Information on EC 3.2.1.3 - glucan 1,4-alpha-glucosidase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota, Bacteria, Archaea

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
3.2.1.3
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
glucan 1,4-alpha-glucosidase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
Hydrolysis of terminal (1->4)-linked alpha-D-glucose residues successively from non-reducing ends of the chains with release of beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
Hydrolysis of terminal (1->4)-linked alpha-D-glucose residues successively from non-reducing ends of the chains with release of beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
reaction mechanism depends on the substrate, i.e. hydrolysis or transglycosylation, overview
Q97ZD0, -
Hydrolysis of terminal (1->4)-linked alpha-D-glucose residues successively from non-reducing ends of the chains with release of beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
structure-function relationship, ligand binding
-
Hydrolysis of terminal (1->4)-linked alpha-D-glucose residues successively from non-reducing ends of the chains with release of beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
cleavage of alpha-1,4-linkages is preferred to cleavage of alpha-1,6-linkages
-
Hydrolysis of terminal (1->4)-linked alpha-D-glucose residues successively from non-reducing ends of the chains with release of beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
active site structure, catalytic residue is Tyr464, catalytic domain and raw starch binding site; active site structure, catalytic residue is Tyr464, catalytic domain and raw starch binding site
P08017, Q8TFE5
Hydrolysis of terminal (1->4)-linked alpha-D-glucose residues successively from non-reducing ends of the chains with release of beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
residue Trp622 is important in substrate binding rather than in determination of pH optimum, and probably does not interact with the catalytic base
-
Hydrolysis of terminal (1->4)-linked alpha-D-glucose residues successively from non-reducing ends of the chains with release of beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
mode of action
-
Hydrolysis of terminal (1->4)-linked alpha-D-glucose residues successively from non-reducing ends of the chains with release of beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
cleavage of alpha-1,4-linkages is preferred to cleavage of alpha-1,6-linkages
Aspergillus awamori X-100, Aspergillus niger NRRL 330, Aspergillus terreus NA-170, Aspergillus terreus NA-770
-
-
Hydrolysis of terminal (1->4)-linked alpha-D-glucose residues successively from non-reducing ends of the chains with release of beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
mode of action
Bacillus sp. J38
-
-
Hydrolysis of terminal (1->4)-linked alpha-D-glucose residues successively from non-reducing ends of the chains with release of beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
cleavage of alpha-1,4-linkages is preferred to cleavage of alpha-1,6-linkages
Monascus kaoliang F-1
-
-
Hydrolysis of terminal (1->4)-linked alpha-D-glucose residues successively from non-reducing ends of the chains with release of beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
active site structure, catalytic residue is Tyr464, catalytic domain and raw starch binding site
Saccharomycopsis fibuligera HUT 7212, Saccharomycopsis fibuligera IFO 0111
-
-
Hydrolysis of terminal (1->4)-linked alpha-D-glucose residues successively from non-reducing ends of the chains with release of beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
residue Trp622 is important in substrate binding rather than in determination of pH optimum, and probably does not interact with the catalytic base
Thermoactinomyces vulgaris R-47
-
-
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
hydrolysis
-
-
hydrolysis
-
-
hydrolysis of O-glycosyl bond
-
-
exohydrolysis
-
O-glycosyl bond hydrolysis
-
-
PATHWAY
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
glycogen degradation III
-
Metabolic pathways
-
Starch and sucrose metabolism
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
4-alpha-D-glucan glucohydrolase
Most forms of the enzyme can rapidly hydrolyse 1,6-alpha-D-glucosidic bonds when the next bond in the sequence is 1,4, and some preparations of this enzyme hydrolyse 1,6- and 1,3-alpha-D-glucosidic bonds in other polysaccharides. This entry covers all such enzymes acting on polysaccharides more rapidly than on oligosaccharides. EC 3.2.1.20 alpha-glucosidase, from mammalian intestine, can catalyse similar reactions.
SYNONYMS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
1,4-alpha-D-glucan glucohydrolase
-
-
-
-
1,4-alpha-D-glucan glucohydrolase
-
-
1,4-alpha-D-glucan-glucohydrolase
-
-
acid maltase
-
-
-
-
alpha-(1,4)-D-glucan glucohydrolase
-
-
alpha-1,4-D-glucan glucohydrolase
P08017, Q8TFE5
-
alpha-1,4-D-glucan glucohydrolase
Saccharomycopsis fibuligera HUT 7212
P08017
-
-
alpha-1,4-D-glucan glucohydrolase
Saccharomycopsis fibuligera IFO 0111
Q8TFE5
-
-
alpha-1,4-D-glucan glucohydrolase
-
-
alpha-1,4-D-glucan glucohydrolase
Thermomucor indicae-seudaticae CR19
-
-
-
alpha-1,4-glucan glucohydrolase
-
-
-
-
alpha-1,4-glucan glucohydrolase
-
-
alpha-1,4-glucan glucohydrolase
Aspergillus niger NIAB 280
-
-
-
alpha-1,4-glucan glucohydrolase
-
-
alpha-1,4-glucan glucohydrolase
Rhizopus oryzae 99-880
-
-
-
AmyC
Rhizopus oryzae 99-880
-
-
-
AmyD
Rhizopus oryzae 99-880
-
-
-
amyloglucosidase
-
-
-
-
amyloglucosidase
Aspergillus awamori X-100
-
-
-
amyloglucosidase
-
-
amyloglucosidase
-
-
amyloglucosidase
Aspergillus niger NIAB 280, Aspergillus niger NRRL 330
-
-
-
amyloglucosidase
Aspergillus terreus NA-170, Aspergillus terreus NA-770
-
-
-
amyloglucosidase
Monascus kaoliang F-1
-
-
-
amyloglucosidase
-
-
amyloglucosidase
-
-
amyloglucosidase
Rhizopus oryzae 99-880
-
-
-
amyloglucosidase
Rhizopus sp.
-
-
amyloglucosidase
-
-
amyloglucosidase
-
-
APGA1
E2GDF4
gene name
APGA1
Aureobasidium pullulans NRRL 12974
E2GDF4
gene name
-
exo-1,4-alpha-D-glucan glucanohydrolase
Arachniotus citrinus
-
-
exo-1,4-alpha-D-glucanohydrolase
-
-
exo-1,4-alpha-glucosidase
-
-
-
-
exo-1,4-alpha-glucosidase
-
-
exo-amylase
-
-
GA
Aspergillus awamori 466, Aspergillus awamori X-100
-
-
-
GA
Aspergillus coreanus NR
-
-
-
GA
Aspergillus niger NRRL 330
-
-
-
GA
Aspergillus terreus NA-170, Aspergillus terreus NA-770
-
-
-
GA
Bacillus sp. J38
-
-
-
GA
Monascus kaoliang F-1
-
-
-
GA
Rhizopus sp.
-
-
GA
Thermoactinomyces vulgaris R-47
-
;
-
GAI
-
-
-
-
GAII
-
-
-
-
GAM
Aspergillus niger NIAB 280
-
-
-
gamma-amylase
-
-
-
-
gamma-amylase
Aspergillus awamori X-100
-
-
-
gamma-amylase
Aspergillus niger NRRL 330
-
-
-
gamma-amylase
Aspergillus terreus NA-170, Aspergillus terreus NA-770
-
-
-
gamma-amylase
-
-
gamma-amylase
-
-
gamma-amylase
-
-
gamma-amylase
Monascus kaoliang F-1
-
-
-
gamma-amylase
-
-
GlaA
P69328
-
GLL1
Saccharomycopsis fibuligera R64
-
-
-
Glu-1.1
Saccharomycopsis fibuligera IFO 0111
Q8TFE5
-
-
Glu-A
Saccharomycopsis fibuligera HUT 7212
P08017
-
-
Glu1
Saccharomycopsis fibuligera HUT 7212
P08017
-
-
Glucan 1,4-alpha-glucosidase
-
-
-
-
Glucan 1,4-alpha-glucosidase
P08017, Q8TFE5
-
Glucan 1,4-alpha-glucosidase
Saccharomycopsis fibuligera HUT 7212
P08017
-
-
Glucan 1,4-alpha-glucosidase
Saccharomycopsis fibuligera IFO 0111
Q8TFE5
-
-
glucoamylase
-
-
-
-
glucoamylase
Arachniotus citrinus
-
-
glucoamylase
P69327
-
glucoamylase
Aspergillus awamori C468, Aspergillus awamori X-100, Aspergillus awamori X100
-
-
-
glucoamylase
-
-
glucoamylase
Aspergillus coreanus NR
-
-
-
glucoamylase
-
-
glucoamylase
-
-
glucoamylase
P69328
-
glucoamylase
Aspergillus niger A-7420, Aspergillus niger NIAB 280, Aspergillus niger NRRL 330
-
-
-
glucoamylase
-
-
glucoamylase
P36914
-
glucoamylase
-
-
glucoamylase
Aspergillus terreus NA-170, Aspergillus terreus NA-770
-
-
-
glucoamylase
E2GDF4
-
glucoamylase
Aureobasidium pullulans NRRL 12974
E2GDF4
-
-
glucoamylase
-
-
glucoamylase
Bacillus sp. J38
-
-
-
glucoamylase
-
-
glucoamylase
Candida antarctica, Cephalosporium eichhorniae, Ceratocystis paradoxa
-
-
glucoamylase
Q0H9W2
-
glucoamylase
Chaetomium thermophilum CT2
Q0H9W2
-
-
glucoamylase
Emericella nidulans, Endomycopsis fibuligera
-
-
glucoamylase
endophytic fungus EF6
-
-
glucoamylase
-
-
glucoamylase
Humicola sp.
-
-
glucoamylase
Q599K8
-
glucoamylase
-
-
glucoamylase
-
-
glucoamylase
-
-
glucoamylase
-
-
glucoamylase
-
-
glucoamylase
Monascus kaoliang F-1
-
-
-
glucoamylase
-
-
glucoamylase
Monascus sp., Mucor circinelloides
-
-
glucoamylase
-
-
glucoamylase
Mucor rouxians
-
-
glucoamylase
-
-
glucoamylase
Q6KYX5
-
glucoamylase
P07683
-
glucoamylase
Q2VC81
-
glucoamylase
Rhizopus oryzae 99-880
-
-
-
glucoamylase
Rhizopus sp.
-
-
glucoamylase
-
-
-
glucoamylase
P08017, Q8TFE5
-
glucoamylase
Saccharomycopsis fibuligera HUT 7212
P08017
-
-
glucoamylase
Saccharomycopsis fibuligera IFO 0111
Q8TFE5
-
-
glucoamylase
Saccharomycopsis fibuligera R64
-
-
-
glucoamylase
Schwanniomyces castellii
-
-
glucoamylase
-
-
glucoamylase
Q97ZD0
-
glucoamylase
Thermoactinomyces vulgaris R-47
-
-
-
glucoamylase
Thermomucor indicae-seudaticae CR19
-
-
-
glucoamylase
-
-
glucoamylase
Q58HN1
-
glucoamylase 1
-
-
glucoamylase 2
-
lacks a starch binding domain
glucoamylase C
-
-
glucoamylase D
-
-
glucoamylase G1
-
-
glucoamylase G1
P69328
-
glucoamylase G1
-
-
glucose amylase
-
-
-
-
lysosomal alpha-glucosidase
-
-
-
-
maltase-glucoamylase
-
-
maltooligosaccharide-metabolizing enzyme
-
-
maltooligosaccharide-metabolizing enzyme
Thermoactinomyces vulgaris R-47
-
;
-
Meiotic expression upregulated protein 17
-
-
-
-
SBD
Q8TG09
glucoamylase starch binding domain
SBD
Aspergillus niger B1
Q8TG09
glucoamylase starch binding domain
-
tGA
Thermoactinomyces vulgaris R-47
-
-
-
additional information
-
the enzyme belongs to the glycoside hydrolase family 15
additional information
-
the enzyme belongs to the glycosyl hydrolase family 31
additional information
-
the enzyme is a family 31 glycoside hydrolase
additional information
-
the enzyme belongs to the family 15 glycoside hydrolase
additional information
-
the enzyme belongs to the glycohydrolase family 21
additional information
Q2VC81
the enzyme belongs to the carbohydrate-binding module family 21
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY
9032-08-0
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SEQUENCE CODE
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
Arachniotus citrinus
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Arachniotus sp.
