Information on EC 3.5.1.38 - glutamin-(asparagin-)ase

New: Word Map on EC 3.5.1.38
Please wait a moment until all data is loaded. This message will disappear when all data is loaded.
Specify your search results
Mark a special word or phrase in this record:
Search Reference ID:
Select one or more organisms in this record:
Show additional data
Do not include text mining results
Include (text mining) results (more...)
Include results (AMENDA + additional results, but less precise; more...)


The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Bacteria, Eukaryota

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
3.5.1.38
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
glutamin-(asparagin-)ase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
L-glutamine + H2O = L-glutamate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
L-asparagine is hydrolysed at 0.8 of the rate of L-glutamine, the D-isomers are also hydrolysed, but more slowly
-
-
-
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
carboxylic acid amide hydrolysis
-
-
-
-
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
Alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism
-
-
Arginine biosynthesis
-
-
aspartate and asparagine metabolism
-
-
Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
-
-
D-Glutamine and D-glutamate metabolism
-
-
glutamate and glutamine metabolism
-
-
L-asparagine degradation I
-
-
L-asparagine degradation III (mammalian)
-
-
L-citrulline biosynthesis
-
-
L-glutamine degradation I
-
-
Metabolic pathways
-
-
superpathway of L-aspartate and L-asparagine biosynthesis
-
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
L-glutamine(L-asparagine) amidohydrolase
The enzyme from the bacterium Achromobacter hydrolyses L-asparagine at 0.8 of the rate of L-glutamine; the D-isomers are also hydrolysed, but more slowly. cf. EC 3.5.1.2, glutaminase and EC 3.5.1.1, asparaginase.
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
39335-03-0
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
NRRL3; strain NRRL3, highest activity in 4 days old nitrate-grown mats
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
NRRL3; strain NRRL3, highest activity in 4 days old nitrate-grown mats
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
3 forms: asparaginase-glutaminase, asparaginase A, asparaginase B
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
; nitrate-grown mat
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
; nitrate-grown mat
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Rhodosporidium toruloides
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Tilachlidium humicola
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
5-diazo-4-oxo-L-norvaline + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
aspartic acid + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
very low activity only for asparaginase B
-
-
?
beta-cyanoalanine + H2O
alanine + NH3
show the reaction diagram
beta-D-aspartyl hydroxylammonium sulfate + H2O
L-Asp + hydroxylammonium sulfate
show the reaction diagram
beta-L-aspartyl hydroxylammonium sulfate + H2O
L-Asp + hydroxylammonium sulfate
show the reaction diagram
D-asparagine + H2O
D-aspartate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
D-glutamine + H2O
D-glutamate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
gamma-L-glutamyl hydroxylammonium sulfate + H2O
L-glutamate + hydroxylammonium sulfate
show the reaction diagram
L-asparagine + H2O
L-aspartate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
L-glutamine + H2O
L-glutamate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
N-acetyl-L-asparagine + H2O
N-acetyl-L-aspartate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
N-carbamoyl-L-asparagine + H2O
N-carbamoyl-L-aspartate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
Rhodosporidium toruloides
-
-
-
?
N-glycyl-L-asparagine + H2O
N-glycyl-L-aspartate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
Rhodosporidium toruloides
-
60% higher activity than on L-asparagine
-
?
succinamic acid + H2O
succinate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
slow hydrolysis rate
-
?
additional information
?
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
L-asparagine + H2O
L-aspartate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
L-glutamine + H2O
L-glutamate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
-
-
glutaminase/asparaginase is downregulated during growth of the aauR mutant on Glu
-
-
-
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
Fe3+
Tilachlidium humicola
-
30% activation at 1 mM
Ni2+
Rhodosporidium toruloides
-
slightly enhanced activity
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
(NH4)2SO4
-
inhibition above 10 mM
2-Hydroxy-5-nitrobenzyl bromide
Rhodosporidium toruloides
-
40% inhibition at 10 mM, concentration-dependent, protection against inhibition in presence of substrate
5-diazo-4-oxo-D-norvaline
-
40% inhibition at 2 mM
5-Diazo-4-oxo-L-norvaline
6-diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine
acivicin
-
competitive inhibition
aspartic acid
-
competitive inhibition, Ki: glutaminase activity 0.16 mM, asparaginase activity 0.53 mM
azaserine
-
competitive not reversible inhibition of both activities
Bromocresol green
-
52-66% inhibition at 1 mM
Cu2+
Tilachlidium humicola
-
slight inhibition at 1 mM
D-asparagine
Tilachlidium humicola
-
mixed type of competitive and non-competitive inhibition, Ki: 7.2-8.4 mM
EDTA
Tilachlidium humicola
-
slight inhibition at 8 mM
glutamic acid
-
competitive inhibition, Ki: glutaminase acitvity 5 mM, asparaginase activity 3 mM
iodoacetamide
Rhodosporidium toruloides
-
slight inhibition
KCN
Tilachlidium humicola
-
slight inhibition at 8 mM
L-asparagine
-
competitive inhibition of glutaminase activity, Ki: 0.02 mM
L-methionine sulfoximine
-
competitive inhibition
