Information on EC 3.5.3.15 - protein-arginine deiminase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota, Bacteria

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
3.5.3.15
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
protein-arginine deiminase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
protein L-arginine + H2O = protein L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
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REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
amidine hydrolysis
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PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
protein citrullination
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SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
protein-L-arginine iminohydrolase
Also acts on N-acyl-L-arginine and, more slowly, on L-arginine esters.
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
75536-80-0
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ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mus musculus C57BL/6-129S
C57BL/6-129S mice
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
malfunction
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overexpressing PAD2 reduces LPS-mediated COX-2 up-regulation by 50%. PAD2 overexpression also reduces NF-kappaB activity
physiological function
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
1-[3-(2,5-dioxo-1-phenylimidazolidin-4-yl)propyl]guanidine + H2O
N-[3-(2,5-dioxo-1-phenylimidazolidin-4-yl)propyl]urea + NH3
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
-
?
1-[3-(2,5-dioxo-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-1,4-benzodiazepin-3-yl)propyl]guanidine + H2O
N-[[6-(benzyloxy)-1H-indol-2-yl]methyl]urea + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
1-[3-(2,5-dioxoimidazolidin-4-yl)propyl]guanidine + H2O
N-[3-(2,5-dioxoimidazolidin-4-yl)propyl]urea + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
1-[3-[1-(biphenyl-3-ylmethyl)-2,5-dioxoimidazolidin-4-yl]propyl]guanidine + H2O
N-(3-[1-[([1,1'-biphenyl]-3-yl)methyl]-2,5-dioxoimidazolidin-4-yl]propyl)urea + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
1-[[6-(benzyloxy)-1H-indol-2-yl]methyl]guanidine + H2O
N-[[6-(benzyloxy)-1H-indol-2-yl]methyl]urea + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-acetyl-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys + H2O
2-acetyl-Gly-Cit-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3-acetyl-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys + H2O
3-acetyl-Cit-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-carbamimidamido-N-(diphenylmethyl)butanamide + H2O
4-(carbamoylamino)-N-(diphenylmethyl)butanamide + NH3
show the reaction diagram
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-
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?
4-[4-(3-carbamimidamidopropyl)-2,5-dioxoimidazolidin-1-yl]-2-ethoxy-N-(4-methoxyphenyl)benzamide + H2O
4-[4-[3-(carbamoylamino)propyl]-2,5-dioxoimidazolidin-1-yl]-2-ethoxy-N-(4-methoxyphenyl)benzamide + NH3
show the reaction diagram
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?
4-[4-(3-carbamimidamidopropyl)-2,5-dioxoimidazolidin-1-yl]-N-(4-methoxyphenyl)benzamide + H2O
4-[4-[3-(carbamoylamino)propyl]-2,5-dioxoimidazolidin-1-yl]-N-(4-methoxyphenyl)benzamide + NH3
show the reaction diagram
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-
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?
4-[4-(3-carbamimidamidopropyl)-2,5-dioxoimidazolidin-1-yl]-N-phenylbenzamide + H2O
4-[4-[3-(carbamoylamino)propyl]-2,5-dioxoimidazolidin-1-yl]-N-phenylbenzamide + NH3
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
-
?
4-[4-[3-(carbamoylamino)propyl]-2,5-dioxoimidazolidin-1-yl]-N-(4-methoxyphenyl)benzamide + H2O
4-[4-[3-(carbamoylamino)propyl]-2,5-dioxoimidazolidin-1-yl]-2-methoxy-N-(4-methoxyphenyl)benzamide + NH3
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
-
?
Ac-Ala-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys + H2O
Ac-Ala-Gly-Cit-Gly-Lys + NH3
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
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?
Ac-Ser-Ala-Arg-Gly-Lys + H2O
Ac-Ser-Ala-Cit-Gly-Lys + NH3
show the reaction diagram
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?
Ac-Ser-Gly-Ala-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Ala-Arg-His-Arg-Lys-Val + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
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?
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Ala-Lys + H2O
Ac-Ser-Gly-Cit-Ala-Lys + NH3
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
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?
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-acetyl-Lys-Gly-Gly-acetyl-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-acetyl-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-acetyl-Lys + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
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-
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?
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-acetyl-Lys-Gly-Gly-acetyl-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-acetyl-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-acetyl-Lys-Arg-His-Arg-acetyl-Lys-Val + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
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?
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Ala + H2O
Ac-Ser-Gly-Cit-Gly-Ala + NH3
show the reaction diagram
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?
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys + H2O
Ac-Ser-Gly-Cit-Gly-Lys + NH3
show the reaction diagram
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?
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly + H2O
Ac-Ser-Gly-Cit-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly + NH3
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
-
?
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala + H2O
Ac-Ser-Gly-Cit-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala + NH3
show the reaction diagram
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-
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?
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Ala-Arg-His-Arg-Ala-Val + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
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?
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Ala-Arg-His-Arg-Lys-Val + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
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?
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys + H2O
Ac-Ser-Gly-Cit-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys + NH3
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
-
?
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys-Ala-His-Arg-Ala-Val + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
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?
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys-Arg-His + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
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?
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys-Arg-His-Ala-Ala-Val + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
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?
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys-Arg-His-Arg-Lys-Val + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
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?