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene of glucoamylase from Aspergillus awamori integrated into genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
recombinantly enzyme-overexpressing strain
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 466
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain X-100; var. kawachi
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
var. X-100/D27
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
var. X100
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
wild-type and mutant enzyme C320A/E400C
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Aspergillus awamori 466
strain 466
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Aspergillus awamori C468
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Aspergillus awamori X-100
strain X-100
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Aspergillus awamori X100
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Link var. aureus, higher yielding mutant and parent strain
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain NR 15-1, the traditional Korean Nuruk fungi, two isozymes GA-I and GA-II
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Aspergillus coreanus NR
strain NR 15-1, the traditional Korean Nuruk fungi, two isozymes GA-I and GA-II
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
two isozymes
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Aspergillus flavus HBF34
two isozymes
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
at least six isozymes, several strains, e.g. strain NRRL 330; strain NRRL 330
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
free and immobilized enzyme
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
G1 isoform
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GlaA; strain DSM 823, gene glaA
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
glucoamylase II
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
locally isolated Aspergillus niger, wild-type and deoxy-D-glucose-resistant mutant
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain A-7420
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain B1
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain NIAB 280
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
wild-type strain NIAB 280 and M115 mutant
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Aspergillus niger A-7420
strain A-7420
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Aspergillus niger B1
strain B1
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Aspergillus niger NIAB 280
strain NIAB 280
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Aspergillus niger NRRL 330
strain NRRL 330
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene glaB
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
RIB-40, glucoamylase I, II and III
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain NA-170; strain NA-770
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Aspergillus terreus 4
strain 4
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Aspergillus terreus NA-170
strain NA-170
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Aspergillus terreus NA-770
strain NA-770
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strains 643.92 and 127.49, high identity with Aspergillus niger strain DSM 823
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
AHU 9627
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Athelia rolfsii AHU 9627
AHU 9627
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
marine yeast, strain N13d isolated from deep sea of Pacific Ocean
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Aureobasidium pullulans NRRL 12974
gene APGA1
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain J38
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus sp. J38
strain J38
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Blastobotrys adeninivorans LS3
LS3
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
CBS 6678
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Candida antarctica CBS 6678
CBS 6678
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Cephalosporium charticola
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Cephalosporium eichhorniae
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain CT2, a soil-borne thermophilic fungus, gene gla
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Chaetomium thermophilum CT2
strain CT2, a soil-borne thermophilic fungus, gene gla
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Endomycopsis fibuligera
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Endomycopsis fibuligera
strain Y1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Endomycopsis fibuligera Y1
strain Y1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
endophytic fungus EF6
isolated from Thai medicinal plants
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Humicola sp.
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
i.e. Hypocrea lixii, strain CECT 2413, gene gla66
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
CBS 5608 mutant
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
nov-sp. F-1; strain F-1, two active forms
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Monascus kaoliang F-1
strain F-1, two active forms
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
high glucoamylase-producing strain RY3410, two isozymes GA-I and GA-II
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Monascus rubiginosus
enzyme forms E1, E2, E3, E4, E4' and E5
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Monascus sp.
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Monascus sp.
No. 3403
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Monascus sp. 3403
No. 3403
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mucor rouxians
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mucor rouxianus
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mucor rouxianus
2 enzyme forms: glucoamylase I and II
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Myrothecium sp.
strain M1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Myrothecium sp. M1
strain M1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
hyperproducer exo-1 mutant strain
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Paecilomyces variotii AHU 9417
AHU 9417
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Pseudozyma tsukubaensis CBS 6389
CBS 6389
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
; isozymes glucoamylase C and D
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
integration of the glucoamylase gene from Rhizopus oryzae into genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
two enzymes AmyC and AmyD, genes amyC or amyD
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Rhizopus oryzae 99-880
two enzymes AmyC and AmyD, genes amyC or amyD
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strains DI-10, DI-11, and DI-20
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
var. diastaticus
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Saccharomyces cerevisiae 1ab
1ab
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
an amylolytic strain, gene STA1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene STA1, different strains
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Glu-1.1 precursor; strain IFO 0111
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Glu1 precursor; strain HUT 7212
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Saccharomycopsis fibuligera HUT 7212
Glu1 precursor; strain HUT 7212
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Saccharomycopsis fibuligera IFO 0111
Glu-1.1 precursor; strain IFO 0111
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Saccharomycopsis fibuligera R64
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Schwanniomyces castellii
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
thermophilic fungus
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Thermoactinomyces vulgaris R-47
strain R-47
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
thermophilic mold
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Thermomucor indicae-seudaticae CR19
CR19
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
precursor; gene gla1
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Thermomyces lanuginosus ML-M
ML-M
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain DSM 1728, gene taGA
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
soil-borne thermophilic fungus, synonym, allescheria terrestris
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
physiological function
-
enzyme hydrolyses glycogen to meet the energy requirements during asexual development
physiological function
P69328
glucoamylase is an exoglucohydrolase that primarily catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-1,4 glycosidic linkages in raw starch and soluble oligosaccharides to generate beta-D-glucose
physiological function
-
glucoamylase is an exo-acting enzyme that catalyses the production of beta-glucose from the non-reducing ends of amylose, amylopectin and glycogen
physiological function
-
glucoamylase enzymes catalyze hydrolysis of alpha(1-4) glycosidic bonds to release D-glucose residues from the non-reducing ends of starch and oligosaccharides. Glucoamylase also has limited ability to release D-glucose residues by promoting hydrolysis of alpha(1-6) linkages of amylopectin
physiological function
Aspergillus flavus HBF34
-
glucoamylase is an exo-acting enzyme that catalyses the production of beta-glucose from the non-reducing ends of amylose, amylopectin and glycogen
-
physiological function
Rhizopus oryzae 99-880
-
glucoamylase enzymes catalyze hydrolysis of alpha(1-4) glycosidic bonds to release D-glucose residues from the non-reducing ends of starch and oligosaccharides. Glucoamylase also has limited ability to release D-glucose residues by promoting hydrolysis of alpha(1-6) linkages of amylopectin
-
additional information
-
the replacement of native beta-glucosidase Bgl1 signal peptide by that of Sta1, SPS-Bgl1, increases the production of the enzyme by about threefold without affecting the ratio between the values of activity associated to cells and free in the medium
additional information
-
the replacement of native beta-glucosidase Bgl1 signal peptide by that of Sta1, SPS-Bgl1, increases the production of the enzyme by about threefold without affecting the ratio between the values of activity associated to cells and free in the medium
-
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                      
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
3-alpha-maltosylglucose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4 glucose
glucooligosaccharide + 3 H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
reversion or condensation reactions are observed when glucoamylase is incubated with 10% glucose
-
-
r
4-alpha-nigerosyl-glucose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-methylumbelliferyl-alpha-D-glucoside + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl alpha-D-glucopyranoside + H2O
4-nitrophenyl + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl beta-D-glucopyranoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl D-glucose
4-nitrophenol + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl-D-glucopyranoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
6-alpha-maltosylglucose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
alpha-alpha-trehalose + H2O
alpha-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
alpha-cyclodextrin + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
alpha-cyclodextrin + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
no activity
-
-
-
alpha-cyclodextrin + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
6% of the activity with maltose
-
-
?
alpha-cyclodextrin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
alpha-cyclodextrin + H2O
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
alpha-cyclodextrin + H2O
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
alpha-D-glucopyranosyl fluoride + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
alpha-limit dextrin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
amylodextrin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
amylodextrin DP-15
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
amylopectin + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
amylopectin + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
Mucor rouxianus
-
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
Mucor rouxianus
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
Rhizopus sp.
-
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
Cephalosporium eichhorniae
-
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
Cephalosporium charticola
-
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
beta-glucose
?
amylopectin + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
85% of activity with starch
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
Cephalosporium charticola
-
84% of the activity with starch
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
Athelia rolfsii AHU 9627
-
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
Candida antarctica CBS 6678
-
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
Thermomyces lanuginosus ML-M
-
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
Saccharomyces cerevisiae 1ab
-
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
Aspergillus terreus 4
-
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
Pseudozyma tsukubaensis CBS 6389
-
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
Paecilomyces variotii AHU 9417
-
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
E2GDF4
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
best substrate, from potatoes or corn
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Aureobasidium pullulans NRRL 12974
E2GDF4
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
100% of activity with soluble starch from potato
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
104% of activity with soluble starch from potato
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
933% of activity with soluble starch
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
amylopectin + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
amylopectin + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
preferred substrate
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
amylopectin + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Q58HN1
94% of activity with amylose
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
amylopectin + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
exoglycosidic hydrolysis of terminal glucose, best substrate
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
high activity
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Q6KYX5
potato amylopectin
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
amylose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
Mucor rouxianus
-
-
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
amylose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
Cephalosporium eichhorniae
-
-
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
Cephalosporium charticola
-
-
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
Myrothecium sp.
-
-
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
Mucor rouxianus
-
-
beta-glucose
?
amylose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
beta-glucose
?
amylose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
beta-glucose
-
amylose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
Cephalosporium charticola
-
61% of the activity with starch
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
93% of the activity with starch
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
31% of the activity with starch
-
-
-
amylose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
short-chain
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
Athelia rolfsii AHU 9627
-
-
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
Candida antarctica CBS 6678
-
short-chain
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
Myrothecium sp. M1
-
-
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
Aspergillus terreus 4
-
-
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
Pseudozyma tsukubaensis CBS 6389
-
-
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
Paecilomyces variotii AHU 9417
-
-
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
E2GDF4
-
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
low activity
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Aureobasidium pullulans NRRL 12974
E2GDF4
-
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
13% of activity with starch
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
60% of activity with soluble starch from potato
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
63% of activity with soluble starch from potato
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
74% of activity with soluble starch from potato
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
187% of activity with soluble starch
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Q6KYX5
potato amylose type III
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
amylose + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
low activity
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
amylose + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Q58HN1
preferred substrate
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
amylose + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
exoglycosidic hydrolysis of terminal glucose
-
-
?
beta-cyclodextrin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
beta-cyclodextrin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
no activity
-
-
-
beta-cyclodextrin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
6% of the activity with maltose
-
-
?
beta-cyclodextrin + H2O
beta-cyclodextrin + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
curcumin + beta-D-glucose
curcuminyl bis-alpha-D-glucoside + 6-O-curcuminyl bis-D-glucose + curcuminyl bis-beta-D-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
Rhizopus sp.
-
i.e. 1E,6E-1,7-di(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione
-
-
?
curcumin + D-mannitol
1-O-curcuminyl bis-D-mannitol
show the reaction diagram
Rhizopus sp.
-
i.e. 1E,6E-1,7-di(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione
-
-
?
curcumin + D-mannose
curcuminyl bis-alpha-D-mannoside + curcuminyl bis-maltoside + 6-O-curcuminyl bis-maltose + 6''-O-curcuminyl bis-maltose
show the reaction diagram
Rhizopus sp.
-
i.e. 1E,6E-1,7-di(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione
-
-
?
curcumin + sucrose
1-O-curcuminyl bis-sucrose + 6''-O-curcuminyl bis-sucrose + 6-O-curcuminyl bis-sucrose
show the reaction diagram
Rhizopus sp.
-
i.e. 1E,6E-1,7-di(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione
-
-
?
curcumin-bis-alpha-D-glucoside + H2O
curcumin + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Rhizopus sp.
-
the enzyme also performs glucosylation of curcumin-bis-alpha-D-glucoside in the reverse reaction
-
-
r
D-glucooligomer + H2O
D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
D-malto-oligosaccharides + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
low activity
-
-
?
dextran + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
dextran + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
no activity
-
-
-
dextrin + 6 H2O
7 beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
84% of activity with soluble starch from potato
-
-
?
dextrin + 6 H2O
7 beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
89% of activity with soluble starch from potato
-
-
?
dextrin + 6 H2O
7 beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
91% of activity with soluble starch from potato
-
-
?
dextrin + 6 H2O
7 D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
dextrin + 6 H2O
7 D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Q6KYX5
-
-
-
?
dextrin + 6 H2O
7 D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme performs hydrolytic cleavage of terminal alpha-glycosyl residues from starch and dextrin molecules
-
-
?
dextrin + 6 H2O
7 D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
O43451
a mixture of shorter linear and branched dextrin chains is hydrolyzed at the nonreducing ends into glucose
-
-
?
dextrin + 6 H2O
7 D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
potato dextrin
-
-
?
dextrin + 6 H2O
7 D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
potato dextrin, the enzyme performs hydrolytic cleavage of terminal alpha-glycosyl residues from starch and dextrin molecules
-
-
?
dextrin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
dextrin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
dextrin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
dextrin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
dextrin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
dextrin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
dextrin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
dextrin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
beta-limit dextrin
-
-
-
dextrin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
beta-limit dextrin
-
-
?
dextrin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
beta-limit dextrin
-
-
-
dextrin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
beta-limit dextrin
-
-
?
dextrin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Thermomucor indicae-seudaticae CR19
-
-
-
-
?
dextrin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Thermomyces lanuginosus ML-M
-
-
-
-
?
dextrin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Saccharomyces cerevisiae 1ab
-
-
-
-
?
dextrin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Pseudozyma tsukubaensis CBS 6389
-
-
-
-
?
dextrin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Paecilomyces variotii AHU 9417
-
beta-limit dextrin
-
-
?
dextrin + H2O
dextrin + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
eugenol + beta-D-glucose
eugenyl alpha-D-glucoside + 6-O-eugenyl D-glucose + eugenyl beta-D-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
Rhizopus sp.
-
i.e. 4-allyl-2-methoxy phenol
-
-
?
eugenol + D-mannitol
1-O-eugenyl mannitol
show the reaction diagram
Rhizopus sp.
-
i.e. 4-allyl-2-methoxy phenol
-
-
?
eugenol + D-mannose
eugenyl alpha-D-mannoside
show the reaction diagram
Rhizopus sp.
