalpha-benzoyl L-arginine ethyl ester
R374K
-
K0.5 for Ca2+ lower than wild-type, kcat/Km ([histone H4]-L-Arg) lower than wild-type, kcat/Km (Nalpha-benzoyl L-arginine ethyl ester) lower than wild-type
R374Q
-
K0.5 for Ca2+ comparable to wild-type, kcat/Km ([histone H4]-L-Arg) lower than wild-type, kcat/Km (Nalpha-benzoyl L-arginine ethyl ester) lower than wild-type
R419K
-
K0.5 for Ca2+ lower than wild-type, kcat/Km ([histone H4]-L-Arg) comparable to wild-type, kcat/Km (Nalpha-benzoyl L-arginine ethyl ester) comparable to wild-type
R419Q
-
K0.5 for Ca2+ lower than wild-type, kcat/Km ([histone H4]-L-Arg) lower than wild-type, kcat/Km (Nalpha-benzoyl L-arginine ethyl ester) lower than wild-type
R484K
-
K0.5 for Ca2+ lower than wild-type, kcat/Km ([histone H4]-L-Arg) lower than wild-type, kcat/Km (Nalpha-benzoyl L-arginine ethyl ester) lower than wild-type
R484Q
-
K0.5 for Ca2+ lower than wild-type, kcat/Km ([histone H4]-L-Arg) lower than wild-type, kcat/Km (Nalpha-benzoyl L-arginine ethyl ester) lower than wild-type
R609K
-
K0.5 for Ca2+ comparable to wild-type, kcat/Km ([histone H4]-L-Arg) lower than wild-type, kcat/Km (Nalpha-benzoyl L-arginine ethyl ester) lower than wild-type
R609Q
-
K0.5 for Ca2+ comparable to wild-type, kcat/Km ([histone H4]-L-Arg) lcomparable to wild-type, kcat/Km (Nalpha-benzoyl L-arginine ethyl ester) lower than wild-type
R639K
-
K0.5 for Ca2+ lower than wild-type, kcat/Km ([histone H4]-L-Arg) comparable to wild-type, kcat/Km (Nalpha-benzoyl L-arginine ethyl ester) lower than wild-type
R639Q
-
K0.5 for Ca2+ lower than wild-type, kcat/Km ([histone H4]-L-Arg) comparable to wild-type, kcat/Km (Nalpha-benzoyl L-arginine ethyl ester) lower than wild-type
R8A
-
Km (Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester): 0.47 mM, kcat (Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester): 12.2/sec, quaternary structure: monomer/dimer, Kd: 9.3 microM
R8A/D547A
-
Km (Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester): 0.4 mM, kcat (Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester): 10.7/sec, quaternary structure: monomer/dimer, Kd: 3.9 microM
R8E
-
Km (Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester): 1.06 mM, kcat (Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester): 7.3/sec, quaternary structure: monomer, Kd: 45.6 microM
R8E/D547E
-
Km (Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester): 2.77 mM, kcat (Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester): 3.3/sec, quaternary structure: monomer, Kd: 24 microM
R8H
-
Km (Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester): 0.47 mM, kcat (Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester): 13.3/sec, quaternary structure: dimer, Kd: 0.47 microM
R8K
-
Km (Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester): 0.5 mM, kcat (Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester): 10.8/sec, quaternary structure: monomer/dimer, Kd: 10.2 microM
R8L
-
Km (Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester): 1.36 mM, kcat (Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester): 5.3/sec, quaternary structure: monomer, Kd: 16.8 microM
R8Q
-
Km (Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester): 0.6 mM, kcat (Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester): 12.2/sec, quaternary structure: monomer/dimer, Kd: 15.7 microM
S55G
-
K0.5 for Ca2+ lower than wild-type, kcat/Km ([histone H4]-L-Arg) lower than wild-type, kcat/Km (Nalpha-benzoyl L-arginine ethyl ester) higher than wild-type
S55G/A112G
-
naturally occuring single-nucleotide polymorphisms and site-directed mutagenesis, the SNP-PADI4 mutant haplotype shows a higher risk of rheumatoid arthritis due to correlation with the RA gene, because the mutant shows increased activity, compared to the wild-type PADI4, which promotes the autoimmune disease and apoptosis, overview
S55G/A82V
-