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys-Lys-His-Lys-Ala-Val + H2O
Ac-Ser-Gly-Cit-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys-Lys-His-Lys-Ala-Val + NH3
show the reaction diagram
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?
acety-L-Arg + H2O
acetyl-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
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?
acetyl-L-Arg + H2O
acetyl-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
acetyl-L-Arg methyl ester + H2O
acetyl-L-citrulline methyl ester + NH3
show the reaction diagram
aldolase 1A L-Arg + H2O
aldolase 1A L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
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-
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?
aldolase 3C L-Arg + H2O
aldolase 3C L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
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?
aldolase C L-Arg + H2O
aldolase C L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
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?
alpha-enolase + H2O
[alpha-enolase]-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
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?
alpha-enolase 1 L-Arg + H2O
alpha-enolase 1 L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
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?
benzoyl-Arg + H2O
benzoyl-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
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?
benzoyl-Arg ethyl ester + H2O
benzoyl-citrulline ethyl ester + NH3
show the reaction diagram
benzoyl-Arg methyl ester + H2O
benzoyl-citrulline methyl ester + NH3
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
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?
benzoyl-Arg-4-methylcoumarin-7-amide + H2O
benzoyl-citrulline-4-methylcoumarin-7-amide + NH3
show the reaction diagram
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-
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?
benzoyl-Arg-ethyl ester + H2O
benzoyl-citrulline-ethyl ester + NH3
show the reaction diagram
benzoyl-Arg-methyl ester + H2O
benzoyl-citrulline-methyl ester + NH3
show the reaction diagram
benzoyl-Arg-NH2 + H2O
benzoyl-citrulline-NH2 + NH3
show the reaction diagram
benzoyl-D-Arg-p-nitroanilide + H2O
benzoyl-citrulline-p-nitroanilide + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
18% of the rate of the L-isomer
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?
benzoyl-Gly-L-Arg + H2O
benzoyl-Gly-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
benzoyl-homoarginine ethyl ester + H2O
(2S)-2-aminobenzoyl-6-[(aminocarbonyl)amino]hexanoic acid + NH3
show the reaction diagram
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-
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-
?
benzoyl-L-Arg + H2O
benzoyl-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
benzoyl-L-Arg ethyl ester + H2O
benzoyl-L-citrulline ethyl ester + NH3
show the reaction diagram
benzoyl-L-Arg-NH2 + H2O
benzoyl-L-citrullineamide + NH3
show the reaction diagram
benzoyl-L-Arg-p-nitroanilide + H2O
benzoyl-citrulline-p-nitroanilide + NH3
show the reaction diagram
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?
benzoyl-L-arginine + H2O
benzoyl-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
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?
benzoyl-L-arginine amide + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
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best small-molecule substrate for PAD4
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?
benzoyl-L-arginine amide + H2O
benzoyl-L-citrulline amide + NH3
show the reaction diagram
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?
benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester + H2O
benzoyl-L-citrulline ethyl ester + NH3
show the reaction diagram
benzoyl-L-arginine methyl ester + H2O
benzoyl-L-citrulline methyl ester + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
benzyloxycarbonyl-Arg-Arg-4-methylcoumarin-7-amide
? + NH3
show the reaction diagram
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-
?
benzyloxycarbonyl-Phe-Arg-4-methylcoumarin-7-amide + H2O
benzyloxycarbonyl-Phe-citrulline-4-methylcoumarin-7-amide + NH3
show the reaction diagram
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?
beta-actin L-arginine + H2O
beta-actin L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
substrate for isoform PAD2 only
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?
beta2-tubulin L-Arg + H2O
beta2-tubulin L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
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-
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-
?
citrullinated histone H3 L-arginine + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
substrate for isoform PAD4 only
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-
?
CRGKA + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
Giardia lamblia ADI specifically binds to and citrullinates the arginine in the conserved CRGKA tail of variant-specific surface proteins affecting both antigenic switching and antibody mediated cell death
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-
?
CXC chemokine ligand 10 L-Arg + H2O
CXC chemokine ligand 10 citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
CXC chemokine ligand 11 L-arginine + H2O
CXC chemokine ligand 11 L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
CXCL17 L-Arg + H2O
CXCL17 L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
CXCL26 L-Arg + H2O
CXCL26 L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
CXCL5 L-Arg + H2O
CXCL5 L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
CXCL5-L-Arg + H2O
CXCL5-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
PAD site-specifically deiminates L-Arg9 in CXCL5 to L-citrulline
-
-
?
CXCL8 L-Arg + H2O
CXCL8 L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
DDYSSSRDGYGGS + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
substrate for isoform PAD4
-
-
?
DGYGGSRDSYSSS + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
substrate for isoform PAD4
-
-
?
DSEGTWRKGPEAD + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
substrate for isoform PAD2
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-
?