-
i.e. 4-allyl-2-methoxy phenol
-
-
?
eugenol + maltose
eugenyl maltoside + 6-O-eugenyl maltose + 6''-O-eugenyl maltose
show the reaction diagram
Rhizopus sp.
-
-
-
-
-
eugenol + sucrose
1-O-eugenyl sucrose + 6-O-eugenyl sucrose + 6''-O-eugenyl sucrose
show the reaction diagram
Rhizopus sp.
-
i.e. 4-allyl-2-methoxy phenol
-
-
?
gamma-cyclodextrin + H2O
gamma-cyclodextrin + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
glycogen + 3 H2O
4 beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
glycogen + 3 H2O
4 beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
103% of activity with soluble starch from potato
-
-
?
glycogen + 3 H2O
4 beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
150% of activity with starch
-
-
?
glycogen + 3 H2O
4 beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
90% of activity with soluble starch from potato
-
-
?
glycogen + 3 H2O
4 beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
96% of activity with soluble starch from potato
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
glycogen + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
Mucor rouxianus
-
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
glycogen + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
Endomycopsis fibuligera
-
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
beta-glucose
-
glycogen + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
shellfish glycogen, sweet-corn phytoglycogen, skate liver glycogen, human muscle glycogen, rabbit muscle glycogen, cat liver glycogen, cat liver glycogen. Incomplete conversion to glucose in absence of alpha-amylase
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
82% of the activity with starch
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
amylose A, n = 25 and amylose B, n = 130
-
?
glycogen + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
Athelia rolfsii AHU 9627
-
-
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
Candida antarctica CBS 6678
-
-
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
Endomycopsis fibuligera Y1
-
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
Blastobotrys adeninivorans LS3
-
-
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
Thermomyces lanuginosus ML-M
-
-
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
Saccharomyces cerevisiae 1ab
-
-
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
Pseudozyma tsukubaensis CBS 6389
-
-
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
Paecilomyces variotii AHU 9417
-
-
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Aureobasidium pullulans, Aureobasidium pullulans NRRL 12974
E2GDF4
-
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
glycogen + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
glycogen + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Q58HN1
87% of activity with amylose
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
glycogen + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
exoglycosidic hydrolysis of terminal glucose
-
-
?
guaiacol-alpha-D-glucoside + H2O
guaiacol + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Rhizopus sp.
-
the enzyme also performs glucosylation of guaiacol-alpha-D-glucoside in the reverse reaction
-
-
r
isomaltoheptaose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
isomaltoheptaose + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
isomaltohexaose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
isomaltohexaose + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
isomaltopentaose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
isomaltopentaose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
isomaltopentaose + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
isomaltose
isomaltooligosaccharide
show the reaction diagram
-
reversion or condensation reactions are observed when glucoamylase is incubated with 10% isomaltose
-
-
r
isomaltose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
isomaltose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
isomaltose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
isomaltose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
isomaltose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
isomaltose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
isomaltose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
isomaltose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
isomaltose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
10% of the activity with starch
-
-
?
isomaltose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
assay at pH 5.5, 40C
-
-
?
isomaltose + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
isomaltose + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Q9C1V4, -
-
-
-
r
isomaltose + H2O
D-glucose + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
assay at pH 5.0, 75C, reaction stopped by boiling at 100C for 3 min
-
-
?
isomaltotetraose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
isomaltotetraose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
isomaltotetraose + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
isomaltotriose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
isomaltotriose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
isomaltotriose + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
isomaltotriose + H2O
? + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
kojibiose + H2O
alpha-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltodextrin + H2O
beta-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
maltodextrin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
corn maltodextrin
-
-
?
maltodextrin + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltodextrin + H2O
maltodextrin + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
during incubation 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furfuraldehyde is released, resulting in a glycated enzyme
-
-
?
maltodextrin + H2O
D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
from corn mash
-
-
?
maltoheptaose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltoheptaose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltoheptaose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltoheptaose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltoheptaose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltoheptaose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltoheptaose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltoheptaose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltoheptaose + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltoheptaose + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Q9C1V4, -
-
-
-
?
maltoheptaose + H2O
maltohexaose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltoheptaose + H2O
maltohexaose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, Thermoactinomyces vulgaris R-47
-
-
-
-
?
maltoheptaose + H2O
D-glucose + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
assay at pH 5.0, 75C, reaction stopped by boiling at 100C for 3 min
-
-
?
maltohexaose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltohexaose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltohexaose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltohexaose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltohexaose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltohexaose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltohexaose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltohexaose + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltohexaose + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltohexaose + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltohexaose + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Rhizopus oryzae 99-880
-
-
-
-
?
maltohexaose + H2O
maltopentaose + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltohexaose + H2O
D-glucose + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
assay at pH 5.0, 75C, reaction stopped by boiling at 100C for 3 min
-
-
?
maltononaose + H2O
maltooctaose + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltooctaose + H2O
maltoheptaose + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, Thermoactinomyces vulgaris R-47
-
-
-
-
?
maltooligomers + H2O
? + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Q97ZD0, -
substrate specificity
-
-
r
maltooligosaccharide + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
49% of activity with soluble starch from potato
-
-
?
maltooligosaccharide + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
54% of activity with soluble starch from potato
-
-
?
maltooligosaccharide + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
55% of activity with soluble starch from potato
-
-
?
maltooligosaccharides + H2O
maltooligosaccharides + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, Thermoactinomyces vulgaris R-47
-
high activity
-
-
?
maltopentadecaose + H2O
maltotetradecaose + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
low activity
-
-
?
maltopentaose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltopentaose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltopentaose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
maltopentaose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltopentaose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltopentaose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltopentaose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltopentaose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltopentaose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltopentaose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltopentaose + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltopentaose + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltopentaose + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltopentaose + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
low activity
-
-
?
maltopentaose + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Rhizopus oryzae 99-880
-
-
-
-
?
maltopentaose + H2O
maltotetraose + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltopentaose + H2O
maltotetraose + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
preferred substrate
-
-
?
maltopentaose + H2O
maltotetraose + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
exoglycosidic hydrolysis of terminal glucose
-
-
?
maltopentaose + H2O
D-glucose + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
assay at pH 5.0, 75C, reaction stopped by boiling at 100C for 3 min
-
-
?
maltose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
maltose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
Mucor rouxianus
-
-
-
-
?
maltose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
maltose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
maltose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
Myrothecium sp.
-
-
-
-
?
maltose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
40% of the activity with starch
-
-
?
maltose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
Cephalosporium charticola
-
19% of the activity with starch
-
-
-
maltose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
Candida antarctica CBS 6678
-
-
-
-
?
maltose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
Myrothecium sp. M1
-
-
-
-
?
maltose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
Blastobotrys adeninivorans LS3
-
-
-
-
?
maltose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
Saccharomyces cerevisiae 1ab
-
-
-
-
?
maltose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
Pseudozyma tsukubaensis CBS 6389
-
-
-
-
?
maltose + H2O
D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltose + H2O
D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Q6KYX5
-
-
-
?
maltose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Thermomucor indicae-seudaticae, Thermomucor indicae-seudaticae CR19
-
-
-
-
?
maltose + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltose + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltose + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltose + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
P69327
-
-
-
?
maltose + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltose + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltose + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltose + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Q9C1V4, -
-
-
-
r
maltose + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltose + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
product analysis
-
?
maltose + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
17% of activity with soluble starch from potato
-
-
?
maltose + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
2% of activity with soluble starch from potato
-
-
?
maltose + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
24% of activity with soluble starch from potato
-
-
?
maltose + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Q58HN1
14% of activity with amylose
-
-
?
maltose + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
substrate of isozyme GA-II, no activity with isozyme GA-I
-
-
?
maltose + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus sp. J38
-
-
product analysis
-
?
maltose + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Thermoactinomyces vulgaris R-47
-
-
-
-
?
maltose + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Rhizopus oryzae 99-880
-
-
-
-
?
maltose + H2O
beta-D-glucoseglucose
show the reaction diagram
-
2% of activity with soluble starch from potato
-
-
?
maltose + H2O
2 D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltose + H2O
D-glucose + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltose + H2O
D-glucose + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
assay at pH 5.0, 75C, reaction stopped by boiling at 100C for 3 min
-
-
?
maltotetraose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltotetraose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltotetraose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
maltotetraose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltotetraose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltotetraose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltotetraose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltotetraose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltotetraose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltotetraose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltotetraose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Cephalosporium charticola
-
-
-
-
?
maltotetraose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Cephalosporium charticola
-
60% of the activity with maltose
-
-
?
maltotetraose + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltotetraose + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltotetraose + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltotetraose + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
low activity
-
-
?
maltotetraose + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Rhizopus oryzae 99-880
-
-
-
-
?
maltotetraose + H2O
D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Q6KYX5
-
-
-
?
maltotetraose + H2O
maltotriose + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltotetraose + H2O
maltotriose + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
preferred substrate
-
-
?
maltotetraose + H2O
maltotriose + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
exoglycosidic hydrolysis of terminal glucose
-
-
?
maltotetraose + H2O
maltotriose + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Thermoactinomyces vulgaris R-47
-
-
-
-
?
maltotetraose + H2O
D-glucose + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
assay at pH 5.0, 75C, reaction stopped by boiling at 100C for 3 min
-
-
?
maltotriose + 2 H2O
3 beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltotriose + 2 H2O
3 beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltotriose + 2 H2O
3 beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltotriose + 2 H2O
3 beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltotriose + 2 H2O
3 beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltotriose + 2 H2O
3 beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Rhizopus oryzae 99-880
-
-
-
-
?
maltotriose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltotriose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltotriose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltotriose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltotriose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltotriose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltotriose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltotriose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
Mucor rouxianus
-
-
-
-
?
maltotriose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
maltotriose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltotriose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
maltotriose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltotriose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltotriose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltotriose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltotriose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
Cephalosporium charticola
-
-
-
-
?
maltotriose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
Myrothecium sp.
-
-
-
-
?
maltotriose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
Cephalosporium charticola
-
47% of the activity with starch
-
-
?
maltotriose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
68% of the activity with starch
-
-
?
maltotriose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
hydrolysis by a multi-chain mechanism
-
-
?
maltotriose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
46% of the activity with starch
-
-
?
maltotriose + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
Myrothecium sp. M1
-
-
-
-
?
maltotriose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltotriose + H2O
D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Q6KYX5
-
-
-
?
maltotriose + H2O
maltose + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltotriose + H2O
maltose + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltotriose + H2O
maltose + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Q58HN1
40% of activity with amylose
-
-
?
maltotriose + H2O
maltose + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
exoglycosidic hydrolysis of terminal glucose
-
-
?
maltotriose + H2O
maltose + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Q97ZD0, -
exoglycosidic hydrolysis of terminal glucose in forward reaction, preferred substrate, synthesis of isomaltose from beta-D-glucose in the reverse reaction with low activity
anomeric product configuration analysis at 80C
-
r
maltotriose + H2O
D-glucose + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
assay at pH 5.0, 75C, reaction stopped by boiling at 100C for 3 min
-
-
?
methyl-alpha-D-glucoside + H2O
methanol + alpha-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
methyl-alpha-D-glucoside + H2O
methanol + alpha-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
no activity
-
-
-
nigerose + H2O
2 alpha-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
nigerose + H2O
2 alpha-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
nigerose + H2O
2 alpha-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl alpha-D-glucoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + alpha-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl alpha-D-glucoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + alpha-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl alpha-D-glucoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + alpha-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl alpha-D-glucoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + alpha-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
6% of the activity with maltose
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Q12537
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-glucose + H2O
p-nitrophenol + alpha-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
12% of activity with starch
-
-
?
panose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
panose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
panose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
panose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
panose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
panose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
panose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
14% of the activity with starch
-
-
?
pectin + H2O
pectin + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phenyl alpha-glucoside + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
phenyl alpha-maltoside + H2O
glucose + phenyl alpha-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phenyl alpha-maltoside + H2O
glucose + phenyl alpha-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phenyl alpha-maltoside + H2O
glucose + phenyl alpha-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
Mucor rouxianus
-
-
-
?
phenyl alpha-maltoside + H2O
glucose + phenyl alpha-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
pullulan + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
pullulan + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
pullulan + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
pullulan + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
no activity
-
-
-
pullulan + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
no activity
-
-
-
pullulan + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
low activity
-
-
?
pullulan + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
1.46% of the activity with starch
-
-
?
pullulan + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
52% of the activity with starch
-
-
?
pullulan + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
assay at pH 5.5, 40C
-
-
?
pullulan + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Thermomucor indicae-seudaticae CR19
-
-
-
-
?
pullulan + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
182% of activity with soluble starch
-
-
?
pullulan + H2O
pullulan + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
exoglycosidic hydrolysis of terminal glucose
-
-
?
raw potato starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
E2GDF4
-
-
-
?
soluble potato starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus flavus HBF34
-
-
-
-
?
soluble starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
soluble starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
soluble starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
E2GDF4
-
-
-
?
soluble starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
soluble starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Aureobasidium pullulans NRRL 12974
E2GDF4
-
-
-
?
soluble starch + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
soluble starch + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Rhizopus sp.