naturally occuring single-nucleotide polymorphisms and site-directed mutagenesis, the SNP-PADI4 mutant haplotype shows reduced activity compared to the wild-type PADI4
S55G/A82V/A112G
-
naturally occuring single-nucleotide polymorphisms and site-directed mutagenesis, the SNP-PADI4 mutant haplotype shows a higher risk of rheumatoid arthritis due to correlation with the RA gene, because the mutant shows increased activity, compared to the wild-type PADI4, which promotes the autoimmune disease and apoptosis, overview
Y237A
-
Km (Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester): 0.36 mM, kcat (Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester): 13.9/sec, quaternary structure: dimer, Kd: 0.29 microM
Y237A/E281A
-
Km (Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester): 0.38 mM, kcat (Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester): 13.2/sec, quaternary structure: dimer, Kd: 0.1 microM
Y435A
-
Km (Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester): 2.33 mM, kcat (Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester): 5.9/sec, quaternary structure: monomer, Kd: 30.3 microM
Y435N
-
Km (Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester): 2.73 mM, kcat (Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester): 4/sec, quaternary structure: monomer, Kd: 33.8 microM
DELTA1-385
-
IKKgamma co-immunoprecipitates truncation mutants, PAD2(1-385) and PAD2(355-672)
C351S
-
the mutant is catalytically inactive, exhibiting less than 0.01% wild type activity
H471A
Q9UM07
no enzymic activity, catalytic residue
additional information
Q9ULC6
the promoter activity of MFZ1- and Sp1-binding site mutants is reduced, overview
DELTA355-672
-
IKKgamma co-immunoprecipitates truncation mutants, PAD2(1-385) and PAD2(355-672)
additional information
Q08642, Q9Z183
inactivation of PAD2 does not affect PAD4 activity, but leads to limited deimination due to the narrower cleavage spectrum of arginyl residues in myelin basic protein for PAD4, overview; inactivation of PAD2 does not affect PAD4 activity, but leads to limited deimination due to the narrower cleavage spectrum of arginyl residues in myelin basic protein for PAD4, overview
additional information
Q8K3V4
generation of PAD6-deficient mice, enzyme inactivation affects female, but not male, fertility, it results in dispersal of the cytoskeletal sheets in oocytes, phenotype, overview
Q358A
-
substitution of Gln-358 (a putative ligand for Ca2+ binding) with an Ala abolishes co-immunoprecipitation with IKKgamma
additional information
Mus musculus CD-1
-
inactivation of PAD2 does not affect PAD4 activity, but leads to limited deimination due to the narrower cleavage spectrum of arginyl residues in myelin basic protein for PAD4, overview; inactivation of PAD2 does not affect PAD4 activity, but leads to limited deimination due to the narrower cleavage spectrum of arginyl residues in myelin basic protein for PAD4, overview
-
APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
drug development
-
PAD4 is a leading target for the development of a rheumatoid arthritis pharmaceutical
medicine
-
peptidyl arginine deiminase is an immunohistochemical marker for liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis
medicine
-
PAD4 is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. PAD4 mutations are associated with anti-CCP antibody production and the increased expression of PAD4 in the rheumatoid arthritis synovium
pharmacology
Q9UM07
PAD4 inhibitors F-and Cl-amidine represent potential lead compounds for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis because a growing body of evidence supports a role for PAD4 in the onset and progression of this chronic autoimmune disorder
pharmacology
-, Q6TGC4, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
PAD1 is a target in skin diseases including psoriasis; PAD2 is a target for treatement of glaucoma and multiple sclerosis; PAD3 is a target in skin diseases including psoriasis, PAD3-like protein is a target for treatement of certain cancers