DSHKFDRDFIYSD + H2O
DSHKFDCitDFIYSD + NH3
show the reaction diagram
DSHKHSREWLWSD + H2O
DSHKHSCitEWLWSD + NH3
show the reaction diagram
DSHKWHRDFFYSD + H2O
DSHKWHCitDFFYSD + NH3
show the reaction diagram
DSKFAFRGGIASD + H2O
DSKFAFCitGGIASD + NH3
show the reaction diagram
DSKFHFRYAVASD + H2O
DSKFHFCitYAVASD + NH3
show the reaction diagram
DSKFKFRYAYASD + H2O
DSKFKFCitYAYASD + NH3
show the reaction diagram
DSKHFHRDFIYSD + H2O
DSKHFHCitDFIYSD + NH3
show the reaction diagram
DSKHKSRDFVYSD + H2O
DSKHKSCitDFVYSD + NH3
show the reaction diagram
DSKHLSREWMWSD + H2O
DSKHLSCitEWMWSD + NH3
show the reaction diagram
DSKKFDRDHLYSD + H2O
DSKKFDCitDHLYSD + NH3
show the reaction diagram
DSKKFDRGHLYSD + H2O
DSKKFDCitGHLYSD + NH3
show the reaction diagram
DSKKFHRDFLYSD + H2O
DSKKFHCitDFLYSD + NH3
show the reaction diagram
DSKKFHRGFLYSD + H2O
DSKKFHCitGFLYSD + NH3
show the reaction diagram
DSKKFKRDFLFSD + H2O
DSKKFKCitDFLFSD + NH3
show the reaction diagram
DSKKHDRDHLWSD + H2O
DSKKHDCitDHLWSD + NH3
show the reaction diagram
DSKKHFRDKLYSD + H2O
DSKKHFCitDKLYSD + NH3
show the reaction diagram
DSKKHFRGKLYSD + H2O
DSKKHFCitGKLYSD + NH3
show the reaction diagram
DSKKKHREWVWSD + H2O
DSKKKHCitEWVWSD + NH3
show the reaction diagram
DSKKLHRDHMESD + H2O
DSKKLHCitDHMESD + NH3
show the reaction diagram
DSKKYDRDFLWSD + H2O
DSKKYDCitDFLWSD + NH3
show the reaction diagram
DSKKYDRGFLWSD + H2O
DSKKYDCitGFLWSD + NH3
show the reaction diagram
DSKWHHRDHLYSD + H2O
DSKWHHCitDHLYSD + NH3
show the reaction diagram
DSKWHHRGHLYSD + H2O
DSKWHHCitGHLYSD + NH3
show the reaction diagram
DSKWYHRNKFWSD + H2O
DSKWYHCitNKFWSD + NH3
show the reaction diagram
DSQFAFRGASASD + H2O
DSQFAFCitGASASD + NH3
show the reaction diagram
DSQWAFRHALFSD + H2O
DSQWAFCitHALFSD + NH3
show the reaction diagram
DSRFYWRGGGKSD + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
substrate for isoform PAD2
-
-
?
DSSEELRGGGKSD + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
substrate for isoform PAD2
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-
?
DSYRSWRDGYYSD + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
substrate for isoform PAD4
-
-
?
FFDSHKFDRDFIYSD + H2O
FFDSHKFDCitDFIYSD + NH3
show the reaction diagram
FFDSHKHSREWLWSD + H2O
FFDSHKHSCitEWLWSD + NH3
show the reaction diagram
FFDSHKKSREYVFSD + H2O
FFDSHKKSCitEYVFSD + NH3
show the reaction diagram
FFDSHKLHREWMWSD + H2O
FFDSHKLHCitEWMWSD + NH3
show the reaction diagram
FFDSHKWHRDFFYSD + H2O
FFDSHKWHCitDFFYSD + NH3
show the reaction diagram
FFDSKHFDREWIWSD + H2O
FFDSKHFDCitEWIWSD + NH3
show the reaction diagram
FFDSKHKSRDFVYSD+ H2O
FFDSKHKSCitDFVYSD + NH3
show the reaction diagram
FFDSKHLSREWMWSD + H2O
FFDSKHLSCitEWMWSD + NH3
show the reaction diagram
FFDSKKFSRDHIESD + H2O
FFDSKKFSCitDHIESD + NH3
show the reaction diagram
FFDSKKKHREWVWSD + H2O
FFDSKKKHCitEWVWSD + NH3
show the reaction diagram
FFDSKKWSREYFFSD + H2O
FFDSKKWSCitEYFFSD + NH3
show the reaction diagram
fibrin L-arginine + H2O
fibrin L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
Fibrinogen + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
fibrinogen + H2O
fibrinogen with citrullinated L-arginine residues
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
-
?
fibrinogen-L-arginine + H2O
fibrinogen-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
filaggrin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
filaggrin + H2O
? + NH3
show the reaction diagram
filaggrin L-Arg + H2O
filaggrin citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
filaggrin L-Arg + H2O
filaggrin L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
-
?
filaggrin L-arginine + H2O
filaggrin L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
filaggrin-L-arginine + H2O
filaggrin-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
gamma-actin L-arginine + H2O
gamma-actin L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
substrate for isoform PAD2 only
-
-
?
glial fibrillary acidic protein L-arginine + H2O
glial fibrillary acidic protein L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glial fibrillary acidic protein-L-Arg + H2O
glial fibrillary acidic protein-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
glial fibrillary acidic protein-L-arginine + H2O
glial fibrillary acidic protein-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
Gly-Gly-L-Arg + H2O
Gly-Gly-L-Cit + NH3
show the reaction diagram
Gly-L-Arg + H2O
Gly-L-Cit + NH3
show the reaction diagram
glycogen phosphorylase b + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
specific deimination by peptidylarginine deiminase has a pronounced effect on the binding of some allosteric effectors with the enzyme and hampers the association of phosphorylase b dimers into tetramers in the presence of AMP
-
-
?
glycogen phosphorylase b + H2O
? + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
specific deimination by peptidylarginine deiminase has a pronounced effect on the binding of some allosteric effectors with the enzyme and hampers the association of phosphorylase b dimers into tetramers in the presence of AMP
-
-
?