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
Myrothecium sp.
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
with concentrated solutions of D-glucose, 10% w/v and 30% w/v, small amounts of isomaltose are produced as the sole reversion product
-
-
?
starch + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
soluble
-
-
?
starch + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
soluble
-
-
?
starch + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
soluble
-
-
?
starch + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
soluble
-
-
?
starch + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
soluble
-
-
?
starch + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
soluble
-
?
starch + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
soluble
-
-
?
starch + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
soluble
-
-
?
starch + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
Rhizopus sp.
-
soluble
-
-
?
starch + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
soluble
-
?
starch + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
soluble
-
-
?
starch + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
soluble
-
-
?
starch + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
soluble
-
-
?
starch + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
soluble
-
?
starch + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
Monascus sp.
-
soluble
-
?
starch + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
soluble
-
-
?
starch + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
soluble
-
-
?
starch + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
soluble
-
-
?
starch + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
soluble
beta-glucose
?
starch + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
soluble
beta-glucose and maltooligosaccharides
?
starch + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
300fold preference for the alpha-1,4-glucosidic linkage over the alpha-1,6-glucosidic linkage
-
-
-
starch + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
waxy-maize starch, waxy-sorghum starch, floridean starch. Incomplete conversion to glucose in absence of alpha-amylase
-
-
?
starch + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
raw starch and gelatinized starch
-
-
?
starch + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
wheat starch, potato starch, corn starch
-
-
?
starch + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
Athelia rolfsii AHU 9627
-
soluble, raw starch and gelatinized starch
-
-
?
starch + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
Candida antarctica CBS 6678
-
soluble
-
-
?
starch + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
Myrothecium sp. M1
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
Blastobotrys adeninivorans LS3
-
soluble, wheat starch, potato starch, corn starch
-
-
?
starch + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
Thermomyces lanuginosus ML-M
-
soluble
-
-
?
starch + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
Aspergillus terreus 4
-
soluble
-
-
?
starch + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
Monascus sp. 3403
-
soluble
-
?
starch + H2O
glucose
show the reaction diagram
Paecilomyces variotii AHU 9417
-
soluble
beta-glucose
?
starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Rhizopus sp.
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Arachniotus citrinus
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
soluble starch
-
-
?
starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
soluble starch
-
-
?
starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
soluble starch
-
-
?
starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
Paselli starch or soluble starch
-
-
?
starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
recombinant N-terminal subunit of human small intestinal maltase-glucoamylase is used to explore digestion of native starches from different botanical sources, e.g. normal and waxy maize, wheat, potato, pea, banana, and tapioca starches, and high-amylose maize starch with 50-70% amylose, substrate specificity, overview
-
-
?
starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Rhizopus sp.
-
starch granules from various botanical sources: rice, wheat, potato, sweet potato, cassava, and maize
-
-
?
starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Thermomucor indicae-seudaticae CR19
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
O85672, -
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-, ?
starch + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Arachniotus sp.
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Q8TG09
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Q9C1V4, -
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-, Q0H9W2
soluble starch
-
-
?
starch + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
maize starch, 105% of activity with soluble starch from potato
-
-
?
starch + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
maize starch, 109% of activity with soluble starch from potato
-
-
?
starch + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
maize starch, 83% of activity with soluble starch from potato
-
-
?
starch + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
native starch from potato, 105% of activity with soluble starch from potato
-
-
?
starch + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
native starch from potato, 92% of activity with soluble starch from potato
-
-
?
starch + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
raw sago starch
-
-
?
starch + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
rice starch, 110% of activity with soluble starch from potato
-
-
?
starch + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
rice starch, 123% of activity with soluble starch from potato
-
-
?
starch + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
rice starch, 95% of activity with soluble starch from potato
-
-
?
starch + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
soluble starch from potato
-
-
?
starch + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
strongest activity with soluble starch
-
-
?
starch + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
activities with starch in descending order, wheat starch, rice starch, sago starch, potato starch, soluble starch, tapioca starch and corn starch
-
-
?
starch + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
glucoamylase is an exo-amylolytic enzyme that cleaves alpha-1,4-linked and alpha-1,6-linked glucose from starch
-
-
?
starch + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
one of the key intestinal enzymes involved in the breakdown of glucose oligosaccharides in the small intestine
-
-
?
starch + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
the starch binding domain of glucoamylase plays an active role in hydrolyzing raw starch and supports the enzyme adsorption to the cell wall where local increase of enzyme concentration may result in enhanced glucose flow to the cell
-
-
?
starch + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme hydrolyzes alpha-1,4 glycosidic linkages in raw, sparsely soluble or soluble starches and related oligosaccharides with the inversion of the anomeric configuration to produce beta-glucose
-
-
?
starch + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Monascus kaoliang F-1
-
the starch binding domain of glucoamylase plays an active role in hydrolyzing raw starch and supports the enzyme adsorption to the cell wall where local increase of enzyme concentration may result in enhanced glucose flow to the cell, the enzyme hydrolyzes alpha-1,4 glycosidic linkages in raw, sparsely soluble or soluble starches and related oligosaccharides with the inversion of the anomeric configuration to produce beta-glucose
-
-
?
starch + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Aspergillus awamori X-100
-
the starch binding domain of glucoamylase plays an active role in hydrolyzing raw starch and supports the enzyme adsorption to the cell wall where local increase of enzyme concentration may result in enhanced glucose flow to the cell, the enzyme hydrolyzes alpha-1,4 glycosidic linkages in raw, sparsely soluble or soluble starches and related oligosaccharides with the inversion of the anomeric configuration to produce beta-glucose
-
-
?
starch + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Aspergillus niger B1
Q8TG09
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Aspergillus terreus NA-170
-
the starch binding domain of glucoamylase plays an active role in hydrolyzing raw starch and supports the enzyme adsorption to the cell wall where local increase of enzyme concentration may result in enhanced glucose flow to the cell, the enzyme hydrolyzes alpha-1,4 glycosidic linkages in raw, sparsely soluble or soluble starches and related oligosaccharides with the inversion of the anomeric configuration to produce beta-glucose
-
-
?
starch + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Aspergillus awamori 466
-
-
-
-
-, ?
starch + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Aspergillus niger NRRL 330
-
the starch binding domain of glucoamylase plays an active role in hydrolyzing raw starch and supports the enzyme adsorption to the cell wall where local increase of enzyme concentration may result in enhanced glucose flow to the cell, the enzyme hydrolyzes alpha-1,4 glycosidic linkages in raw, sparsely soluble or soluble starches and related oligosaccharides with the inversion of the anomeric configuration to produce beta-glucose
-
-
?
starch + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Chaetomium thermophilum CT2
Q0H9W2
soluble starch
-
-
?
starch + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Aspergillus terreus NA-770
-
the starch binding domain of glucoamylase plays an active role in hydrolyzing raw starch and supports the enzyme adsorption to the cell wall where local increase of enzyme concentration may result in enhanced glucose flow to the cell, the enzyme hydrolyzes alpha-1,4 glycosidic linkages in raw, sparsely soluble or soluble starches and related oligosaccharides with the inversion of the anomeric configuration to produce beta-glucose
-
-
?
starch + H2O
D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
O43451
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Humicola sp.
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Q6KYX5
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
soluble starch
-
-
?
starch + H2O
D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
soluble starch
-
-
?
starch + H2O
D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
soluble starch
-
-
?
starch + H2O
D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Humicola sp.
-
soluble starch
-
-
?
starch + H2O
D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
important industrial enzyme that removes the glucose units from the non-reducing chain-ends of starch and glycogen by hydrolyzing alpha-1,4 linkages consecutively
-
-
?
starch + H2O
D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
one of the key intestinal enzymes involved in the breakdown of glucose oligosaccharides in the small intestine
-
-
?
starch + H2O
D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
O43451
one of the two enzymes responsible for catalyzing the last glucose-releasing step in starch digestion
-
-
?
starch + H2O
D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme is responsible for the final step of mammalian starch digestion leading to the release of D-glucose
-
-
?
starch + H2O
D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme performs hydrolytic cleavage of terminal alpha-glycosyl residues from starch and dextrin molecules
-
-
?
starch + H2O
D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme plays a role in the saccharification and fermentation of amylaceous substrates, notably in high cell density processes
-
-
?
starch + H2O
D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
gelatinized and ungelatinized substrates: soluble, potato, sweet potato, and corn starch granules, determination of optimal substrate concentration, substrate specificity, overview
-
-
?
starch + H2O
D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
raw and cooked soluble starch from potato, no activity with corn starch and sweet potato starch
-
-
?
starch + H2O
D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
soluble corn and wheat starch granules
-
-
?
starch + H2O
D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme hydrolyzes glucosidic bonds in amylase, amylopectin, and maltoligosaccharides
-
-
?
starch + H2O
starch + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
starch + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
starch + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
starch + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
starch + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
starch + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Arachniotus citrinus
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
starch + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Mucor rouxians, Monascus kaoliang
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
starch + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
P08017, Q8TFE5
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
starch + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
product analysis
-
?
starch + H2O
starch + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
soluble starch
-
-
?
starch + H2O
starch + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
P04065
soluble starch
-
-
?
starch + H2O
starch + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
hydrolysis of terminal 1,4-linked alpha-D-glucose residues successively from non-reducing ends of the starch chain, substrates corn cobs, maize starch, soluble starch, and wheat bran
-
-
?
starch + H2O
starch + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
16times and 29times higher activity with soluble starch compared to wheat or corn starch granules, respectively
-
-
?
starch + H2O
starch + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
cooked corn starch
-
-
?
starch + H2O
starch + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
exoglycosidic hydrolysis of terminal glucose, high activity
-
-
?
starch + H2O
starch + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
hydrolysis of solid-state starch from raw chestnut homogenate, composition, 30% of the raw chestnut is starch, overview
-
-
?
starch + H2O
starch + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Rhizopus sp.
-
raw corn starch granules of different size, exoglycosidic hydrolysis of terminal glucose, determination of relation of granule surface area to adsorbed enzyme and activity including product liberation
-
-
?
starch + H2O
starch + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
soluble potato starch
-
-
?
starch + H2O
starch + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
soluble potato starch
-
-
?
starch + H2O
starch + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
soluble starch, raw rice starch, and raw wheat starch, the latter is the preferred substrate
-
-
?
starch + H2O
starch + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
soluble starch, very low activity
-
-
?
starch + H2O
starch + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme contains 7 subsites for substrate binding, subsite affinities
-
-
?
starch + H2O
starch + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
the native enzyme shows low activity with raw starch due to a lack in starch binding domain
-
-
?
starch + H2O
starch + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Saccharomycopsis fibuligera HUT 7212
P08017
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
starch + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Monascus kaoliang F-1
-
-, the enzyme is required for degradation of raw starch
-
-
?
starch + H2O
starch + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus sp. J38
-
-
product analysis
-
?
starch + H2O
starch + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Aspergillus awamori X-100
-
-, the enzyme is required for degradation of raw starch
-
-
?
starch + H2O
starch + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Aspergillus coreanus NR
-
soluble starch, raw rice starch, and raw wheat starch, the latter is the preferred substrate
-
-
?
starch + H2O
starch + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Aspergillus terreus NA-170
-
-, the enzyme is required for degradation of raw starch
-
-
?
starch + H2O
starch + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Aspergillus niger NRRL 330
-
the enzyme is required for degradation of raw starch, the enzyme contains 7 subsites for substrate binding, subsite affinities
-
-
?
starch + H2O
starch + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Thermoactinomyces vulgaris R-47
-
soluble starch, very low activity
-
-
?
starch + H2O
starch + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Saccharomycopsis fibuligera IFO 0111
Q8TFE5
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
starch + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Aspergillus niger A-7420
-
soluble potato starch
-
-
?
starch + H2O
starch + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Aspergillus terreus NA-770
-
-, the enzyme is required for degradation of raw starch
-
-
?
starch + H2O
glucose + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
catalyses the hydrolysis of the alpha-1,4 glycosidic bonds of starch
-
-
?
sucrose + H2O
D-glucose + D-fructose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
sucrose + H2O
D-glucose + D-fructose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
sucrose + H2O
D-glucose + D-fructose
show the reaction diagram
-
3.3% of carbohydrate
-
-
?
trehalose + H2O
D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
turanose + H2O
D-fructose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
xylan + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
xylan + H2O
xylan + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
methyl-alpha-D-glucoside + H2O
methanol + alpha-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
5% of the activity with maltose
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme consists of at least two domains, one for adsorption to the starch molecule in the N-terminal portion, and the other for catalyzing starch degradation in the C-terminal portion
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
enzyme can attack alpha-1,4-glycosidic linkages and alpha-1,6-glycosidic linkages. The velocity of oligosaccharide hydrolysis decreases with a decrease in size of substrate
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
no hydrolysis of alpha-1,6 linkages
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
no hydrolysis of alpha-1,6 linkages
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
substrate specificity overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme is responsible for much of the isomaltase and maltase activities in the intestine of the frog
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
different regulation mechanisms, the regulation is influenced by carbohydrate degradation and consumption under different culture conditions, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
regulation mechanisms of enzyme expression, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q97ZD0, -
bifunctional enzyme performing hydrolysis or transglycosylation depending on the substrate
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
immobilization of the enzyme on polyaniline polymer results in improved catalytic performance with decreased temperature optimum, and increased thermal stability and catalytic efficiency, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
modelling of potato starch saccharification by Aspergillus niger, influences of assay conditions on activity, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
no activity with cyclodextrins and laminarin
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
no activity with pullulan, dextran, and isomaltose
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
P04065
the enzyme binds poorly to insoluble starch
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
glucoamylase is an exoglycosidase responsible for hydrolyzing the terminal alpha-1,4 glucosidic bonds of dextrins and related oligo- and polysaccharides, the reaction involves a proton transfer by acid catalysis, followed by formation of a transition state analogous to an oxocarbonium ion, and finally, a base-catalyzed nucleophilic attack of water, glutamic acid present in different regions of the enzyme-active site acts as the acid and base catalysts required for the reaction
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
key enzyme in ripening and production of good taste in fermented tofu production, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
key intestinal enzymes involved in the breakdown of glucose
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the key intestinal enzyme involved in the breakdown of glucose oligosaccharides in the small intestine
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
no activity with sucrose, 4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-maltoside, methyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside, pullulan, alpha-cyclodextrin, beta-cyclodextrin, and trehalose
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
pullulan is a poor substrate, substrate specificity, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Rhizopus sp.