N-bromosuccinimide
Rhodosporidium toruloides
-
concentration-dependent inhibition, 40% at 10 mM, protection against inhibition in presence of substrate
NaAsO2
Tilachlidium humicola
-
90% inhibition at 8 mM
NaF
Tilachlidium humicola
-
slight inhibition at 8 mM
NH4Cl
-
weak non-competitive inhibition of glutaminase activity
Ni2+
Tilachlidium humicola
-
33% inhibition at 1 mM
p-chloromercuribenzoate
Urea
Rhodosporidium toruloides
-
95% loss of activity in 2.25 M
additional information
-
no product inhibition
-
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
2-mercaptoethanol
Rhodosporidium toruloides
-
slight activation
cysteine
Rhodosporidium toruloides
-
slight activation
dithiothreitol
Rhodosporidium toruloides
-
slight activation
additional information
-
use of phosphate buffer yields higher activities than Tris, phthalate, or citrate buffer, optimum concentration is 0.08 - 0.16 M phosphate
-
KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.0026 - 2.57
L-asparagine
0.002 - 6.45
L-glutamine
10
N-acetyl-L-asparagine
Rhodosporidium toruloides
-
-
8
N-carbamoyl-L-asparagine
Rhodosporidium toruloides
-
-
2.4
N-glycyl-L-asparagine
Rhodosporidium toruloides
-
-
Ki VALUE [mM]
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.6
5-Diazo-4-oxo-L-norvaline
-
-
7.2 - 8.4
D-asparagine
Tilachlidium humicola
-
mixed type of competitive and non-competitive inhibition
0.02
L-asparagine
-
competitive inhibition of glutaminase activity
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
1.6
-
asparaginase B
17.2
Tilachlidium humicola
-
-
86
-
asparaginase activity
100
-
for L-asparagine
104
-
glutaminase activity
133
-
asparaginase A
2156
Rhodosporidium toruloides
-
glutaminase activity
10510
Rhodosporidium toruloides
-
asparaginase activity
additional information
-
intracellular amino acid levels of wild-type and mutant strains
pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
4
-
activity is higher in phosphate buffer than in citrate buffer
pH RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
5 - 7
Rhodosporidium toruloides
-
optimal range for asparaginase activity
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
37
Rhodosporidium toruloides
-
-
TEMPERATURE RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
37 - 55
Tilachlidium humicola
-
-
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
SOURCE
additional information
-
the organism is able to grow on asparagine and glutamine as sole carbon and nitrogen source
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
Tilachlidium humicola
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Rhodosporidium toruloides
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
PDB
SCOP
CATH
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
Pseudomonas sp. (strain ATCC 29598 / 7A)
Pseudomonas sp. (strain ATCC 29598 / 7A)
Pseudomonas sp. (strain ATCC 29598 / 7A)
Pseudomonas sp. (strain ATCC 29598 / 7A)
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
132000 - 138000
-
sedimentation equilibrium analysis
140000
156000
-
gel filtration
180000
Rhodosporidium toruloides
-
gel filtration
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
dimer
Rhodosporidium toruloides
-
2 * 87000, SDS-PAGE
tetramer
Crystallization/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
hanging drop vapor diffusion method, single subunit, 2 A resolution
-
hanging drop vapor diffusion method, in presence of inhibitors
-
molecular replacement method, 1.7 A resolution
-
molecular replacement method, 2.0 A resolution, 20-residue loop as part of the active site
-
pH STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
7
Rhodosporidium toruloides
-
complete inactivation
209094
7.2
Tilachlidium humicola
-
less stable than at pH 5.6 or pH 10
209101
7.4
-
70% activity
209097
TEMPERATURE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
37
Tilachlidium humicola
-
stable within 16 h between pH 4-10
40
-
30 min, about 10% loss of activity
51
-
asparaginase B, half-life: 10 min
60
-
30 min, about 70% loss of activity; incubation at 60C in the absence of substrate for 20 min causes a 70% increase in activity
GENERAL STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
stabilizing effect by addition of glycine and maintaining the pH to 9.0
Rhodosporidium toruloides
-
stabilizing effect during purification by sodium glutamate
-
STORAGE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
-10C, lyophilized to dryness in the presence of 50 mM Tris, 250 mM glycine, pH 9.0, 90% activity in 3 months
Rhodosporidium toruloides
-
4C, 12 months, asparaginase A, asparaginase B: DTT required, 6 months
-
4C, 50 mM borate buffer, pH 7.0, 100 mM NaCl, 1 mM EDTA, 3 to 4 months
-
activity is retained in the freezer for some months
-
Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
near homogeneity, recombinant enzyme
-
partial
Tilachlidium humicola
-
to crystalline form, 3step chromatography
-
to homogeneity
to homogeneity, 3step chromatography
-
to homogeneity, asparaginase A
-
to homogeneity, chromatography, preparative gel electrophoresis
Rhodosporidium toruloides
-
to homogeneity, improved purification by treatment with protamine sulfate, heating in the presence of stabilizer sodium glutamate
-
to homogeneous crystals
-
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
expression in Escherichia coli
-
ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
additional information
-
transposon mutagenesis with self-cloning promoter probe vector Tn5-OT182 for inactivation by disruption of gene gltB, gltB mutants lose the ability to utilize amino acids as carbon source, inactivation of gene gltB and other glutamate-induced genes by random mutagenesis, phenotype, overview
APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
drug development
Show AA Sequence (181 entries)
Please use the Sequence Search for a certain query.