GYGGGSRDGSYGG + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
substrate for isoform PAD4
-
-
?
heat shock protein 8 L-Arg + H2O
heat shock protein 8 L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
histone H2A L-arginine + H2O
histone H2A L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
deimination occurs at Arg3 of the N-terminal sequence acetyl-SGRGK
-
-
?
histone H2A-L-arginine + H2O
histone H2A-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
histone H3 L-Arg + H2O
histone H3 L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
citrullination activity is limited to diestrus with histone H3
-
-
?
histone H3 L-arginine + H2O
histone H3 L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
histone H3-L-Arg + H2O
histone H3-L-citrulline
show the reaction diagram
histone H3-L-arginine + H2O
histone H3-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
histone H4 L-arginine + H2O
histone H4 L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
deimination occurs at Arg3 of the N-terminal sequence acetyl-SGRGK
-
-
?
histone H4-L-arginine + H2O
histone H4-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
histone L-arginine + H2O
histone L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
human vimentin L-arginine + H2O
human vimentin L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
IEIITDRQSGKKR + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
substrate for isoform PAD2
-
-
?
IEIMTDRGSGKKR + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
substrate for isoform PAD2
-
-
?
IGSRGDRSGFGKF + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
substrate for isoform PAD2
-
-
?
KDRNW + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
keratin + H2O
? + NH3
show the reaction diagram
keratin L-arginine + H2O
keratin L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
keratin-L-arginine + H2O
keratin-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
L-agmatine + H2O
? + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
5.4% activity compared to L-arginine
-
-
?
L-Arg + H2O
citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Arg + H2O
L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
L-Arg methyl ester + H2O
L-citrulline methyl ester + NH4+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-Arg-Gly + H2O
L-Cit-Gly + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
75% activity compared to Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester
-
-
?
L-Arg-Gly-Gly + H2O
L-Cit-Gly-Gly + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
66% activity compared to Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester
-
-
?
L-arginine + H2O
L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
L-arginine-methyl ester + H2O
L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
isoform PAD3 shows 15% activity compared to Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester
-
-
?
L-arginine-methyl ester + H2O
L-citrulline methyl ester + NH3
show the reaction diagram
isoform PAD1 shows 15% activity compared to Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester
-
-
?
L-canavanine + H2O
? + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
0.3% activity compared to L-arginine
-
-
?
L-homoarginine + H2O
? + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
0.3% activity compared to L-arginine
-
-
?
L-Leu-Trp-Met-Arg + H2O
L-Leu-Trp-Met-Cit + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
45% activity compared to Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester
-
-
?
L-Met-Arg-Phe + H2O
L-Met-Cit-Phe + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
the substrate shows fastest rate of citrullination with 158% activity compared to Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester
-
-
?
L-octopine + H2O
? + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
16.7% activity compared to L-arginine
-
-
?
LDRGE + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
MWRHV + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
myelin basic protein + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
myelin basic protein L-arginine + H2O
myelin basic protein L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
myelin basic protein-L-Arg + H2O
myelin basic protein-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
myelin basic protein-L-arginine + H2O
myelin basic protein-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
N-(3-[1-[(2'-chloro-3'-fluoro[1,1'-biphenyl]-3-yl)methyl]-2,5-dioxoimidazolidin-4-yl]propyl)guanidine + H2O
N-(3-[1-[(2'-chloro-3'-fluoro[1,1'-biphenyl]-3-yl)methyl]-2,5-dioxoimidazolidin-4-yl]propyl)urea + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
N-(3-[1-[(2'-chloro[1,1'-biphenyl]-3-yl)methyl]-2,5-dioxoimidazolidin-4-yl]propyl)guanidine + H2O
N-(3-[1-[(2'-chloro[1,1'-biphenyl]-3-yl)methyl]-2,5-dioxoimidazolidin-4-yl]propyl)urea + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
N-(3-[1-[([1,1'-biphenyl]-3-yl)methyl]-2,5-dioxoimidazolidin-4-yl]propyl)urea + H2O
N-(3-[1-[(3'-fluoro[1,1'-biphenyl]-3-yl)methyl]-2,5-dioxoimidazolidin-4-yl]propyl)urea + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
N-(biphenyl-3-ylmethyl)-4-carbamimidamidobutanamide + H2O
N-[([1,1''-biphenyl]-3-yl)methyl]-4-(carbamoylamino)butanamide + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
N-acetyl-Arg methyl ester + H2O
N-acetyl-citrulline + NH4+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
N-acetyl-L-arginine + H2O
N-acetyl-L-citrulline ethyl ester + NH3
show the reaction diagram
N-acetyl-L-arginine-methyl ester + H2O
N-acetyl-L-citrulline-methyl ester + NH3
show the reaction diagram
N-alpha-benzoyl-L-arginine + H2O
N-alpha-benzoyl-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
N-alpha-benzoyl-L-arginine amide + H2O
N-alpha-benzoyl-L-citrulline amide + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
best small molecule substrate for isozyme PAD1
-
-
?