-
reaction of the amyloglucosidase in concert with sweet almond beta-glucosidase, EC 3.2.1.21, to hydrolyze curcumin and eugenol in acetate buffer, method optimization, NMR product determinations, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
O43451
structure of the N-terminal catalytic subunit and the active site, and basis of inhibition and substrate specificity, overview, the catalytic subunit shows higher affinity for longer maltose oligosaccharides
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
substrate specificities of isozymes GA-I and GA-II, cyclodextrins are poor substrates, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q2VC81, -
the enzyme contains a carbohydrate-binding module, which functions independently to assist the carbohydrate-active enzyme, structure of a family 21 CBM from the starch-binding domain of Rhizopus oryzae glucoamylase, RoCBM21, determined by NMR spectroscopy
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme has debranching activity
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme is an exo-hydrolase that attacks the substrate from the non-reducing end, producing glucose with beta-anomeric configuration, substrate specificity with substrates from different sources in descending activity order: Paselli starch, soluble starch, corn-amylopectin, glycogen, and amylose, no activity with pullulan, alpha-cyclodextrin, beta-cyclodextrin, and gamma-cyclodextrin, TaGA is not able to catalyze the formation of oligosaccharides, e.g., by transglycosylation with glucose as substrate
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the glucoamylase also shows steroidal saponin-rhamnosidase activity, EC 3.2.1.40, being able to hydrolyze the terminal rhamnosyl of steroidal saponins and the sugar chain at the C-3 position of spirostanosides, the enzyme also hydrolyzed the terminal rhamnosyl residues of the sugar chain at the C-3 position while retaining the glucosyl residues at the C-26 position of furostanosides, substrate specificity, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q6KYX5
the intracellular enzyme shows a unique substrate specificity compared to already known glucoamylases, in addition to the hydrolysis of branched and linear alpha-glucans, the purified enzyme preferentially attacks maltotriose, overview, oligossaccharides Dp2, Dp4, Dp5, Dp6, and Dp7 as well as isomaltose, panose, and isopanose are poor substrates
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
analysis of the basic catalytic properties of the N-terminal subunit of MGAM (ntMGAM) on the hydrolysis of glucan substrates and compared it with those of human native MGAM
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
catalyses the hydrolysis of the alpha-1,4 glycosidic bonds of starch
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
glucoamylase functions via transient dimer formation during hydrolysis of insoluble substrates and address the question of the cooperative effect of starch binding and hydrolysis
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
displays broad substrate specificity by cleaving alpha-1,4- and alpha-1,6-glycosidic linkages in starch, amylopectin, amylose and pullulan. No activity is observed on alpha-cyclodextrin
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
E2GDF4
poor activity with pullulan and laminarin
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
endophytic fungus EF6
-
soluble starch is the best substrate, various raw starches, i.e. soluble starch, corn, tapioca, wheat, rice, sticky rice starch, are used as substrates
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme is active on the following substrates in descending order: glycogen, amylopectin, corn starch, rice starch, wheat starch, maltose, amylose, dextrin, maltotriose, raffinose, and sucrose
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Aspergillus awamori, Aspergillus awamori X100
-
the hydrolysis reaction successively cleaves glucose residues from the nonreducing ends of starch, glycogen, and maltooligosaccharides
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Thermomucor indicae-seudaticae CR19
-
displays broad substrate specificity by cleaving alpha-1,4- and alpha-1,6-glycosidic linkages in starch, amylopectin, amylose and pullulan. No activity is observed on alpha-cyclodextrin
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Aspergillus flavus HBF34
-
the enzyme is active on the following substrates in descending order: glycogen, amylopectin, corn starch, rice starch, wheat starch, maltose, amylose, dextrin, maltotriose, raffinose, and sucrose
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Thermomyces lanuginosus ML-M
-
no hydrolysis of alpha-1,6 linkages
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Thermoactinomyces vulgaris R-47
-
no activity with pullulan, dextran, and isomaltose
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Saccharomyces cerevisiae 1ab
-
no hydrolysis of alpha-1,6 linkages
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Aspergillus niger NIAB 280
-
regulation mechanisms of enzyme expression, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Aureobasidium pullulans NRRL 12974
E2GDF4
poor activity with pullulan and laminarin
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Aspergillus niger A-7420
-
modelling of potato starch saccharification by Aspergillus niger, influences of assay conditions on activity, overview
-
-
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
4 glucose
glucooligosaccharide + 3 H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
reversion or condensation reactions are observed when glucoamylase is incubated with 10% glucose
-
-
r
amylopectin + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
100% of activity with soluble starch from potato
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
104% of activity with soluble starch from potato
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
13% of activity with starch
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
60% of activity with soluble starch from potato
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
63% of activity with soluble starch from potato
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
74% of activity with soluble starch from potato
-
-
?
dextrin + 6 H2O
7 beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
84% of activity with soluble starch from potato
-
-
?
dextrin + 6 H2O
7 beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
89% of activity with soluble starch from potato
-
-
?
dextrin + 6 H2O
7 beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
91% of activity with soluble starch from potato
-
-
?
dextrin + 6 H2O
7 D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
dextrin + 6 H2O
7 D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme performs hydrolytic cleavage of terminal alpha-glycosyl residues from starch and dextrin molecules
-
-
?
glycogen + 3 H2O
4 beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
glycogen + 3 H2O
4 beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
103% of activity with soluble starch from potato
-
-
?
glycogen + 3 H2O
4 beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
150% of activity with starch
-
-
?
glycogen + 3 H2O
4 beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
90% of activity with soluble starch from potato
-
-
?
glycogen + 3 H2O
4 beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
96% of activity with soluble starch from potato
-
-
?
isomaltose
isomaltooligosaccharide
show the reaction diagram
-
reversion or condensation reactions are observed when glucoamylase is incubated with 10% isomaltose
-
-
r
maltodextrin + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltooligosaccharide + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
49% of activity with soluble starch from potato
-
-
?
maltooligosaccharide + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
54% of activity with soluble starch from potato
-
-
?
maltooligosaccharide + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
55% of activity with soluble starch from potato
-
-
?
maltose + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltose + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltose + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
17% of activity with soluble starch from potato
-
-
?
maltose + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
2% of activity with soluble starch from potato
-
-
?
maltose + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
24% of activity with soluble starch from potato
-
-
?
soluble starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Rhizopus sp.
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Arachniotus citrinus
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
O85672, -
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
starch + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Arachniotus sp.
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Q8TG09
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Q9C1V4, -
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
maize starch, 105% of activity with soluble starch from potato
-
-
?
starch + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
maize starch, 109% of activity with soluble starch from potato
-
-
?
starch + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
maize starch, 83% of activity with soluble starch from potato
-
-
?
starch + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
native starch from potato, 105% of activity with soluble starch from potato
-
-
?
starch + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
native starch from potato, 92% of activity with soluble starch from potato
-
-
?
starch + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
raw sago starch
-
-
?
starch + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
rice starch, 110% of activity with soluble starch from potato
-
-
?
starch + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
rice starch, 123% of activity with soluble starch from potato
-
-
?
starch + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
rice starch, 95% of activity with soluble starch from potato
-
-
?
starch + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
soluble starch from potato
-
-
?
starch + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
strongest activity with soluble starch
-
-
?
starch + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
glucoamylase is an exo-amylolytic enzyme that cleaves alpha-1,4-linked and alpha-1,6-linked glucose from starch
-
-
?
starch + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
one of the key intestinal enzymes involved in the breakdown of glucose oligosaccharides in the small intestine
-
-
?
starch + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
the starch binding domain of glucoamylase plays an active role in hydrolyzing raw starch and supports the enzyme adsorption to the cell wall where local increase of enzyme concentration may result in enhanced glucose flow to the cell
-
-
?
starch + H2O
D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Humicola sp.
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
important industrial enzyme that removes the glucose units from the non-reducing chain-ends of starch and glycogen by hydrolyzing alpha-1,4 linkages consecutively
-
-
?
starch + H2O
D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
one of the key intestinal enzymes involved in the breakdown of glucose oligosaccharides in the small intestine
-
-
?
starch + H2O
D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
O43451
one of the two enzymes responsible for catalyzing the last glucose-releasing step in starch digestion
-
-
?
starch + H2O
D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme is responsible for the final step of mammalian starch digestion leading to the release of D-glucose
-
-
?
starch + H2O
D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme performs hydrolytic cleavage of terminal alpha-glycosyl residues from starch and dextrin molecules
-
-
?
starch + H2O
D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme plays a role in the saccharification and fermentation of amylaceous substrates, notably in high cell density processes
-
-
?
starch + H2O
starch + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
starch + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Arachniotus citrinus
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
starch + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
P08017, Q8TFE5
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
starch + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
soluble starch
-
-
?
starch + H2O
starch + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
P04065
soluble starch
-
-
?
starch + H2O
starch + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
hydrolysis of terminal 1,4-linked alpha-D-glucose residues successively from non-reducing ends of the starch chain, substrates corn cobs, maize starch, soluble starch, and wheat bran
-
-
?
starch + H2O
starch + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Saccharomycopsis fibuligera HUT 7212
P08017
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Monascus kaoliang F-1
-
the starch binding domain of glucoamylase plays an active role in hydrolyzing raw starch and supports the enzyme adsorption to the cell wall where local increase of enzyme concentration may result in enhanced glucose flow to the cell
-
-
?
starch + H2O
starch + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Monascus kaoliang F-1
-
the enzyme is required for degradation of raw starch
-
-
?
starch + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Aspergillus awamori X-100
-
the starch binding domain of glucoamylase plays an active role in hydrolyzing raw starch and supports the enzyme adsorption to the cell wall where local increase of enzyme concentration may result in enhanced glucose flow to the cell
-
-
?
starch + H2O
starch + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Aspergillus awamori X-100
-
the enzyme is required for degradation of raw starch
-
-
?
starch + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Aspergillus niger B1
Q8TG09
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Aspergillus terreus NA-170
-
the starch binding domain of glucoamylase plays an active role in hydrolyzing raw starch and supports the enzyme adsorption to the cell wall where local increase of enzyme concentration may result in enhanced glucose flow to the cell
-
-
?
starch + H2O
starch + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Aspergillus terreus NA-170
-
the enzyme is required for degradation of raw starch
-
-
?
starch + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Aspergillus awamori 466
-
-
-
-
-
starch + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Aspergillus niger NRRL 330
-
the starch binding domain of glucoamylase plays an active role in hydrolyzing raw starch and supports the enzyme adsorption to the cell wall where local increase of enzyme concentration may result in enhanced glucose flow to the cell
-
-
?
starch + H2O
starch + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Aspergillus niger NRRL 330
-
the enzyme is required for degradation of raw starch
-
-
?
starch + H2O
starch + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Saccharomycopsis fibuligera IFO 0111
Q8TFE5
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Aspergillus terreus NA-770
-
the starch binding domain of glucoamylase plays an active role in hydrolyzing raw starch and supports the enzyme adsorption to the cell wall where local increase of enzyme concentration may result in enhanced glucose flow to the cell
-
-
?
starch + H2O
starch + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Aspergillus terreus NA-770
-
the enzyme is required for degradation of raw starch
-
-
?
maltotriose + 2 H2O
3 beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme is responsible for much of the isomaltase and maltase activities in the intestine of the frog
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
different regulation mechanisms, the regulation is influenced by carbohydrate degradation and consumption under different culture conditions, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
regulation mechanisms of enzyme expression, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
glucoamylase is an exoglycosidase responsible for hydrolyzing the terminal alpha-1,4 glucosidic bonds of dextrins and related oligo- and polysaccharides, the reaction involves a proton transfer by acid catalysis, followed by formation of a transition state analogous to an oxocarbonium ion, and finally, a base-catalyzed nucleophilic attack of water, glutamic acid present in different regions of the enzyme-active site acts as the acid and base catalysts required for the reaction
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
key enzyme in ripening and production of good taste in fermented tofu production, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
key intestinal enzymes involved in the breakdown of glucose
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the key intestinal enzyme involved in the breakdown of glucose oligosaccharides in the small intestine
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
analysis of the basic catalytic properties of the N-terminal subunit of MGAM (ntMGAM) on the hydrolysis of glucan substrates and compared it with those of human native MGAM
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
catalyses the hydrolysis of the alpha-1,4 glycosidic bonds of starch
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
glucoamylase functions via transient dimer formation during hydrolysis of insoluble substrates and address the question of the cooperative effect of starch binding and hydrolysis
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Aspergillus niger NIAB 280
-
regulation mechanisms of enzyme expression, overview
-
-
-
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
arsenate
-
stimulates at 10 mM, 1 mM and 0.1 mM
Ba2+
-
1 mM, some stimulation
Ba2+
-
1 mM, 8% activation
Ba2+
-
65% activation at 1 mM
Ba2+
-
activates
Ba2+
-
stimulates activity
Ba2+
Q12537
stimulates activity
Ba2+
-
activates
BaCl2
-
1 mM
Borate
-
stimulates at 10 mM, 1 mM and 0.1 mM
Ca2+
-
stimulates
Ca2+
-
1 mM, 50% increase in activity
Ca2+
-
1 mM, 57% increase in activity
Ca2+
-
74% activation at 1 mM
Ca2+
-
20% activation at 1 mM
Ca2+
-
highly increases the stability of the enzyme
Ca2+
-
activates
Ca2+
-
bound Ca2+ in the enzyme molecule is essential at 50C
Ca2+
-
slight increase in enzyme activtiy
Ca2+
-
stimulates activity
Ca2+
Q12537
stimulates activity
Ca2+
-
activates
Ca2+
-
required
Ca2+
endophytic fungus EF6
-
activates
CaCl2
-
5 mM, 10% increase in activity
CaCl2
-
1 mM
Carbonate
-
stimulates at 10 mM, 1 mM and 0.1 mM
Co2+
-
activates
Co2+
-
activates at 1 mM
Co2+
-
28% activation of isozyme GA-I at 1 mM, no effect on isozyme GA-II
Co2+
-
activates
Co2+
-
stimulates activity
Co2+
Q12537
stimulates activity
Co2+
-
activates at 1 mM, no effect at 10 mM
Co2+
endophytic fungus EF6
-
activates
CoCl2
-
1 mM
Cu2+
-
activation at 1 mM of isozyme GA-I and isozyme GA-II
Cu2+
-
10% activation of isozyme GA-I at 1 mM, no effect on isozyme GA-II
Cu2+
-
activates
Cu2+
-
slight activation
Cu2+
-
inhibitor and activator
Cu2+
Q12537
inhibitor and activator
CuCl2
-
1 mM
CuSO4
-
5 mM, 10% increase in activity
diphosphate
-
stimulates at 10 mM, 1 mM and 0.1 mM
EDTA
-
5 mM, 10% increase in activity
Fe2+
-
activates
Fe2+
-
15% activation of isozyme GA-I at 1 mM, no effect on isozyme GA-II
Fe2+
-
stimulates activity
Fe2+
Q12537
stimulates activity
Fe3+
-
activates at 1 mM
FeSO4
-
5 mM, 10% increase in activity
K+
-
10% activation at 1 mM
KH2PO4
-
1 mM
Mg2+
-
stimulates
Mg2+
-
1 mM, 27% activation
Mg2+
-
activates
Mg2+
-
activates
Mg2+
-
slight activation
Mg2+
-
stimulates activity
Mg2+
Q12537
stimulates activity
Mg2+
endophytic fungus EF6
-
activates
MgCl2
-
5 mM, 10% increase in activity
MgCl2
-
1 mM
Mn2+
-
stimulates glucoamylase activity
Mn2+
-
1 mM, 20% increase in activity
Mn2+
-
1 mM, 5% activation
Mn2+
-
1 mM, 57% increase in activity
Mn2+
-
60% activation at 1 mM
Mn2+
-
activates
Mn2+
-
activation at 1 mM of isozyme GA-I and isozyme GA-II
Mn2+
-
45% activation the recombinant enzyme
Mn2+
-
activates 3fold at 1 mM
Mn2+
-
activates
Mn2+
-
slight increase in enzyme activity
Mn2+
-
inhibitor and activator
Mn2+
Q12537
inhibitor and activator
Mn2+
-
activates
Mn2+
endophytic fungus EF6
-
activates
Na+
-
activates
Na+
-
12% activation at 1 mM
Na+
-
highly increases the stability of the enzyme
Na+
-
stimulates activity
Na+
Q12537
stimulates activity
Na2MoO4
-
5 mM, 10% increase in activity
NaCl
-
5 mM, 10% increase in activity
NaH2PO4
-
1 mM
NH4Cl
-
1 mM
Ni2+
-
11% activation at 1 mM
phosphate
-
stimulates at 10 mM, 1 mM and 0.1 mM
Sn2+
-
1 mM, some stimulation
Sn2+
-
stimulates activity
Sn2+
Q12537
stimulates activity
Sr2+
-
10% activation of isozyme GA-I at 1 mM, no effect on isozyme GA-II
Zn2+
-
1 mM, some stimulation
Zn2+
-
1 mM, 21% activation
Zn2+
-
inhibitor and activator
Zn2+
Q12537
inhibitor and activator
ZnCl2
-
5 mM, 10% increase in activity
ZnCl2
-
1 mM
MnCl2
-
1 mM
additional information
-
no requirement for Ca2+, the enzyme is not affected by K+, and Mg2+
additional information
-
no effect by Mg2+ at 1 mM
additional information
-
no effect on the recombinant enzyme by Li+, Zn2+, Mg2+, Cu+, Ca2+, and EDTA
additional information
-
no effects by guanidine chloride, Ca2+, Na+, and Mg2+ at 1 mM
additional information
-
only slight effects by Co2+, Ca2+, Ba2+, Mg2+ and Hg2+, and oby other reagents, such as NaCl, NaBr, EDTA, KH2PO4, NaH2PO4, NH4F, NH4Cl, and KCl, overview
additional information
-
no effects on enzyme activity by Li+ and K+, and by NaCl
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
(2S,3S,4R,5R)-1-((1S,2R,3S,4S)-3,4-dihydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydro-1H-selenophenium-1-yl)-2,4,5,7-tetrahydroxyheptan-3-yl sulfate
-
a structure analogue of salacinol, synthesis, overview
(2S,3S,4R,5R)-1-((1S,2R,3S,4S)-3,4-dihydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydro-1H-thiophenium-1-yl)-2,4,5,7-tetrahydroxyheptan-3-yl sulfate
-
a structure analogue of salacinol, synthesis, overview
(2S,3S,4S)-1-[(2S,3S,4S)-4-carboxy-2,3,4-trihydroxybutyl]-3,4-dihydroxy-2-methoxytetrahydrothiophenium
-
a salacinol derivative, salacinol is a sulfonium ion with an internal sulfate counterion, synthesis of a compound with the D-arabinitol configuration in the heterocyclic ring displayed by salacinol, overview
1,2,7-trihydroxyindolizidine
-
-
1,2,7-trihydroxyindolizidine
Q12537
-
1,4-dideoxy-1,4-[(1-butyl)-(R)-episulfoniumylidene]-D-arabinitol chloride
-
-
1,4-dideoxy-1,4-[(1-hexyl)-(R)-episulfoniumylidene]-D-arabinitol chloride
-
-
1,4-dideoxy-1,4-[(1-octadecyl)-(R)-episulfoniumylidene]-D-arabinitol chloride
-
-
1,4-dideoxy-1,4-[(1-octyl)-(R)-episulfoniumylidene]-D-arabinitol chloride
-
-
1,4-dideoxy-1,4-[(1-tetradecyl)-(R)-episulfoniumylidene]-D-arabinitol chloride
-
-
1,4-dideoxy-1,4-[(1-tetradecyl)-(R)-episulfoniumylidene]-D-arabinitol triflate
-
-
1,4-dideoxy-1,4-[[(2S,3R,4R,5S)-2,4,5,6-tetrahydroxy-3-(sulfoxy)hexyl]episelenoniumylidene]-D-arabinitol
-
a structure analogue of salacinol, synthesis, overview
1,4-dideoxy-1,4-[[(2S,3R,4R,5S)-2,4,5,6-tetrahydroxy-3-(sulfoxy)hexyl]episulfoniumylidene]-D-arabinitol
-
a structure analogue of salacinol, synthesis, overview
1,4-dideoxy-1,4-[[(2S,3R,4R,5S)-2,4,5,6-tetrahydroxy-3-(sulfoxy)hexyl]iminonium]-D-arabinitol
-
a structure analogue of salacinol, synthesis, overview
1,4-dideoxy-1,4-[[(2S,3S,4R,5R)-2,4,5,6-tetrahydroxy-3-(sulfooxy)hexyl]-(R)-epi-seleniumylidene]-D-arabinitol inner salt
-
-
1,4-dideoxy-1,4-[[(2S,3S,4R,5R)-2,4,5,6-tetrahydroxy-3-(sulfooxy)hexyl]-(R)-epi-sulfoniumylidene]-D-arabinitol inner salt
-
-
1,4-dideoxy-1,4-[[(2S,3S,4R,5R)-2,4,5,6-tetrahydroxy-3-(sulfooxy)hexyl]-(S)-epi-seleniumylidene]-D-arabinitol inner salt
-
-
1,4-dideoxy-1,4-[[(2S,3S,4R,5S)-2,4,5,6-tetrahydroxy-3-(sulfoxy)hexyl]episelenoniumylidene]-D-arabinitol
-
a structure analogue of salacinol, synthesis, overview
1,4-dideoxy-1,4-[[(2S,3S,4R,5S)-2,4,5,6-tetrahydroxy-3-(sulfoxy)hexyl]episulfoniumylidene]-D-arabinitol
-
a structure analogue of salacinol, synthesis, overview
1,4-dideoxy-1,4-[[(2S,3S,4R,5S)-2,4,5,6-tetrahydroxy-3-(sulfoxy)hexyl]iminonium]-D-arabinitol
-
a structure analogue of salacinol, synthesis, overview
1,4-dideoxy-1,4-[[1-(3-methyl)-butyl]-(R)-episulfoniumylidene]-D-arabinitol chloride
-
-
1,4-dideoxy-1,4-[[1-(6-ethoxy)-hexyl]-(R)-episulfoniumylidene]-D-arabinitol chloride
-
-
1,4-dideoxy-1,4-[[1-(9-methoxy)-nonyl]-(R)-episulfoniumylidene]-D-arabinitol chloride
-
-
1,7-dihydroxyindolizidine
-
-
1,7-dihydroxyindolizidine
Q12537
-
1-deoxynojirimycin
-
-
1-deoxynojirimycin
-
-
1-deoxynojirimycin
-
-
2-Amino-2-ethyl-1,3-propanediol
-
-
2-Amino-2-ethyl-1,3-propanediol
Q12537
-
2-Amino-2-ethyl-1,3-propanediol
-
-
2-deoxy-1-ene-salacinol
-
synthesis, overview
2-deoxy-2-fluorosalacinol
-
synthesis, overview
2-epilentiginosine
-
-
2-epilentiginosine
Q12537
-
4-chloromercuribenzoate
-
complete inhibition at 10 mM, 72% inhibition at 1 mM
4-chloromercuribenzoate
-
slight inhibition of isozyme GA-II at 1 mM, no inhibition of isozyme GA-I
4-chloromercuribenzoate
-
-
4-chloromercuribenzoate
Q12537
-
5-(1,4-dideoxy-1,4-episulfoniumylidene-D-arabinitol)-5-deoxy-D-ribonate inner salt
-
-
5-(1,4-dideoxy-1,4-episulfoniumylidene-L-arabinitol)-5-deoxy-D-ribonate inner salt
-
-
acarbose
-
0.1 mM, 93.2% loss of activity
acarbose
-
25 ng/ml, 50% inhibition
acarbose
O85672, -
strong inhibition
acarbose
-
a salacinol derivative, inhibition of the isolated recombinant N-terminal catalytic domain
acarbose
O43451
bound to the active site primarily through side-chain interactions with its acarvosine unit, almost no interactions with its glycone rings, binding structure, overview
acarbose
-
inhibitory effect is 2 orders of magnitude higher for ntMGAM than for native MGAM
Ag+
Monascus sp.