N-alpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester + H2O
N-alpha-benzoyl-L-citrulline ethyl ester
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
N-alpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester + H2O
N-alpha-benzoyl-L-citrulline ethyl ester + NH3
show the reaction diagram
N-alpha-benzoyl-L-arginine methyl ester + H2O
N-alpha-benzoyl-L-citrulline methyl ester + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
N-[(1R)-1-(biphenyl-3-yl)ethyl]-4-carbamimidamidobutanamide + H2O
N-[(1R)-1-([1,1''-biphenyl]-3-yl)ethyl]-4-(carbamoylamino)butanamide + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
N-[(1S)-1-(biphenyl-3-yl)ethyl]-4-carbamimidamidobutanamide + H2O
N-[(1S)-1-([1,1''-biphenyl]-3-yl)ethyl]-4-(carbamoylamino)butanamide + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
N-[(3'-bromobiphenyl-3-yl)methyl]-4-carbamimidamidobutanamide + H2O
N-[(3''-bromo[1,1''-biphenyl]-3-yl)methyl]-4-(carbamoylamino)butanamide + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
Nalpha-benzoyl L-arginine ethyl ester + H2O
Nalpha-benzoyl L-citrulline ethyl ester + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine + H2O
Nalpha-benzoyl-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine amide + H2O
Nalpha-benzoyl-L-citrulline amide + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester
Nalpha-benzoyl-L-citrulline ethyl ester + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester + H2O
Nalpha-benzoyl-L-citrulline ethyl ester + NH3
show the reaction diagram
Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine methyl ester + H2O
Nalpha-benzoyl-L-citrulline methyl ester + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
Nalpha-benzoyl-L-arginine-amide + H2O
Nalpha-benzoyl-L-citrulline-amide + NH3
show the reaction diagram
Nalpha-tosyl-L-arginine-methyl ester + H2O
Nalpha-tosyl-L-citrulline-methyl ester + NH3
show the reaction diagram
neuron-specific enolase 2 L-Arg + H2O
neuron-specific enolase 2 L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
neuron-specific-enolase1 + H2O
[neuron-specific]-enolase1 L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p300-L-arginine + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
PAD4-L-arginine + H2O
PAD4-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
PAD4 is autodeiminated in a time-dependent manner
-
-
?
peptide H3-1-L-arginine + H2O
peptide H3-1-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
i.e. Ac4KQTARKSTGG13
-
-
?
peptide H3-2-L-arginine + H2O
peptide H3-2-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
i.e. Ac14KAPRKQLATK23
-
-
?
peptide H4-L-arginine + H2O
peptide H4-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. Ac1SGRGKGGKGL10
-
?
peptidylprolyl isomerase A L-Arg + H2O
peptidylprolyl isomerase A L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
peroxiredoxin 1 L-Arg + H2O
peroxiredoxin 1 L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
Polyarginine + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
protamine + H2O
? + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
peptidyl arginine deiminase III shows highest activity towards
-
-
?
protein L-Arg + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
protein L-Arg + H2O
protein citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
protein L-Arg + H2O
protein L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
protein L-Arg + H2O
protein-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
protein L-arginine + H2O
protein L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
protein-L-arginine + H2O
protein-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
S100A3-L-arginine + H2O
S100A3-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
SHQESTRGKSKGKAAAAA + H2O
SHQEST-Cit-GKSKGKAAAAA + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
t-butyloxycarbonyl-Leu-Arg-Arg-4-methylcoumarin-7-amide + H2O
? + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
t-butyloxycarbonyl-Leu-Gly-Arg-4-methylcoumarin-7-amide + H2O
t-butyloxycarbonyl-Leu-Gly-citrulline-4-methylcoumarin-7-amide + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
t-butyloxycarbonyl-Leu-Lys-Arg-4-methylcoumarin-7-amide + H2O
t-butyloxycarbonyl-Leu-Lys-citrulline-4-methylcoumarin-7-amide + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
t-butyloxycarbonyl-Leu-Thr-Arg-4-methylcoumarin-7-amide + H2O
t-butyloxycarbonyl-Leu-Thr-citrulline-4-methylcoumarin-7-amide + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
t-butyloxycarbonyl-Val-Pro-Arg-4-methylcoumarin-7-amide + H2O
t-butyloxycarbonyl-Val-Pro-citrulline-4-methylcoumarin-7-amide + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
TKQTARKSTGGK + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
tosyl-Arg-ethyl ester + H2O
tosyl-citrulline-ethyl ester + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
hPADI2
-
-
?
tosyl-L-Arg ethyl ester + H2O
tosyl-L-citrulline ethyl ester + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
trichohyalin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
trichohyalin + H2O
? + NH3
show the reaction diagram
trichohyalin-L-arginine + H2O
trichohyalin-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
TSTGGRQGSHH + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
variant-specific surface protein L-arginine + H2O
variant-specific surface protein L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
vimentin-L-arginine + H2O
vimentin-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
vimetin L-arginine + H2O
vimentin L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
voltage-dependent anion channel 1 L-Arg + H2O
voltage-dependent anion channel 1 L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
WSRYH + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
WTRGE + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
yeast enolase L-arginine + H2O
yeast enolase L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
YWRDH + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
[cofilin 1]-L-Arg + H2O
[cofilin 1]-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
[histone H4]-L-Arg + H2O
[histone H4]-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
[IKKgamma]-L-arginine + H2O
[IKKgamma]-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
[mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase 2]-L-arginine + H2O
[mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase 2]-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
fibrin L-arginine + H2O
fibrin L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
citrullinated fibrin is a potential antigen of rheumatoid arthritis
-
-
?