-
1 mM AgNO3, 76-86% inhibition
Ag+
-
complete inhibition at 1 mM
Ag+
-
complete inhibition at 1 mM
Ag+
-
38% inhibition of isozyme GA-I, 14% inhibition of isozyme GA-II at 1 mM
Ag+
-
21% inhibition of enzyme activity
Al3+
-
20% inhibition of isozyme GA-II at 1 mM
alpha-cyclodextrin
-
-
alpha-cyclodextrin
Q12537
-
alpha-cyclodextrins
-
-
-
alpha-cyclodextrins
-
10 mM, 3% inhibition
-
Alpha-D-glucosides
-
-
amino alcohols
-
-
-
amino alcohols
Q12537
-
-
amino alcohols
-
-
-
amylase inhibitor from Streptomyces sp.
Endomycopsis fibuligera
-
-
-
Ba2+
-
1 mM, 56% inhibition
Ba2+
-
slight inhibition
BaCl2
-
5 mM, 17.4% inhibition
beta-cyclodextrin
-
-
beta-cyclodextrin
Q12537
-
beta-cyclodextrins
-
-
-
beta-cyclodextrins
-
10 mM, 48% inhibition
-
beta-cyclodextrins
-
above 5 mM, slight inhibition
-
beta-D-glucose
-
slight inhibiton up to 1 M concentratin
beta-mercaptoethanol
-
5 mM, 89% inhibition
beta-O-acarviosine
-
-
beta-O-methylacarviosinide
-
-
-
blintol
-
a selenium analogue of salacinol, is very effective in controlling blood glucose levels in rats after a carbohydrate meal, thus providing a lead candidate for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, synthesis, overview
Ca2+
Monascus sp.
-
1 mM, 15-16% inhibition
Ca2+
-
60% inhibition
CaCl2
-
5 mM, 15.3% inhibition
castanospermine
Q12537
-
Cd2+
Monascus sp.
-
1 mM, 17-18% inhibition
Cd2+
-
complete inhibition
cellobiose
-
5 mM, slight inhibition of starch hydrolysis
Co2+
-
26% inhibition at 1 mM
Cr3+
-
complete inhibition at 1 mM
Cu2+
-
inhibits maltase activity
Cu2+
-
85% inhibition at 1 mM
Cu2+
-
strong inhibition
Cu2+
-
12% inhibition at 1 mM
Cu2+
-
complete inhibition
Cu2+
-
complete inhibition at 1 mM
Cu2+
-
53% inhibition at 10 mM
curcumin
Rhizopus sp.
-
is inhibitory at higher concentrations
D-galactose
-
22% inhibition, recombinant enzyme
D-glucono-1,5-lactone
-
non-competitive
D-glucosamine
-
68% inhibition, recombinant enzyme
D-glucose
-
44% inhibition, recombinant enzyme
D-glucose
-
strong product inhibition
D-xylose
-
64% inhibition, recombinant enzyme
dithiothreitol
-
5 mM, 79% inhibition
DTNB
-
42% inhibition at 10 mM, no inhibition at 1 mM
DTT
-
slight inhibition of isozyme GA-II at 1 mM, no inhibition of isozyme GA-I
EDTA
-
10 mM, 16% inhibition
EDTA
-
5 mM, 78% inhibition
EDTA
-
1 mM, 98% inhibition
EDTA
-
strong inhibition
EDTA
-
slight inhibition of isozyme GA-II at 1 mM, no inhibition of isozyme GA-I
EDTA
-
strong inhibition
EDTA
-
slight inhibition
Fe2+
-
80% inhibition at 1 mM
-
Fe2+
-
16% inhibition of isozyme GA-II at 1 mM
-
Fe2+
-
29% inhibition at 10 mM
-
Fe2+
-
5% inhibition of enzyme activity
-
Fe3+
-
1 mM, 34% inhibition
-
Fe3+
-
complete inhibition
-
Fe3+
Q12537
-
-
fructose
-
5 mM, slight inhibition of starch hydrolysis
gamma-cyclodextrin
-
-
gamma-cyclodextrin
Q12537
-
gamma-cyclodextrins
-
-
Gentiobiose
-
20 mM, uncompetitive inhibition with starch as substrate
ghavamiol
-
-
Guanidine-HCl
Q12537
-
Hg2+
-
1 mM, 48% inhibition, glucoamylase M2
Hg2+
-
1 mM, 49% inhibition, glucoamylase M1
Hg2+
Rhizopus sp.
-
1 mM, 64-70% inhibition
Hg2+
Mucor rouxianus
-
-
Hg2+
-
5 mM, 70% inhibition
Hg2+
-
10 mM, strong inhibition
Hg2+
Myrothecium sp.
-
potent inhibitor for glucoamylase I and II
Hg2+
-
5 mM, 53% inhibition
Hg2+
-
1 mM, 70% inhibition
Hg2+
-
89% inhibition at 1 mM
Hg2+
-
complete inhibition
Hg2+
-
complete inhibition at 1 mM
Hg2+
-
complete inhibition
Hg2+
-
34% inhibition of isozyme GA-II, 49% inhibition of isozyme GA-I at 1 mM
Hg2+
-
strong inhibition
Hg2+
endophytic fungus EF6
-
-
iodoacetamide
-
78% inhibition at 10 mM, 40% inhibition at 1 mM
iodoacetate
Q12537
-
K+
-
complete inhibition
K+
-
15% inhibition of isozyme GA-II at 1 mM
KMnO4
Monascus sp.
-
1 mM, 40-43% inhibition
kotalanol
-
-
kotalanol
-
a salacinol derivative, inhibition of the isolated recombinant N-terminal catalytic domain
kotalanol
-
natural inhibitor isolated from the roots and stems of the plant Salacia reticulata
kotalanol
-
isolated from the roots and stems of the plant Salacia reticulata, contains an intriguing inner-salt sulfonium-sulfate structure, inhibition of glucosidases by salacinol and kotalanol is due to their ability to mimic both the shape and charge of the oxacarbenium-ion-like transition state involved in the enzymatic reactions
lentiginosine
Q12537
-
maltitol
-
20 mM, noncompetitive inhibition with starch as substrate
maltitol
Q12537
-
maltotetraose
-
-
maltotriose
-
-
maltotriose
-
substrate inhibition of AmyC
methyl alpha-D-glucoside
-
-
methyl alpha-D-glucoside
-
10 mM, 30% inhibition
methyl alpha-D-glucoside
-
competitive with maltose and non-competitive with starch
Mg2+
-
slight inhibition
miglitol
-
a salacinol derivative, inhibition of the isolated recombinant N-terminal catalytic domain
Mn2+
-
1 mM, 12% inhibition, glucoamylase M2
Mn2+
Rhizopus sp.
-
1 mM, 20-29% inhibition
Mn2+
-
11% inhibition at 1 mM
Mn2+
-
22% inhibition of isozyme GA-II at 1 mM
N-(7-oxadecyl)-1-deoxynojirimycin
-
-
N-bromosuccinimide
-
-
N-bromosuccinimide
-
5 mM, 83% inhibition
N-bromosuccinimide
-
complete inhibition at 1 mM of isozyme GA-I and isozyme GA-II
N-bromosuccinimide
-
almost complete inhibition at 1 mM
N-bromosuccinimide
-
-
N-bromosuccinimide
Q12537
-
N-bromosuccinimide
-
-
N-butyl-deoxynojirimycin
-
-
N-decyl-deoxynojirimycin
-
-
N-ethylmaleimide
-
5 mM, complete inhibition
N-methyl-deoxynojirimycin
-
-
Na2O3Se
-
-
-
NaN3
-
strong inhibition
NEM
-
slight inhibition
Ni2+
-
5 mM, 74% inhibition
Ni2+
-
1 mM, 63% inhibition
Ni2+
-
strong inhibition
NiCl2
-
5 mM, 17% inhibition
p-hydroxymercuribenzoate
-
-
Pb2+
-
glucoamylase M2
Pb2+
Rhizopus sp.
-
1 mM, 20-29% loss of activity
Pb2+
Mucor rouxianus
-
-
Pb2+
-
5 mM Pb(CH3COO)2, 25% inhibition
Pb2+
-
strong inhibition
phenyl alpha-D-glucoside
-
-
Phenylmethanesulfonylfluoride
-
-
phenylmethyl sulfonyl fluoride
-
53% inhibition at 5 mM
PMSF
-
slight inhibition
Propylene glycol
-
2%, 47% inhibition
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
-
slight inhibition of isozyme GA-II at 1 mM, no inhibition of isozyme GA-I
salacinol
-
a naturally occurring glycosidase inhibitor isolated from roots and stems of a Sri Lankan plant, Salacia reticulata, the OH group on C-2 of salacinol is critical as a hydrogen-bond donor with functional groups in the active site of the enzyme
salacinol
-
isolated from Salacia reticulata, a plant native to Sri Lanka and India that has been used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine for the treatment of diabetes, inhibition of the isolated recombinant N-terminal catalytic domain
salacinol
-
natural inhibitor isolated from the roots and stems of the plant Salacia reticulata
salacinol
-
isolated from the roots and stems of the plant Salacia reticulata, contains an intriguing inner-salt sulfonium-sulfate structure, inhibition of glucosidases by salacinol is due to their ability to mimic both the shape and charge of the oxacarbenium-ion-like transition state involved in the enzymatic reactions, the compound is capable of attenuating the spike in blood glucose levels
Schardinger dextrin
-
mixed inhibition with starch
SDS
-
complete inhibition at 1 mM
sodium dodecylsulfate
-
3 mM, complete inhibition
sodium dodecylsulfate
-
2%, 76% inhibition
sodiumdodecylsulfate
-
3 mM, complete inhibition
Sorbitol
-
5 mM, slight inhibition of starch hydrolysis
Sr2+
-
1 mM, 68% inhibition
Sr2+
-
slight inhibition
Sucrose
-
7.3 mM, 13.3% inhibition
trestatin
-
potent
-
trestatin
Q12537
-
-
Tris
Mucor rouxianus
-
-
Triton X-100
-
2%, 60% inhibition
Triton-X100
-
inhibits enzyme activity for 25% and 26% at concentrations of 1 mM and 2.5 mM, respectively, complete inhibition at 5 mM
Tween 20
-
2%, 27% inhibition
Tween 40
-
2%, 42% inhibition
Tween 80
-
2%, 25% inhibition
xylose
-
5 mM, slight inhibition of starch hydrolysis
Zn2+
-
5 mM, complete inhibition
Zn2+
-
78% inhibition at 1 mM
Zn2+
-
strong inhibition
Zn2+
-
25% inhibition at 1 mM
Zn2+
-
strong inhibition
additional information
-
remarkable insensitivity of the enzyme to end product inhibition
-
additional information
-
the deglycosylated enzyme is more sensitive to proteolytic degradation by subtilisin than the native enzyme
-
additional information
-
no inhibition by PMSF
-
additional information
-
iodoacetamide and urea are poor inhibitors
-
additional information
Arachniotus citrinus
-
the purified enzyme is sensitive to proteolytic degradation by alpha-chymotrypsin
-
additional information
-
poor inhibition by Ba2+ at 1 mM
-
additional information
-
glucose, cycloheximide, and actinomycin D nearly completely suppresses enzyme expression, repression mechanism, overview
-
additional information
-
no inhibition by iodoacetic acid and PMSF
-
additional information
-
product inhibition, kinetics
-
additional information
O43451
structure of the N-terminal catalytic subunit and basis of inhibition and substrate specificity
-
additional information
-
structure-activity relationship and stereochemistry of inhibitors, synthesis of chain-extended sulfonium and selenonium salts of 1,4-anhydro-4-thio- or 4-seleno-D-arabinitol, analogues of the naturally occurring glycosidase inhibitor salacinol, by nucleophilic attack at the least hindered carbon atom of 4,6-O-benzylidene-2,5-di-O-p-methoxybenzyl-D-mannitol-1,3-cyclic sulfate by 2,3,5-tri-O-p-methoxybenzyl-1,4-anhydro-4-thio-or 4-seleno-D-arabinitol, giving the sulfonium and selenonium sulfates, respectively, and subsequent deprotection with trifluoroacetic acid, the extended polyhydroxylated aliphatic side chain is incorporated while maintaining the stereochemistry of C-2' and C-3' of salacinol or blintol, overview
-
additional information
-
ghavamiol, a nitrogen analogue of salacinol, is inactive as inhibitor