fibrinogen-L-arginine + H2O
fibrinogen-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
Q6TGC4, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
PAD4, involvement in rheumatoid arthritis
-
-
ir
filaggrin-L-arginine + H2O
filaggrin-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
Q6TGC4, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
PAD4, involvement in rheumatoid arthritis
-
-
ir
glial fibrillary acidic protein L-arginine + H2O
glial fibrillary acidic protein L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
Q9Y2J8
-
-
-
?
glial fibrillary acidic protein-L-arginine + H2O
glial fibrillary acidic protein-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
Q6TGC4, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
PAD2, involvement in Alzheimer's diease
-
-
ir
glycogen phosphorylase b + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
specific deimination by peptidylarginine deiminase has a pronounced effect on the binding of some allosteric effectors with the enzyme and hampers the association of phosphorylase b dimers into tetramers in the presence of AMP
-
-
?
histone H2A-L-arginine + H2O
histone H2A-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
Q6TGC4, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
PAD4, involvement in rheumatoid arthritis
-
-
ir
histone H3-L-Arg + H2O
histone H3-L-citrulline
show the reaction diagram
-
PADI4 is a histone H3-specific arginine deiminase. Deimination is a mechanism for antagonizing the transcriptional induction mediated by arginine methylation
-
-
?
histone H3-L-arginine + H2O
histone H3-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
histone H4-L-arginine + H2O
histone H4-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
Q6TGC4, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
PAD4, involvement in rheumatoid arthritis
-
-
ir
histone L-arginine + H2O
histone L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
PAD4 mediates gene expression by regulating Arg methylation and citrullination in histones
-
-
?
keratin-L-arginine + H2O
keratin-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
myelin basic protein-L-arginine + H2O
myelin basic protein-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
protein L-Arg + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
protein L-Arg + H2O
protein citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
protein L-Arg + H2O
protein L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
protein L-Arg + H2O
protein-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
protein L-arginine + H2O
protein L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
protein-L-arginine + H2O
protein-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
trichohyalin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
trichohyalin-L-arginine + H2O
trichohyalin-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
Q6TGC4, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
PAD3, involvement in skin disease
-
-
ir
vimentin-L-arginine + H2O
vimentin-L-citrulline + NH3
show the reaction diagram
Q6TGC4, Q9ULC6, Q9ULW8
PAD2, involvement in Alzheimer's disease
-
-
ir
additional information
?
-
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
Ba2+
-
Ba2+ activates isozymes PAD 1 and 3 to about 15% and 2.5%, respectively, of the level of Ca2+
Sr2+
-
10 mM, 85% of the activity with Ca2+
additional information
-
little to no activity is observed with Mg2+, Mn2+, Zn2+ even after long incubation times (up to 2 h)
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
1-(2-{4-[(aminooxy)sulfinyl]phenyl}ethyl)guanidine hydrochloride
-
5% inhibition at 0.01 mM
1-[3-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)propyl]-3-{2-[(4-phenyl-1,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl)oxy]ethyl}guanidine hydrochloride
-
34% inhibition at 0.01 mM
1-[[4-(benzoylamino)-5-(ethylamino)-5-oxopentyl]amino]-2-chloroethaniminium
-
-
1-[[4-(benzoylamino)-5-(ethylamino)-5-oxopentyl]amino]-2-fluoroethaniminium
-
-
1-[[6-amino-5-(benzoylamino)-6-oxohexyl]amino]-2-chloroethaniminium
-
potent, irreversible and specific PAD3 inhibitor
1-[[6-amino-5-(benzoylamino)-6-oxohexyl]amino]-2-fluoroethaniminium
-
potent, irreversible and specific PAD3 inhibitor
2-({(1S)-1-(2-tert-butyl-2H-tetrazol-5-yl)-4-[(2-chloroethanimidoyl)amino]butyl}carbamoyl)benzoic acid
-
-
2-({(1S)-1-(2-tert-butyl-2H-tetrazol-5-yl)-4-[(2-fluoroethanimidoyl)amino]butyl}carbamoyl)benzoic acid
-
-
2-chloro-N-[3-(2,5-dioxo-1-phenylimidazolidin-4-yl)propyl]ethanimidamide
-
-
2-chloro-N-[3-(2,5-dioxoimidazolidin-4-yl)propyl]ethanimidamide
-
-
2-chloroacetamidine
2-cyano-1-methyl-3-(2-{[(5-methyl-1H-imidazol-4-yl)methyl]sulfanyl}ethyl)guanidine
-
1% inhibition at 0.01 mM
2-cyano-1-{2-[({2-[(diaminomethylidene)amino]-1,3-thiazol-5-yl}methyl)sulfanyl]ethyl}-3-(2-hydroxyethyl)guanidine ethanedioate
-
3% inhibition at 0.01 mM
2-{[(1S)-4-[(2-chloroethanimidoyl)amino]-1-(2H-tetrazol-5-yl)butyl]carbamoyl}benzoic acid
-
15fold selectivity versus PAD2 and PAD3; 15fold selectivity versus PAD2 and PAD3; 15fold selectivity versus PAD2 and PAD3; 15fold selectivity versus PAD2 and PAD3
2-{[(1S)-4-[(2-fluoroethanimidoyl)amino]-1-(2H-tetrazol-5-yl)butyl]carbamoyl}benzoic acid
-
exhibits 20 to 30fold selectivity over isoform PAD2 and PAD3 when compared to PAD1; exhibits 20 to 30fold selectivity over isoform PAD2 and PAD3 when compared to PAD1; exhibits 20 to 30fold selectivity over isoform PAD2 and PAD3 when compared to PAD1; exhibits 20 to 30fold selectivity over isoform PAD2 and PAD3 when compared to PAD1
4-(4-{3-[(2-chloroethanimidoyl)amino]propyl}-2,5-dioxoimidazolidin-1-yl)-2-ethoxy-N-(4-methoxyphenyl)benzamide
-
-
4-(4-{3-[(2-chloroethanimidoyl)amino]propyl}-2,5-dioxoimidazolidin-1-yl)-2-methoxy-N-(4-methoxyphenyl)benzamide
-
-
4-(4-{3-[(2-chloroethanimidoyl)amino]propyl}-2,5-dioxoimidazolidin-1-yl)-N-(4-methoxyphenyl)benzamide
-
-
4-(4-{3-[(2-chloroethanimidoyl)amino]propyl}-2,5-dioxoimidazolidin-1-yl)-N-phenylbenzamide
-
-
4-chloromercuribenzoate
inhibits PAD3
4-[(2-chloroethanimidoyl)amino]-N-(diphenylmethyl)butanamide
-
-
5-aminosalicylic acid
-
-
antipain
-
8 mM, 41% inhibition
Azathioprine
-
-
azithromycin
-
-
BAPTA-AM
inhibits PAD2; inhibits PAD2
benzoyl-N-dimethyl-Arg
inhibits PAD4
benzoyl-N-methyl-Arg
inhibits PAD4
benzoyl-Ngamma,Ngamma-dimethyl-Arg
-
IC50: 0.4 mM
benzoyl-Ngamma-methyl-Arg
-
-
chloro-N-(3-{1-[(2'-chloro-3'-fluoro[1,1'-biphenyl]-3-yl)methyl]-2,5-dioxoimidazolidin-4-yl}propyl)ethanimidamide
-
-
chloro-N-(3-{1-[(2'-chloro[1,1'-biphenyl]-3-yl)methyl]-2,5-dioxoimidazolidin-4-yl}propyl)ethanimidamide
-
-
chloro-N-(3-{1-[(3'-fluoro[1,1'-biphenyl]-3-yl)methyl]-2,5-dioxoimidazolidin-4-yl}propyl)ethanimidamide
-
-
chloroamidine
chlortetracycline
-
-
Cl-amidine
clindamycin
-
-
Cys
-
25 mM, complete inhibition
F-amidine
interferon beta
inhibits PAD2
-
iodoacetamide
iodoacetate
L-canavanine
-
suicide substrate
leflunomide
-
-
Leupeptin
-
5 mM, complete inhibition
lipid vesicle
binding of substrate myelin basic protein to lipid vesicles, consisting of 7.8% phosphatidylserine and 92.2% phosphatidylcholine, increases deimination activity, but in the 40 mino acid C-terminal region, where the arginyl residues are no longer deiminated, while they are deiminated in aqueous solution; binding of substrate myelin basic protein to lipid vesicles, consisting of 7.8% phosphatidylserine and 92.2% phosphatidylcholine, increases deimination activity, but in the 40 mino acid C-terminal region, where the arginyl residues are no longer deiminated, while they are deiminated in aqueous solution
-
methotrexate
-
-
minocycline
-
a mixed type inhibitor
monoiodoacetate
-
-
N-(3-{1-[([1,1'-biphenyl]-3-yl)methyl]-2,5-dioxoimidazolidin-4-yl}propyl)(chloro)ethanimidamide
-
-
N-(biphenyl-3-ylmethyl)-4-[(2-chloroethanimidoyl)amino]butanamide
-
-
N-alpha-benzoyl-N5-(2-chloro-1-iminoethyl)-L-ornithine amide
N-alpha-benzoyl-N5-(2-chloro-1-iminoethyl)-L-ornithine ethyl ester
N-alpha-benzoyl-N5-(2-fluoro-1-iminoethyl)-L-ornithine amide
i.e. F-amidine, a potent and bioavailable irreversible inactivator of PAD4, structure of the PAD4-F-amidine-calcium complex, overview
N-[(1R)-1-(biphenyl-3-yl)ethyl]-4-[(2-chloroethanimidoyl)amino]butanamide
-
-
N-[(1S)-1-(biphenyl-3-yl)ethyl]-4-[(2-chloroethanimidoyl)amino]butanamide
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N-[(1S)-4-[(2-chloroethanimidoyl)amino]-1-(2H-tetrazol-5-yl)butyl]benzamide
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N-[(1S)-4-[(2-chloroethanimidoyl)amino]-1-(2H-tetrazol-5-yl)butyl][1,1'-biphenyl]-4-carboxamide
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N-[(1S)-4-[(2-fluoroethanimidoyl)amino]-1-(2H-tetrazol-5-yl)butyl]benzamide
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N-[(1S)-4-[(2-fluoroethanimidoyl)amino]-1-(2H-tetrazol-5-yl)butyl][1,1'-biphenyl]-4-carboxamide
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N-[(3'-bromobiphenyl-3-yl)methyl]-4-[(2-chloroethanimidoyl)amino]butanamide
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N-[3-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)propyl]-N'-{3-[(5-oxo-4-phenyl-1,2lambda~5~,5-oxadiazol-3-yl)oxy]propyl}guanidine hydrochloride
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36% inhibition at 0.01 mM
N-{(1S)-1-(2-tert-butyl-2H-tetrazol-5-yl)-4-[(2-chloroethanimidoyl)amino]butyl}benzamide
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N-{(1S)-1-(2-tert-butyl-2H-tetrazol-5-yl)-4-[(2-chloroethanimidoyl)amino]butyl}[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-carboxamide
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N-{(1S)-1-(2-tert-butyl-2H-tetrazol-5-yl)-4-[(2-fluoroethanimidoyl)amino]butyl}benzamide