-
additional information
-
binding of a short heterobidentate inhibitor simultaneously directed toward the catalytic and starch binding domains causes dimerization of glucoamylase and not, an intramolecular conformational rearrangement mediated by linker flexibility
-
additional information
-
AmyC, but not AmyD, exhibits substrate inhibition, the Ki for substrate inhibition decreases with increasing length of the oligosaccharides. AmyC accumulates an enzyme maltose-maltotriose dead-end complex in the steady state, kinetics and modelling, overview
-
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
2,2'-dipyridyl
-
stimulates at 1 mM or at 10 mM
2-mercaptoethanol
-
-
beta-mercaptoethanol
-
1 mM
Chloroform
-
50%, 2fold higher activty compared to water as solvent
DMSO
endophytic fungus EF6
-
-
DTT
endophytic fungus EF6
-
-
EDTA
-
chemical modification of the enzyme's carboxyl groups with EDTA as nucleophile in presence of 1-ethyl-3(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide leads to a dramatic enhancement of enzyme catalytic activity and thermal stability
EDTA
endophytic fungus EF6
-
-
glycerol
endophytic fungus EF6
-
-
Guanidine-HCl
-
1 M, 1156% increase in activity
hexane
-
50%, 2fold higher activty compared to water as solvent
n-dodecane
-
50%, 2fold higher activty compared to water as solvent
Na2WO4
-
slight stimulation
Pefabloc SC
-
5 mM, 129% increase in activity
Schardinger dextrin
-
slight stimulation of activity with maltose as substrate
Triton X-100
-
0.1%, 162% increase in activity
iodoacetamide
-
stimulates
additional information
-
wheat bran, rice bran, and cellulose highly induce enzyme expression, maltose, cello-dextrins, cellulose, and cellulose- and hemicellulose-containing substrates also induce the enzyme to a lesser extent, induction mechanism, overview
-
KM VALUE [mM]
KM VALUE [mM] Maximum
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.125
-
4-methylumbelliferyl-alpha-D-glucoside
-
-
3.4
-
4-nitrophenyl alpha-D-glucoside
-
wild-type enzyme
70
-
alpha-D-glucopyranosyl fluoride
-
wild-type enzyme
0.0002
-
Amylopectin
-
glucoamylase G2 or G3
0.0003
-
Amylopectin
-
glucoamylase G1
0.16
-
Amylopectin
-
glucoamylase G5
0.17
-
Amylopectin
-
glucoamylase G4
0.3
-
Amylopectin
-
enzyme form GIII
0.7
-
Amylopectin
-
-
1.65
-
Amylopectin
-
glucoamylase M2
2
-
Amylopectin
-
pH 5.0, 55C
4.2
-
Amylopectin
-
pH 5.0, 37C, isozyme GA-II
6.1
-
Amylopectin
-
enzyme form GI
7.4
-
Amylopectin
-
enzyme form GII
17.1
-
Amylopectin
-
pH 5.0, 37C, isozyme GA-I
59
-
Amylopectin
-
-
0.0021
-
Amylose
-
DP = 18, glucoamylase G1, G2 or G3
0.03
-
Amylose
-
DP = 17
0.04
-
Amylose
-
DP = 13
0.146
-
Amylose
-
glucoamylase M2
1.8
-
Amylose
-
-
2.3
-
Amylose
-
pH 5.0, 37C, isozyme GA-I
2.4
-
Amylose
-
pH 5.0, 37C, isozyme GA-II
2.5
-
Amylose
-
pH 5.0, 55C
0.063
-
amylose, DP 18
-
glucoamylase G4
-
0.065
-
amylose, DP 18
-
glucoamylase G5
-
0.38
-
amylotriose
-
pH 6.5, 40C, recombinant enzyme
0.17
-
Dextrin
-
free enzyme
0.73
-
Dextrin
-
glucoamylase M2
0.83
-
Dextrin
-
immobilized enzyme
0.0005
-
glycogen
-
glucoamylase G2
0.0006
-
glycogen
-
glucoamylase G3
0.0007
-
glycogen
-
glucoamylase G1
0.62
-
glycogen
-
glucoamylase G5
0.63
-
glycogen
-
glucoamylase G4
0.8
-
glycogen
-
glycogen from rabbit liver, enzyme form GIII
1.25
-
glycogen
-
glucoamylase M2
1.4
-
glycogen
-
-
1.7
-
glycogen
-
pH 5.0, 55C
1.8
-
glycogen
-
glycogen from oyster, enzyme form GIII
6.2
-
glycogen
-
pH 5.0, 37C, isozyme GA-II
210
-
glycogen
-
glycogen from oyster, enzyme form GI
240
-
glycogen
-
glycogen from rabbit liver, enzyme form GI
250
-
glycogen
-
glycogen from oyster, enzyme form GII
300
-
glycogen
-
glycogen from rabbit liver, enzyme form GII
820
-
glycogen
-
glycogen from rabbit liver
1100
-
glycogen
-
glycogen from oyster
17
-
isomaltoheptaose
-
recombinant glucoamylase
18
-
isomaltohexaose
-
recombinant glucoamylase
16
-
isomaltopentaose
-
recombinant glucoamylase
2.41
-
isomaltose
-
pH 5.0, 75C
4
-
isomaltose
-
-
12.3
-
isomaltose
-
mutant enzyme S411C
17.4
-
isomaltose
-
mutant enzyme S184H
20
-
isomaltose
-
glucoamylase G1
20.1
-
isomaltose
-
glucoamylase G2
20.4
-
isomaltose
-
glucoamylase G3
21.7
-
isomaltose
-
glucoamylase G4
23
-
isomaltose
-
glucoamylase G5
23.5
-
isomaltose
-
wild-type enzyme
24.6
-
isomaltose
-
wild-type enzyme
26.2
-
isomaltose
-
wild-type enzyme
27.9
-
isomaltose
-
mutant enzyme S411A
36.4
-
isomaltose
-
glucoamylase M2
36.47
-
isomaltose
-
-
38
-
isomaltose
-
wild-type enzyme
38
-
isomaltose
-
recombinant glucoamylase
39
-
isomaltose
-
mutant enzyme Gly183Lys
40
-
isomaltose
-
enzyme form GIII
42
-
isomaltose
-
-
42
-
isomaltose
-
mutant enzyme S119Y
47
-
isomaltose
-
enzyme form GI or GII
53.6
-
isomaltose
Q9C1V4, -
45C, pH 4.5
59
-
isomaltose
-
-
15
-
isomaltotetraose
-
recombinant glucoamylase
18
-
isomaltotriose
-
recombinant glucoamylase
150
-
kojibiose
-
wild-type enzyme
2.74
-
maltodextrin
-
pH 4.5, 60C, native enzyme
3.64
-
maltodextrin
-
pH 4.5, 60C, glycated enzyme
0.025
-
maltoheptaose
-
glucoamylase G2
0.026
-
maltoheptaose
-
glucoamylase G1
0.027
-
maltoheptaose
-
glucoamylase G3
0.058
-
maltoheptaose
-
glucoamylase G5
0.059
-
maltoheptaose
-
glucoamylase G4
0.07
-
maltoheptaose
-
mutant enzyme S411C
0.083
-
maltoheptaose
-
wild-type enzyme
0.09
-
maltoheptaose
-
-
0.097
-
maltoheptaose
-
-
0.1
-
maltoheptaose
-
enzyme form GII
0.104
-
maltoheptaose
-
mutant enzyme S411A
0.11
-
maltoheptaose
-
enzyme form GI
0.11
-
maltoheptaose
-
-
0.12
-
maltoheptaose
-
wild-type enzyme
0.12
-
maltoheptaose
-
recombinant glucoamylase
0.132
-
maltoheptaose
-
mutant enzyme S411G
0.14
-
maltoheptaose
-
wild-type enzyme or mutant enzymes Gly183Lys or S184H
0.148
-
maltoheptaose
-
mutant enzyme S411D
0.15
-
maltoheptaose
-
-
0.15
-
maltoheptaose
-
enzyme form GIII
0.15
-
maltoheptaose
-
immobilized enzyme
0.158
-
maltoheptaose
-
mutant enzyme S119Y
0.61
-
maltoheptaose
Q9C1V4, -
45C, pH 4.5
2.21
-
maltoheptaose
-
pH 5.0, 75C
3.3
-
maltoheptaose
-
-
4.15
-
maltoheptaose
-
-
7.59
-
maltoheptaose
-
pH 6.5, 40C, recombinant enzyme
0.045
-
maltohexaose
-
glucoamylase G2
0.048
-
maltohexaose
-
glucoamylase G1
0.05
-
maltohexaose
-
glucoamylase G3
0.059
-
maltohexaose
-
glucoamylase G4
0.06
-
maltohexaose
-
glucoamylase G5
0.096
-
maltohexaose
-
-
0.1
-
maltohexaose
-
-
0.11
-
maltohexaose
-
enzyme form GII
0.11
-
maltohexaose
-
wild-type enzyme
0.11
-
maltohexaose
-
recombinant glucoamylase
0.12
-
maltohexaose
-
enzyme form GI
0.12
-
maltohexaose
-
-
0.16
-
maltohexaose
-
enzyme form GIII
0.206
-
maltohexaose
-
mutant enzyme S119Y
0.287
-
maltohexaose
-
recombinant AmyC, pH 5.5, 40C
0.62
-
maltohexaose
-
recombinant AmyD, pH 5.5, 40C
1.88
-
maltohexaose
-
pH 5.0, 75C
3.65
-
maltohexaose
-
-
7.43
-
maltohexaose
-
pH 6.5, 40C, recombinant enzyme
0.05
-
maltopentaose
-
IP-MGAM, immunoprecipitated maltase-glucoamylase
0.066
-
maltopentaose
-
glucoamylase G3
0.067
-
maltopentaose
-
glucoamylase G4 or G5
0.07
-
maltopentaose
-
glucoamylase G1
0.071
-
maltopentaose
-
glucoamylase G2
0.1
-
maltopentaose
-
wild-type enzyme
0.1
-
maltopentaose
-
recombinant glucoamylase
0.116
-
maltopentaose
-
-
0.12
-
maltopentaose
-
-
0.13
-
maltopentaose
-
free enzyme
0.14
-
maltopentaose
-
enzyme form GII
0.16
-
maltopentaose
-
enzyme form GI
0.17
-
maltopentaose
-
enzyme form GIII
0.17
-
maltopentaose
-
mutant enzyme S119Y
0.224
-
maltopentaose
-
recombinant AmyC, pH 5.5, 40C
0.93
-
maltopentaose
-
recombinant AmyD, pH 5.5, 40C
1.63
-
maltopentaose
-
pH 5.0, 75C
3.94
-
maltopentaose
-
pH 6.5, 40C, recombinant enzyme
4.33
-
maltopentaose
-
-
5.1
-
maltopentaose
-
-
0.101
-
maltose
-
pH 6.5, 40C, recombinant enzyme
0.18
-
maltose
-
8C, pH 4.5, wild-type G1
0.28
-
maltose
-
8C, pH 4.5, wild-type G2
0.53
-
maltose
-
mutant enzyme S411C
0.53
-
maltose
-
recombinant AmyC, pH 5.5, 40C
0.58
-
maltose
-
IP-MGAM, immunoprecipitated maltase-glucoamylase
0.67
-
maltose
-
glucoamylase G4 and G5
0.68
-
maltose
-
glucoamylase G1 and G2
0.69
-
maltose
-
glucoamylase G3
0.72
-
maltose
-
45C, pH 4.4
0.76
-
maltose
-
pH 4.5, 35C, recombinant mutant T62A
0.78
-
maltose
-
50C, pH 4.5
0.78
-
maltose
-
pH 4.5, 35C, recombinant mutant T290A
0.82
-
maltose
-
pH 4.5, 35C, recombinant mutant H391Y
0.83
-
maltose
-
pH 4.5, 35C, recombinant wild-type enzyme
0.88
-
maltose
-
pH 4.5, 35C, recombinant mutant S30P/T62A/H391Y
0.89
-
maltose
-
pH 4.5, 35C, recombinant mutant S119P
0.9
-
maltose
-
mutant enzyme S184H
0.91
-
maltose
-
-
1
-
maltose
-
pH 4.5, 35C, recombinant mutant D20C/A27C/S30P/G137A
1.01
-
maltose
-
wild-type enzyme
1.015
-
maltose
-
-
1.08
-
maltose
-
mutant enzyme G183K
1.1
-
maltose
-
-
1.1
-
maltose
-
mutant enzyme S119Y
1.16
-
maltose
-
pH 4.5, 35C, recombinant mutant S30P/T290A/H391Y
1.19
-
maltose
-
pH 4.5, 35C, recombinant mutant S30P/H391Y
1.21
-
maltose
-
recombinant enzyme expressed in Aspergillus niger
1.26
-
maltose
-
mutant enzyme S411A
1.35
-
maltose
-
pH 4.5, 35C, recombinant mutant S30P/T290A
1.4
-
maltose
-
wild-type enzyme
1.59
-
maltose
-
mutant enzyme S411G
1.8
-
maltose
-
30C, pH 4.2, glucoamylase immobilized on macroporous silica
1.82
-
maltose
-
recombinant enzyme expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
1.9
-
maltose
-
enzyme form GI or GII
2
-
maltose
-
enzyme form GIII
2.97
-
maltose
-
recombinant enzyme expressed in Pichia pastoris
3
-
maltose
-
glucoamylase M2
3
-
maltose
-
wild-type enzyme
3
-
maltose
-
recombinant glucoamylase
3.5
-
maltose
Q58HN1
pH 5.0, 70C
3.5
-
maltose
-
values about 0.8 mg/ml for starch
3.58
-
maltose
-
mutant enzyme S411D
3.78
-
maltose
-
recombinant AmyD, pH 5.5, 40C
3.8
-
maltose
Q9C1V4, -
45C, pH 4.5
4.9
-
maltose
Q6KYX5
pH 5.0, 50C, recombinant enzyme