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highly selective isoform PAD2 inhibitor; highly selective isoform PAD2 inhibitor; highly selective isoform PAD2 inhibitor; highly selective isoform PAD2 inhibitor
N-{(1S)-1-(2-tert-butyl-2H-tetrazol-5-yl)-4-[(2-fluoroethanimidoyl)amino]butyl}[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-carboxamide
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preferentially inhibits isoform PAD2 by 3 to 25fold with the highest selectivity being observed for PAD2 over PAD4; preferentially inhibits isoform PAD2 by 3 to 25fold with the highest selectivity being observed for PAD2 over PAD4; preferentially inhibits isoform PAD2 by 3 to 25fold with the highest selectivity being observed for PAD2 over PAD4; preferentially inhibits isoform PAD2 by 3 to 25fold with the highest selectivity being observed for PAD2 over PAD4
N-{(2S)-1-amino-5-[(2-chloroethanimidoyl)amino]-1-oxopentan-2-yl}benzamide
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N-{(2S)-1-amino-5-[(2-fluoroethanimidoyl)amino]-1-oxopentan-2-yl}benzamide
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N2-benzoyl-N5-(N,N-dimethylcarbamimidoyl)-L-ornithine
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inhibits PAD4 at high micromolar to millimolar concentrations
Nalpha-L-Arg methyl ester
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12.5 mM, 48% inhibition
oxalic acid 3-(N''-cyano-N'-{2-[({2-[(diaminomethylidene)amino]-1,3-thiazol-5-yl}methyl)sulfanyl]ethyl}carbamimidamido)propane-1,2-diyl dinitrate
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8% inhibition at 0.01 mM
oxalic acid 3-(N''-cyano-N'-{2-[({2-[(diaminomethylidene)amino]-1,3-thiazol-5-yl}methyl)sulfanyl]ethyl}carbamimidamido)propyl nitrate
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10% inhibition at 0.01 mM
oxalic acid 3-({2-[({5-[(dimethylamino)methyl]furan-2-yl}methyl)sulfanyl]ethyl}amino)-4-(methylamino)-1H-1lambda~4~,2,5-thiadiazol-1-one
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9% inhibition at 0.01 mM
paclitaxel
streptomycin
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a competitive inhibitor of PAD4
sulfamethoxazole
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sulfapyridine
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tetracycline
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thiocitrulline
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12.5 mM, complete inhibition
Thiourea
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50 mM, complete inhibition
tosyl-L-leucinechloromethyl ketone
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12.5 mM, 98% inhibition
trimethoprim
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additional information
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
dithiothreitol
lipid vesicle
binding of substrate myelin basic protein to lipid vesicles, consisting of 7.8% phosphatidylserine and 92.2% phosphatidylcholine, increases deimination activity, but in the 40 amino acid residue C-terminal region, where the arginyl residues are no longer deiminated, while they are deiminated in aqueous solution; binding of substrate myelin basic protein to lipid vesicles, consisting of 7.8% phosphatidylserine and 92.2% phosphatidylcholine, increases deimination activity, but in the 40 amino acid residue C-terminal region, where the arginyl residues are no longer deiminated, while they are deiminated in aqueous solution
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additional information
KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.11 - 0.18
2-acetyl-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys
0.32 - 0.36
3-acetyl-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys
0.3 - 0.95
Ac-Ala-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys
0.69 - 0.8
Ac-Ser-Ala-Arg-Gly-Lys
0.44 - 1.75
Ac-Ser-Gly-Ala-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Ala-Arg-His-Arg-Lys-Val
0.58
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Ala-Lys
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isozyme PAD1, at 37°C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
0.15 - 1.07
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-acetyl-Lys-Gly-Gly-acetyl-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-acetyl-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-acetyl-Lys
0.37
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Ala
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isozyme PAD1, at 37°C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol
0.86
Ac-Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly
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isozyme PAD4, at 37°C, 10 mM CaCl2, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol