Information on EC 3.2.1.23 - beta-galactosidase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota, Bacteria, Archaea

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
3.2.1.23
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
beta-galactosidase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-D-galactosides
show the reaction diagram
mechanism
-
hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-D-galactosides
show the reaction diagram
catalytic mechanism, active site structure,Glu157 acts as the acid/base in the catalytic reaction
Q0R5R5
hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-D-galactosides
show the reaction diagram
Glu184 acts as acid/base catalyst
-
hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-D-galactosides
show the reaction diagram
the conserved residues E482, M522, Y523 and E551 are important in catalysis
-
hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-D-galactosides
show the reaction diagram
mechanism
Escherichia coli K 12, Escherichia coli ML 308
-
-
hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-D-galactosides
show the reaction diagram
mechanism; mechanism
Escherichia coli ML 309
-
-
hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-D-galactosides
show the reaction diagram
mechanism
Escherichia coli ML 35
-
-
hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-D-galactosides
show the reaction diagram
the conserved residues E482, M522, Y523 and E551 are important in catalysis
Kluyveromyces lactis MW 190-9B
-
-
hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-D-galactosides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
hydrolysis
Geobacillus stearothermophilus ATCC8005
-
-
-
hydrolysis of O-glycosyl bond
-
-
-
-
hyrolysis of O-glycosyl bond
-
-
O-glycosyl bond hydrolysis
-
-
PATHWAY
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
Galactose metabolism
-
Glycosaminoglycan degradation
-
Glycosphingolipid biosynthesis - ganglio series
-
lactose degradation II
-
lactose degradation III
-
Metabolic pathways
-
Other glycan degradation
-
Sphingolipid metabolism
-
xyloglucan degradation II (exoglucanase)
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
beta-D-galactoside galactohydrolase
Some enzymes in this group hydrolyse alpha-L-arabinosides; some animal enzymes also hydrolyse beta-D-fucosides and beta-D-glucosides; cf. EC 3.2.1.108 lactase.
SYNONYMS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
Acid beta-galactosidase
-
-
-
-
Acid beta-galactosidase
-
-
Acid beta-galactosidase
Guehomyces pullulans R1
-
-
-
BbgI
Bifidobacterium bifidum NCIMB41171
-
isozyme
-
BbgII
Bifidobacterium bifidum NCIMB41171
-
isozyme
-
BbgIII
-
isozyme
BbgIII
Bifidobacterium bifidum NCIMB41171
-
isozyme
-
BbgIV
Bifidobacterium bifidum NCIMB41171
-
isozyme
-
beta galactosidase
-
-
beta-D-galactohydrolase
-
-
beta-D-galactohydrolase
Geobacillus stearothermophilus ATCC8005
-
-
-
beta-D-galactosidase
-
-
beta-D-galactoside galactohydrolase
-
-
-
-
beta-D-galactoside galactohydrolase
P00723
-
beta-D-galactoside galactohydrolase
-
-
beta-D-galactoside galactohydrolase
-
-
beta-D-galactoside galactohydrolase
-
-
beta-D-galactoside galactohydrolase
Streptococcus mitis NCTC 12261T
-
-
-
beta-D-glactanase
-
-
-
-
beta-D-lactosidase
-
-
-
-
beta-gal
-
-
beta-gal
Q70SY0
-
beta-gal
P00723
-
beta-gal
Lactobacillus acidophilus JCM1132T
-
-
-
beta-gal
Q1G9Z4
-
beta-gal
Lactobacillus johnsonii JCM2122
-
-
-
beta-gal
Lactobacillus reuteri MEP181R88
-
-
-
beta-gal
Lactobacillus vaginalis MEP181R91
-
-
-
beta-gal
-
-
beta-gal
Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y187
-
-
-
beta-Gal 1
Aspergillus carbonarius ATCC6276
-
-
-
beta-Gal 2
Aspergillus carbonarius ATCC6276
-
-
-
beta-galactosidase
-
-
beta-galactosidase
D9IU57, D9IU58
-
beta-galactosidase
B6HYI9
-
beta-galactosidase
A3FFK4
-
beta-galactosidase
Bacillus megaterium 2-37-4-1
A3FFK4
-
-
beta-galactosidase
-
-
beta-galactosidase
-
-
beta-galactosidase
-
-
beta-galactosidase
-
-
beta-galactosidase
Geobacillus stearothermophilus ATCC8005
-
-
-
beta-galactosidase
-
-
beta-galactosidase
Kluyveromyces marxianus CDBBL 278
-
-
-
beta-galactosidase
-
-
beta-galactosidase
-
-
beta-galactosidase
-
-
beta-galactosidase
-
-
beta-galactosidase
-
-
beta-galactosidase
-
-
beta-galactosidase I
-
predominant isoform
beta-galactosidase II
-
-
beta-galactosidase III
-
-
beta-galactosidase IV
-
-
beta-galase
-
-
-
-
beta-lactosidase
-
-
-
-
betaGly4
-
-
BgaB
Geobacillus stearothermophilus KVE39
-
-
-
BgaBM
A3FFK4
-
BgaBM
Bacillus megaterium 2-37-4-1
A3FFK4
-
-
BgalA
Bispora sp.
C7SLY9
-
BgaS
Q7WTU5
-
BGL1
Talaromyces thermophilus
-
-
BGL1
Talaromyces thermophilus CBS 236.58
-
-
-
BglAp
Arthrobacter psychrolactophilus F2
Q08KN3
-
-
BGT I
Hypocrea jecorina FTKO-39
-
-
-
BGT II
Hypocrea jecorina FTKO-39
-
-
-
cold-active beta-galactosidase
Q08KN3
-
cold-active beta-galactosidase
Arthrobacter psychrolactophilus F2
Q08KN3
-
-
CTP-beta-gal
-
CTP-fused beta-galactosidase
driselase
-
-
-
-
endo-beta-galactosidase
-
-
Exo-(1-->4)-beta-D-galactanase
-
-
-
-
exo-beta-(1->3)-D-galactanase
-
-
-
-
Gal-2
Q9LFA6
-
Gal-5
Q9MAJ7
-
GALA
D9IU58
gene name
galactanase
-
-
galactosidase
Geobacillus stearothermophilus ATCC8005
-
-
-
galactosidase, beta
-
-
-
-
GALB
D9IU57
gene name
gherkin lactase
-
-
H-BgaS
Q7WTU5
His-tagged enzyme form
hcbetagal
-
-
Hydrolact
-
-
-
-
LACS
P22498
gene name
LACS
P22498
; gene name
-
lactase
-
-
-
-
lactase
Bispora sp.
C7SLY9
-
lactase
Geobacillus stearothermophilus ATCC8005
-
-
-
lactase
Kluyveromyces marxianus CDBBL 278
-
-
-
lactase
E7FHC0
-
lactase
-
-
lactase phlorizin hydrolase
-
-
lactosylceramidase II
-
-
-
-
Lactozym
-
-
-
-
Lactozym 3000L
-
-
Maxilact
-
-
-
-
ONPGase
Streptococcus mitis NCTC 12261T
-
-
-
Oryzatym
-
-
-
-
p-nitrophenyl beta-galactosidase
-
-
-
-
PF1208
E7FHC0
locus name
S 2107
-
-
-
-
SA-beta-GAL
-
-
SA-betagal
-
-
senescence-associated beta-galactosidase
-
-
senescence-associated beta-galactosidase
-
-
SPD_0065 protein
-
-
SR12 protein
-
-
-
-
Ss beta-gal
P22498
-
Ss beta-gal
P22498
-
-
SSO3019
P22498
locus name; locus name; locus name; locus name
-
Sumiklat
-
-
-
-
Trilactase
-
-
-
-
XG-specific beta-galactosidase
-
-
YH4502
O52629
-
Maxilact-L/2000
-
-
additional information
Q0R5R5
the enzyme belongs to the glycosyl hydrolase family 42
additional information
Q08KN3
the enzyme belongs to the glycosyl hydrolase family 2
additional information
Arthrobacter psychrolactophilus F2
Q08KN3
the enzyme belongs to the glycosyl hydrolase family 2
-
additional information
-
the enzymes LacAand YesZ, and GalA belong to the glycosyl hydrolase families 42 and 43, respectively
additional information
Q10RB4
cf. EC 3.2.1.145
additional information
-
the enzyme belongs to the glycosyl hydrolase family 35
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY
9031-11-2
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SEQUENCE CODE
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
strain HM-1 and 11-1O
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
subsp. rittmanii, a thermoacidophilic bacterium, strain ATCC 27009
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
subsp. rittmannii, strain MR1, isolated fom Antarctica, a thermoacidophilic bacterium
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius HM-1
strain HM-1 and 11-1O
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain F2, cold-active beta-galactosidase, gene bglA
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Arthrobacter psychrolactophilus F2
strain F2, cold-active beta-galactosidase, gene bglA
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
antarctic isolate
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 20B
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain C2-2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain SB, gene bgaS encoding a cold-active enzyme
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 20B
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain C2-2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain SB, gene bgaS encoding a cold-active enzyme
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain ATCC6276
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Aspergillus carbonarius ATCC6276
strain ATCC6276
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Aspergillus cellulosae
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain DSM 22593
Uniprot
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
RT 102, FERM-P1680
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
wild-type strains H26 and H-10-7, mutant strain H26-10-7
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain AF
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Aspergillus sp. AF
strain AF
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
L. cv. B10
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain L4
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus coagulans L4
strain L4
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus coagulans RCS3
strain RCS3
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 2-37-4-1
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 2-37-4-1, expression in Escherichia coli
TrEMBL
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain ATCC 14581, gene mbgA
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain KM, ATCC 13632
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain KM, inducible enzyme
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain WRU 370
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus megaterium 2-37-4-1
strain 2-37-4-1
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus megaterium 2-37-4-1
strain 2-37-4-1, expression in Escherichia coli
TrEMBL
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus megaterium KM
strain KM, ATCC 13632
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus megaterium KM
strain KM, inducible enzyme
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus megaterium WRU 370
strain WRU 370
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
MTCC 3088
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
No. C-125
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain TA-11
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus sp. No. C-125
No. C-125
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain TA-11
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
genes yesZ, lacA and galA
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
obligatory anaerobic, thermophilic, Gram-gegative strain NA10
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacteroides polypragmatus
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
ssp. lactis, strain Bb12
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain NCIMB41171
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bifidobacterium bifidum NCIMB41171
strain NCIMB41171
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain CCRC 15708
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain LL04
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bifidobacterium longum CCRC 15708
strain CCRC 15708
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bifidobacterium longum LL04
strain LL04
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis HL96
strain HL96
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bispora sp.
strain MEY-1
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bullera singularis
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bullera singularis
KCTC 7534
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bullera singularis KCTC 7534
KCTC 7534
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Caldariella acidophila
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Coffea sp.
coffee
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Corynebacterium murisepticum
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain OKN-4
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Cryptococcus laurentii OKN-4
strain OKN-4
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cultivar Palava
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Enterobacter cloacae B5
strain B5
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain K 12; strain ML 308; strain ML 309
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain LMG194
Uniprot
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain ML 309; strain ML 35
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strains ATCC 8677 and ATCC 35321
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Escherichia coli K 12
strain K 12
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Escherichia coli LMG194
strain LMG194
Uniprot
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Escherichia coli ML 308
strain ML 308
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Escherichia coli ML 309
strain ML 309
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Escherichia coli ML 35
strain ML 35
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 4214
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform BgaB; strain ATCC8005
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain ATCC 12977
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Geobacillus stearothermophilus ATCC8005
strain ATCC8005
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Geobacillus stearothermophilus HRI
strain HRI
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Geobacillus stearothermophilus KVE39
strain KVE39
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Guehomyces pullulans R1
strain R1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
patients with GM1 gangliosidosis
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
a legume tree from the Neotropical region of the world
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain FTKO-39, two isozymes BGT I and BGT II
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Hypocrea jecorina FTKO-39
strain FTKO-39, two isozymes BGT I and BGT II
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
i.e. Polyporus tulipiferae
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Kerstingiella geocarpa
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Kestingiella geocarpa
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain MW 190-9B
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Kluyveromyces lactis MW 190-9B
strain MW 190-9B
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain B57 and A60
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain DSM 5418
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain DSM5418
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Kluyveromyces marxianus B57
strain B57 and A60
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Kluyveromyces marxianus CDBBL 278
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Kluyveromyces marxianus DSM5418
strain DSM5418
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Kluyveromyces sp.
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
large subunit, gene lacL; strain R22, genes lacL and lacM encoding the two subunits of the enzyme
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
small subunit, gene lacM; strain R22, genes lacL and lacM encoding the two subunits of the enzyme
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain ATCC 4461
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
two strains isolated form human faeces
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Lactobacillus acidophilus R22
large subunit, gene lacL; strain R22, genes lacL and lacM encoding the two subunits of the enzyme
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Lactobacillus acidophilus R22
small subunit, gene lacM; strain R22, genes lacL and lacM encoding the two subunits of the enzyme
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
three strains, isolated form human faeces
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
several strains, isolated form human faeces
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 2607
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Lactobacillus casei 2607
strain 2607
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain ATCC 33820
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
two strains, isolated form human faeces
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
ssp. bulgaricus, strain NIAI B-6, isolated form human faeces
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain ATCC 11842, subspecies Lactobacillus delbrueckii bulgaricus
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
subsp. bulgaricus, wild type enzyme and mutant enzymes P429S and L317F
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
ssp. lactis, two strains, isolated form human faeces
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
two strains, isolated form human faeces
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
two strains, isolated form human faeces
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
several strains, isolated form human faeces
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Lactobacillus murinus CNRZ 131
CNRZ 131
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
three strains, isolated form human faeces
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
two strains, isolated form human faeces
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
large subunit; strain L103
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
small subunit; strain L103
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain L103; strain L461
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain MEP181R88, isolated form human faeces
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strains CF2-7F, DSM20016, MF14-C, MM2-3, MM7, and SD2112
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Lactobacillus reuteri L103
large subunit; strain L103
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Lactobacillus reuteri L103
small subunit; strain L103
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Lactobacillus reuteri L103
strain L103
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Lactobacillus reuteri L461
strain L461
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Lactobacillus reuteri MEP181R88
strain MEP181R88, isolated form human faeces
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
two strains, isolated form human faeces
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain MEP181R91, isolated form human faeces
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Lactobacillus vaginalis MEP181R91
strain MEP181R91, isolated form human faeces
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Leuconostoc citrovorum
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
twi +/i C57BL6 mice
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 74A
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Neurospora crassa 74A
strain 74A
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Neurospora sp.
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
no activity in Lactobacillus gasseri
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
no activity in Phaeobacter gallaeciensis BS107
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
no activity in Thalassobius aestuarii
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
no activity in Thalassobius aestuarii JC2049
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
no activity in Thalassobius mediterraneus
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
no activity in Thalassobius mediterraneus XSM19
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
precursor; two isozymes OsBGal1 and OsBGal2
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Paracolobactrum aerogenoides
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain F-178
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Penicillium canescens F-178
strain F-178
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Penicillium chrysogenum NCAIM 00237
NCAIM 00237
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Penicillium glaucum
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Penicillium toxidarium
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
multiple forms: H1, H2, H3 and H4
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cv. PDR14
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Planococcus sp.
-
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
almond
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cv. Mibackdo
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAE 79
TAE 79
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 22b
Uniprot
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
wild-type gene hlacz-sh; gene hlacz-sh
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Pyrococcus woesei DSM 3773
-
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
L. var. hortensis cv. Aokubi
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
neutral beta-galactosidase
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Rhizobium leguminosarum 4S
strain 4S
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Rhizomucor sp.
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Rhizopus acidus
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Rhizopus formosciensis
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Saccharomyces anamensis
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y187
strain Y187
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Saccharomyces fragilis
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Saccharomyces fragilis
strain KY5463
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Saccharomyces fragilis KY5463
strain KY5463
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Saccharomyces lactis
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula V2-2
strain V2-2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Scopulariopsis sp.
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Sporotrichum sp.
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain CBS8119
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Sterigmatomyces elviae CBS8119
strain CBS8119
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain NCTC 12261T
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Streptococcus mitis NCTC 12261T
strain NCTC 12261T
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
serotype 2 strain D39
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain R6, isoform BgaC
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 6646 K
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Streptococcus sp. 6646 K
strain 6646 K
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
formerly Calderiella acidophila, strain DSM1616
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Sulfolobus solfataricus DSM 1617
-
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Sulfolobus solfataricus MT-4
strain MT-4
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Talaromyces thermophilus
CBS 236.58
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Talaromyces thermophilus CBS 236.58
CBS 236.58
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Thalassobius gelatinovorus IAM 12617
IAM 12617
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
UST050418-052
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Thalassococcus halodurans UST050418-052
UST050418-052
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain TP6-B1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Thermoanaerobacter sp. TP6-B1
strain TP6-B1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Thermoanaerobacterium thermosulfurigenes EM1
strain EM1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Thermoanaerobium sp.
strain 2905
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Thermoanaerobium sp. 2905
strain 2905
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain YT-I
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Thermus aquaticus YT-I
strain YT-I
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 4-1A
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain A4
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Thermus sp. 4-1A
strain 4-1A
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain A4
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Torula thermophila
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Torulopsis sphaerica
strain J28
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Torulopsis sphaerica J28
strain J28
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Torulopsis versatilis
strain M6
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Torulopsis versatilis M6
strain M6
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Reiter strain
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Treponema phagedenis Reiter
Reiter strain
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
L. cv. Egret
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
a metagenomic library from topsoil of Daqing oil field of Heilongjiang Province in China is constructed for the screening of clones with beta-galactosidase activity
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Zygosaccharomyces lactis
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
malfunction
-
developing stems of transgenic (LuBGAL-RNAi) flax with reduced beta-galactosidase activity have lower concentrations of free Gal and have significant reductions in the thickness of mature cellulosic G-layers compared with controls. Gn-layers, labeled intensively by the galactan-specific LM5 antibody, are greatly expanded in LuBGAL-RNAi transgenic plants. Gross morphology and stem anatomy, including the thickness of bast fiber walls, are otherwise unaffected by silencing of beta-galactosidase transcripts
physiological function
-
beta-galactosidase activity is in fact necessary for the dynamic remodeling of polysaccharides that occurs during normal secondary wall development in flax fibers
physiological function
-
mutant PBL2025, that misses 50 genes (SSO3004-3050), including genes coding for a multitude of enzymes possibly involved in sugar degradation or metabolism, is complemented with one of the missing proteins, the beta-galactosidase (SSO3019). The beta-galactosidase complemented strain shows reduced carbohydrate content of the isolated total extracellular polymeric substance implying a role in the modulation of the produced EPS during static biofilm formation
physiological function
-
mutant PBL2025, that misses 50 genes (SSO3004-3050), including genes coding for a multitude of enzymes possibly involved in sugar degradation or metabolism, is complemented with one of the missing proteins, the beta-galactosidase (SSO3019). The beta-galactosidase complemented strain shows reduced carbohydrate content of the isolated total extracellular polymeric substance implying a role in the modulation of the produced EPS during static biofilm formation
-
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                      
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
(2R)-glycerol-O-D-beta-galactopyranoside + H2O
beta-D-galactose + glycerol
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
1-naphthyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
1-naphthol + beta-D-galactopyranose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
1-naphthyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
beta-D-galactose + 1-naphthol
show the reaction diagram
Thermus aquaticus, Thermus aquaticus YT-I
-
-
-
-
?
1-naphthyl-beta-D-glucoside + H2O
beta-D-glucose + 1-naphthol
show the reaction diagram
Thermus aquaticus, Thermus aquaticus YT-I
-
-
-
-
?
2,4-dinitrophenyl 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-3)-[alpha-L-fucopyranosyl-(1-2)]-beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2,4-dinitrophenol + 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-3)-[alpha-L-fucopyranosyl-(1-2)]-beta-D-galactopyranoside
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2,4-dinitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
2,4-dinitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2,4-dinitrophenyl-beta-D-glucoside + H2O
2,4-dinitrophenol + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
activity is 10000 times lower than with 2,4-dinitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl alpha-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + alpha-D-galactopyranose
show the reaction diagram
-
1.62% relative activity compared to 2-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranose + H2O
2-nitrophenol + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranose + H2O
2-nitrophenol + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
P22498
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + D-mannitol
beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-1)-D-mannitol + 2-nitrophenol
show the reaction diagram
Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter cloacae B5
-
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
P00722
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-, Q0R5R5
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-, P00723, Q6QTF4
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-, O07684, O07685
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-, Q08KN3
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Q10RB4
-
-
-
ir
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
O52629, -
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Bispora sp.
C7SLY9
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-, Q1G9Z4
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
B6HYI9
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
D9IU57, D9IU58
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
low activity
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
preferred substrate
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
pH 5.0-9.0, 55C
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
pH 6.3, 3 min, 47C
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
3times lower activity than for 4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
about 83% activity compared to 4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Sulfolobus solfataricus MT-4
-
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y187
-
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Bifidobacterium longum LL04
-
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Aspergillus sp. AF
-
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Lactobacillus casei 2607
-
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula V2-2
-
-
-
-
-
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Penicillium canescens F-178
-
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Lactobacillus acidophilus R22
O07684, O07685
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Bifidobacterium longum CCRC 15708
-
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Arthrobacter psychrolactophilus F2
Q08KN3
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Geobacillus stearothermophilus ATCC8005
-
pH 5.0-9.0, 55C
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Kluyveromyces marxianus CDBBL 278
-
pH 6.3, 3 min, 47C
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
3times lower activity than for 4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Hypocrea jecorina FTKO-39
-
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus megaterium WRU 370
-
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Bifidobacterium bifidum NCIMB41171
-
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Kluyveromyces lactis MW 190-9B
-
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus megaterium KM
-
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Streptococcus mitis NCTC 12261T
-
about 83% activity compared to 4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactopyranose
show the reaction diagram
Q70SY0
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactopyranose
show the reaction diagram
E7FHC0
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactopyranose
show the reaction diagram
-
100% activity
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactopyranose
show the reaction diagram
P29853
6% activity compared to 4-nitrophenyl alpha-D-galactopyranoside
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactopyranose
show the reaction diagram
C7ASJ5
the enzyme displays 4times higher level of activity with 4-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside than with 2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactopyranose
show the reaction diagram
-
The enzyme hydrolysis of 2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside is linear within 3.5 h reaching 60-65% of substrate conversion, than practically stops
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Q9LFA6, Q9MAJ7
-
61% of the activity with 4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Q9LFA6, Q9MAJ7
-
72% of the activity with 4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Aspergillus carbonarius ATCC6276
-
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactopyranoside
show the reaction diagram
Pyrococcus woesei, Pyrococcus woesei DSM 3773
O52629
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + L-sorbose
beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-1)-L-sorbose + 2-nitrophenol
show the reaction diagram
Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter cloacae B5
-
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + salicin
2-(hydroxymethyl)phenyl beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside + 2-nitrophenol
show the reaction diagram
Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter cloacae B5
-
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-, P00723, Q6QTF4
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Q19R71, Q19R72
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
A3FFK4, -, O52847
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus megaterium 2-37-4-1
A3FFK4, O52847
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Kluyveromyces marxianus DSM5418
-
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Lactobacillus reuteri L103
Q19R71, Q19R72
-
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-glucopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-glucopyranose
show the reaction diagram
C7ASJ5
0.5% of the activity with 2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl beta-D-glucopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-glucopyranose
show the reaction diagram
-
3.27% relative activity compared to 2-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-mannopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + alpha-D-mannopyranose
show the reaction diagram
-
0.31% relative activity compared to 2-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
-
?
2-nitrophenyl-beta-D-fucopyranoside + H2O
2-nitrophenol + beta-D-fucose
show the reaction diagram
-, Q0R5R5
-
-
-
?
2-phenylethyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
2-phenylethanol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3,4-dinitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
3,4-dinitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
3-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactopyranose
show the reaction diagram
-
0.13% relative activity compared to 2-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
-
?
4-methylumbelliferyl beta-D-galactoside + H2O
4-methylumbelliferone + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-methylumbelliferyl beta-D-galactoside + H2O
4-methylumbelliferone + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-methylumbelliferyl beta-D-galactoside + H2O
4-methylumbelliferone + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus reuteri L461, Lactobacillus reuteri L103
-
-
-
-
?
4-methylumbelliferyl-alpha-L-D-arabinoside + H2O
4-methylumbelliferone + alpha-L-arabinose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
4-methylumbelliferone + beta-D-galactopyranose
show the reaction diagram
-
pH 4.0, 30 min, 37C
-
-
?
4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
4-methylumbelliferone + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
4-methylumbelliferone + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
4-methylumbelliferone + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
4-methylumbelliferone + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
4-methylumbelliferone + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
4-methylumbelliferone + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Q9LFA6, Q9MAJ7
-
18% of the activity with 4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
?
4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
4-methylumbelliferone + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Q9LFA6, Q9MAJ7
-
20% of the activity with 4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
?
4-nitrophenyl alpha-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + alpha-D-galactopyranose
show the reaction diagram
P29853
100% activity
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl alpha-L-arabinopyranoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + alpha-L-arabinopyranose
show the reaction diagram
P29853
42% activity compared to 4-nitrophenyl alpha-D-galactopyranoside
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl beta-D-arabinoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + beta-D-arabinose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl beta-D-fucopyranoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + beta-D-fucopyranose
show the reaction diagram
P29853
3% activity compared to 4-nitrophenyl alpha-D-galactopyranoside
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactopyranose
show the reaction diagram
P29853
81% activity compared to 4-nitrophenyl alpha-D-galactopyranoside
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactopyranose
show the reaction diagram
C7ASJ5
the enzyme displays 4times higher level of activity with 4-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside than with 2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactopyranose
show the reaction diagram
E7FHC0
94% of the activity compared to 2-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme catalysed both hydrolysis and transglycosylation
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme catalyses both hydrolysis and transglycosylation
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl beta-D-glucopyranoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + beta-D-glucopyranose
show the reaction diagram
-
0.47% relative activity compared to 2-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl beta-D-glucopyranoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + beta-D-glucopyranose
show the reaction diagram
C7ASJ5
1.4% of the activity with 2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl beta-D-glucopyranoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
low activity
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl beta-D-glucuronide + H2O
4-nitrophenol + beta-D-glucuronate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl beta-D-mannoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + beta-D-mannose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucopyranoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucopyranose
show the reaction diagram
-
1.18% relative activity compared to 2-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + alpha-D-galactopyranose
show the reaction diagram
-
0.51% relative activity compared to 2-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside, 0.9% relative activity compared to 2-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + alpha-L-arabinose
show the reaction diagram
-, Q0R5R5
-
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl-alpha-L-arabinoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + alpha-L-arabinose
show the reaction diagram
-
0.74% relative activity compared to 2-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-fucopyranoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + beta-D-fucose
show the reaction diagram
Q10RB4
-
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Bullera singularis
-
-
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-, Q0R5R5
-
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-, P00723, Q6QTF4
-
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-, Q08KN3
-
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Q10RB4
-
-
-
ir
4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
O52629, -
-
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Kestingiella geocarpa
-
-
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
100% activity
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
preferred substrate, 3times higher activity than for 2-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Arthrobacter psychrolactophilus F2
Q08KN3
-
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Geobacillus stearothermophilus KVE39
-
-
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Aspergillus carbonarius ATCC6276
-
-
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
preferred substrate, 3times higher activity than for 2-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Streptococcus mitis NCTC 12261T
-
100% activity
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactopyranose
show the reaction diagram
-
34.49% relative activity compared to 2-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Q9LFA6, Q9MAJ7
-
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Aspergillus carbonarius ATCC6276
-
-
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-, P00723, Q6QTF4
-
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
A3FFK4, -, O52847
89% of the activity with 2-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus megaterium 2-37-4-1
A3FFK4, O52847
89% of the activity with 2-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Kluyveromyces marxianus DSM5418
-
-
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucuronide + H2O
4-nitrophenol + beta-D-glucurone
show the reaction diagram
-
0.69% relative activity compared to 2-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-mannopyranoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + beta-D-mannopyranose
show the reaction diagram
-
0.9% relative activity compared to 2-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-xylopyranoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + beta-D-xylopyranose
show the reaction diagram
-
0.31% relative activity compared to 2-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl-beta-L-arabinoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + beta-L-arabinose
show the reaction diagram
-
0.21% relative activity compared to 2-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
-
?
5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
5-bromo-4-chloro-indol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
D9IU57, D9IU58
-
-
-
?
5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
5-bromo-4-chloro-indol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
5-bromo-4-chloroindol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
5-bromo-4-chloroindol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
P29853
-
-
-
?
5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
5-bromo-4-chloroindol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
5-bromo-4-chloroindol + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Q9LFA6, Q9MAJ7
-
43% of the activity with 4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
?
5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
5-bromo-4-chloroindol + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Q9LFA6, Q9MAJ7
-
56% of the activity with 4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
?
5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
5-bromo-4-chloroindol + beta-D-galactopyranose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
5-bromo-4-chloroindol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indoxyl-beta-galactoside + H2O
5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indoxol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
5-dodecanoylaminofluorescein di-beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
6-bromo-2-naphthyl-beta-galactoside + H2O
6-bromo-2-naphthol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
6-bromo-2-naphthyl-beta-galactoside + H2O
6-bromo-2-naphthol + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Q9LFA6, Q9MAJ7
-
22% of the activity with 4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
?
6-bromo-2-naphthyl-beta-galactoside + H2O
6-bromo-2-naphthol + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Q9LFA6, Q9MAJ7
-
30% of the activity with 4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
?
9H-(1,3-dichloro-9,9-dimethylacridin-2-one-7-yl) beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
9H-(1,3-dichloro-9,9-dimethylacridin-2-one-7-ol) + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
9H-(1,3-dichloro-9,9-dimethylacridin-2-one-7-yl)-beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
9H-(1,3-dichloro-9,9-dimethylacridin-2-one-7-yl)-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
assays are performed on individual Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase molecules at 2 different concentrations of the substrate DDAO-beta-D-galactoside using a free zone capillary electrophoresis-based protocol with an in-laboratory-constructed instrument utilizing laser-induced fluorescence detection
-
-
?
agarose + H2O
beta-D-galactose + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
allolactose + H2O
D-galactose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
allolactose + H2O
D-galactose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Escherichia coli K 12, Escherichia coli ML 308, Escherichia coli ML 309
-
-
-
-
?
asialo alpha1-acid glycoprotein + H2O
beta-D-galactose + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
asialofetuin + H2O
beta-D-galactose + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
beta-(1->3)-D-galactan + H2O
beta-D-galactose + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
beta-1,3-galactobiose + H2O
beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
beta-1,3-galactobiose + H2O
beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
beta-1,3-galactotriitol + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
beta-1,3-galactotriose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
beta-1,3-galactotriose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
beta-1,6-galactobiose + H2O
beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
beta-1,6-galactotriitol + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
beta-1,6-galactotriose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
beta-D-(1-6) galactobiose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium bifidum NCIMB41171
-
isozymes BbgI, BbgIV, and BbgIII showe minor activity towards beta-D-(1-6) galactobiose (less than 4.7%) in comparison to lactose, whereas isozyme BbgII has a more than 22fold preference for that substrate
-
-
?
beta-D-galactosyl azide + H2O
azide + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
beta-D-galactosyl fluoride + H2O
fluoride + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
butyl O-beta-galactoside + H2O
butanol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
cellobiose + H2O
D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
cellobiose + H2O
D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
cellobiose + H2O
D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
41.7% of the activity with lactose
-
-
?
ceramide lacto-N-tetraose + H2O
beta-D-galactose + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
chlorophenol red beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
chlorophenol red + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
digalactosyl ceramide + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ethyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
ethanol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
exopolysaccharide + H2O
beta-D-galactose + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
modified exopolysaccharides produced by Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremonis B39 and B891
-
-
?
floxuridine + beta-galactose
5'-O-beta-D-galactosylfloxuridine
show the reaction diagram
-
5-O-beta-D-galactosylfloxuridine is synthesized with a yield of 75% through beta-galactosidase-catalyzed transgalactosylation. Enzyme displays absolute regioselectivity toward the 5'-position of floxuridine. Reaction condition: pH 6.5, 45C for 60 h
-
-
-
fluorescein-beta-D-digalactopyranoside + H2O
fluorescein + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
Gal-alpha(1,3)-Gal-beta-2,4-dinitrophenyl + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
galactan + H2O
galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
+ small amounts of glucose and arabinose
-
galactan + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
the GHF 42 enzyme LacA can act on the oligosaccharides released by the GH53 enzyme GalA from galactan, overview
-
-
?
galactan + H2O
beta-D-galactose + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
galactobiose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Q70SY0
-
-
-
?
galactosyl-fetuin + H2O
galactose + fetuin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
galactosyl-ovomucoid + H2O
galactose + ovomucoid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
galactotetraose + H2O
beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
the GHF 42 enzyme LacA can act on the oligosaccharides released by the GH53 enzyme GalA from galactan, overview
-
-
?
galactoxyloglucan + H2O
galactose + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
gentiobiose + H2O
D-galactose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
14.3% of the activity with lactose
-
-
?
glycoasparagines + H2O
galactose + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
hydrolysis of beta-galactosyl linkages in urinary glycoasparagines
-
?
glycolipid GM1 ganglioside + H2O
beta-D-galactose + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glycolipid GM1 ganglioside + H2O
beta-D-galactose + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
keratan sulfate + H2O
beta-D-galactose + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
lactose + 2-phenylethanol
?
show the reaction diagram
-
transgalactosylation
-
-
?
lactose + alpha-D-methyl-galactoside
?
show the reaction diagram
-
transgalactosylation
-
-
?
lactose + alpha-D-methyl-glucoside
?
show the reaction diagram
-
transgalactosylation
-
-
?
lactose + arabinose
?
show the reaction diagram
-
transgalactosylation
-
-
?
lactose + benzyloxycarbonyl-Hyp-methyl ester
?
show the reaction diagram
-
transgalactosylation
-
-
?
lactose + benzyloxycarbonyl-Ser-methyl ester
?
show the reaction diagram
-
transgalactosylation
-
-
?
lactose + benzyloxycarbonyl-Thr-methyl ester
?
show the reaction diagram
-
transgalactosylation
-
-
?
lactose + cellobiose
?
show the reaction diagram
-
transgalactosylation
-
-
?
lactose + fructose
?
show the reaction diagram
Thermus aquaticus, Thermus aquaticus YT-I
-
transgalactosylation
-
-
?
lactose + glucose
?
show the reaction diagram
-
transgalactosylation
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Talaromyces thermophilus
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Corynebacterium murisepticum
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Thermoanaerobium sp.
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Caldariella acidophila
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Bacteroides polypragmatus
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Rhizomucor sp.
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Q7WTU5
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
P81650, -
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-, Q0R5R5
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-, P00723, Q6QTF4
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-, O07684, O07685
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-, Q08KN3
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
A3FFK4, -, O52847
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
P22498
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
E7FHC0
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
glucose + galactose + considerable amounts of trisaccharides and tetrasaccharides + trace amounts of oligosaccharides
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
alpha-lactose
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Q6RGS1
90% of milk lactose is hydrolyzed during 6 h at 30C and during 28 h at 15C
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
the lactose hydrolysis reaction takes place concomitantly with the transgalactosylation reaction at high substrate concentrations
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-, Q08KN3
the enzyme is involved in lactose degradation in milk
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-, P00723, Q6QTF4
the enzyme is involved in lactose hydrolysis in the small intestine of the host organism
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
from milk and milk whey
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
11.7% relative activity compared to 2-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Sterigmatomyces elviae CBS8119
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus megaterium 2-37-4-1
A3FFK4, O52847
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus coagulans L4
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Cryptococcus laurentii OKN-4
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Rhizobium leguminosarum 4S
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Lactobacillus reuteri L461
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Geobacillus stearothermophilus HRI
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Sulfolobus solfataricus DSM 1617
P22498
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Streptococcus sp. 6646 K
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Guehomyces pullulans R1
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Escherichia coli K 12
-
alpha-lactose
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula V2-2
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Talaromyces thermophilus CBS 236.58
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Lactobacillus acidophilus R22
O07684, O07685
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Arthrobacter psychrolactophilus F2
Q08KN3
-, the enzyme is involved in lactose degradation in milk
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Geobacillus stearothermophilus ATCC8005
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Escherichia coli ML 308
-
alpha-lactose
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus sp. No. C-125
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Escherichia coli ML 309
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Escherichia coli ML 309
-
alpha-lactose
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Lactobacillus johnsonii JCM2122
-
-, the enzyme is involved in lactose fermentation in the colon playing a central role in lactose intolerance in humans
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus coagulans RCS3
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Lactobacillus reuteri MEP181R88
-
-, the enzyme is involved in lactose fermentation in the colon playing a central role in lactose intolerance in humans
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Treponema phagedenis Reiter
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
P22498
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Lactobacillus vaginalis MEP181R91
-
-, the enzyme is involved in lactose fermentation in the colon playing a central role in lactose intolerance in humans
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Hypocrea jecorina FTKO-39
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Lactobacillus acidophilus JCM1132T
-
-, the enzyme is involved in lactose fermentation in the colon playing a central role in lactose intolerance in humans
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Thermoanaerobacter sp. TP6-B1
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Lactobacillus reuteri L103
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAE 79
P81650
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis HL96
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Kluyveromyces lactis MW 190-9B
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius HM-1
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Escherichia coli ML 35
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Thermoanaerobium sp. 2905
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-galactose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-galactose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-galactose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
P00722
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-galactose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-galactose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-galactose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-galactose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
P29853
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-galactose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-galactose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-galactose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-galactose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-galactose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-galactose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-galactose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-, P00723, Q6QTF4
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-galactose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-galactose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-galactose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-galactose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
lactose + H2O
D-galactose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-galactose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-galactose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-galactose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-galactose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-galactose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Q19R71, Q19R72
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-galactose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
A3FFK4, -, O52847
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-galactose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Q70SY0
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-galactose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
P00723
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-galactose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
C7ASJ5
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-galactose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-, Q1G9Z4
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-galactose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
preferred substrate
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-galactose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
about 36% activity compared to 4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-galactose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus megaterium 2-37-4-1
A3FFK4, O52847
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-galactose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Kluyveromyces marxianus DSM5418
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-galactose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Aspergillus sp. AF
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-galactose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Geobacillus stearothermophilus KVE39
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-galactose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Aspergillus carbonarius ATCC6276
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-galactose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-galactose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Bifidobacterium bifidum NCIMB41171
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-galactose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Lactobacillus reuteri L103
Q19R71, Q19R72
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-galactose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Streptococcus mitis NCTC 12261T
-
about 36% activity compared to 4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
galactooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
Bullera singularis, Bullera singularis KCTC 7534
-
high transgalactosylation activity
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
beta-D-glucose + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
beta-D-glucose + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
beta-D-glucose + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-, the enzyme is involved in the lactose metabolism of the organism, overview
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
beta-D-glucose + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Sulfolobus solfataricus MT-4
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
beta-D-glucose + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus megaterium KM
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-galactose + D-glucose + oligosaccharide
show the reaction diagram
Bispora sp.
C7SLY9
under simulated gastric conditions, BgalA has greater stability (about 100%) and hydrolysis ratio (more than 80%) toward milk lactose than the commercially available beta-galactosidase from Aspergillus oryzae (ATCC 20423)
the main products of lactose hydrolysis by recombinant BgalA are 19.5% D-galactose, 72.5% D-glucose, and 8.0% oligosaccharide
-
?
lactose + H2O+
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + hydroquinone
hydroquinone galactoside + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
transgalactosylation
10.95% yield
-
?
lactose + hydroquinone
hydroquinone galactoside + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
transgalactosylation
11% yield
-
?
lactose + hydroquinone
hydroquinone galactoside + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
transgalactosylation
18.72% yield
-
?
lactose + hydroquinone
hydroquinone galactoside + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
transgalactosylation
60.27% yield
-
?
lactose + lactulose
?
show the reaction diagram
-
transgalactosylation
-
-
?
lactose + lyxose
?
show the reaction diagram
-
transgalactosylation
-
-
?
lactose + myo-inositol
6-beta-O-D-galactopyranosyl myo-inositol + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
lactose + p-nitrophenyl beta-D-glucoside
?
show the reaction diagram
-
transgalactosylation
-
-
?
lactose + rhamnose
?
show the reaction diagram
-
transgalactosylation
-
-
?
lactose + sucrose
?
show the reaction diagram
-
transgalactosylation
-
-
?
lactose + xylose
?
show the reaction diagram
-
transgalactosylation
-
-
?
lactose + xylose
?
show the reaction diagram
-
transgalactosylation
-
-
?
lactosucrose + H2O
D-galactose + ?
show the reaction diagram
Geobacillus stearothermophilus, Geobacillus stearothermophilus KVE39
-
-
-
-
?
lactosyl ceramide + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactosyl ceramide + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactosyl ceramide + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactosyl ceramide + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactulose + H2O
D-galactose + D-fructose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactulose + H2O
D-galactose + D-fructose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactulose + H2O
D-galactose + D-fructose
show the reaction diagram
Cryptococcus laurentii OKN-4
-
-
-
-
?
lactulose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mitis NCTC 12261T
-
about 0.7% activity compared to 4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
-
?
lactulose + H2O
D-fructose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-, Q0R5R5
-
-
-
?
lactulose + H2O
D-fructose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Q70SY0
-
-
-
?
methyl beta-D-galactohexaoside + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
methyl beta-D-galactohexaoside + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
beta-1,6-linked
-
-
?
methyl beta-D-galactohexaoside + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Streptococcus sp. 6646 K
-
-
-
-
?
methyl beta-D-galactopentaoside + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
methyl beta-D-galactopentaoside + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
beta-1,3-linked or beta-1,6-linked
-
-
?
methyl beta-D-galactotetraoside + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
methyl beta-D-galactotetraoside + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
beta-1,3-linked
-
-
?
methyl O-beta-galactoside + H2O
methanol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
methyl O-beta-galactoside + H2O
methanol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
methyl O-beta-galactoside + H2O
methanol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
methyl O-beta-galactoside + H2O
methanol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Thermoanaerobacter sp., Thermoanaerobacter sp. TP6-B1
-
-
-
-
?
methyl salicylate beta-D-galactoside + H2O
methyl salicylate + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
methyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
methanol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
methyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
methanol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
methyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
methanol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Sulfolobus solfataricus MT-4
-
-
-
-
?
methylthio-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
galactose + methanethiol
show the reaction diagram
Thermoanaerobacter sp., Thermoanaerobacter sp. TP6-B1
-
-
-
-
?
monogalactosyldiacylglycerol + H2O
galactose + diacylglycerol
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
O-beta-D-galactosyl-1,3-D-arabinoside + H2O
beta-D-galactose + D-arabinose
show the reaction diagram
Rhizobium leguminosarum, Rhizobium leguminosarum 4S
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl beta-D-fucopyranoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-fucose
show the reaction diagram
Planococcus sp.
Q9KI47
6.1% of the activity with o-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl beta-D-fucoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-fucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl beta-D-fucoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-fucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Q7WTU5
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Planococcus sp.
Q9KI47
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
P81650, -
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme is specific for beta-D-anomeric linkages
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus coagulans RCS3
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Penicillium chrysogenum NCAIM 00237
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAE 79
P81650
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis HL96
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Saccharomyces fragilis
-
-
-
-
-
o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Saccharomyces fragilis
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Corynebacterium murisepticum
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Saccharomyces lactis
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Bacteroides polypragmatus
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Torulopsis versatilis, Torulopsis sphaerica
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Scopulariopsis sp.
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Rhizomucor sp.
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Q6RGS1
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
A3FFK4, -, O52847
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
weak activity
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
beta-galactosidase I, beta-galactosidase II, beta-galactosidase III, beta-galactosidase IV
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
lacZ expresses a beta-galactosidase with extremely low enzymatic activity
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
no hydrolysis activity is observed in 1,4-dioxane, methylsulphoxide, N,N-dimethylformamide, or pyridine
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Sterigmatomyces elviae CBS8119
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Torulopsis sphaerica J28
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus megaterium 2-37-4-1
A3FFK4, O52847
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus coagulans L4
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Thermus sp. 4-1A
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Cryptococcus laurentii OKN-4
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Thermus aquaticus YT-I
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Lactobacillus reuteri L461
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Streptococcus sp. 6646 K
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Torulopsis versatilis M6
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Guehomyces pullulans R1
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Escherichia coli K 12, Escherichia coli ML 308
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus sp. No. C-125
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Thermoanaerobacterium thermosulfurigenes EM1
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Escherichia coli ML 309
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Kluyveromyces marxianus B57
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Treponema phagedenis Reiter
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Thermoanaerobacter sp. TP6-B1
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Lactobacillus reuteri L103
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius HM-1
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
o-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Saccharomyces fragilis KY5463
-
-
-
-
-
o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + myo-inositol
?
show the reaction diagram
-
transgalactosylation
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl alpha-arabinofuranoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + alpha-arabinose
show the reaction diagram
-
weak activity
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl alpha-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + alpha-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl alpha-D-glucopyranoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + alpha-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl alpha-D-glucopyranoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + alpha-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
beta-galactosidase I: 11.3% of the activity with p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside. beta-Galactosidase II, 4.9% of the activity with p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside. beta-Galactosidase III, 2.0% of the activity with p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside. beta-Galactosidase IV, 8.1% of the activity with p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside. beta-Galactosidase V, 6.8% of the activity with p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl alpha-D-mannopyranoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + alpha-D-mannose
show the reaction diagram
-
beta-galactosidase I: 0.7% of the activity with p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside. beta-Galactosidase II, 1.4% of the activity with p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside. beta-Galactosidase III, 0.4% of the activity with p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside. beta-Galactosidase IV, 49.4% of the activity with p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside. beta-Galactosidase V, 0.5% of the activity with p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl alpha-L-arabinopyranoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + alpha-L-arabinopyranose
show the reaction diagram
-
beta-galactosidase I: 20.1% of the activity with p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside. beta-Galactosidase II, 32.7% of the activity with p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside. beta-Galactosidase III, 24.6% of the activity with p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside. beta-Galactosidase IV, 12.5% of the activity with p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside. beta-Galactosidase V, 18.5% of the activity with p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl alpha-L-arabinoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + alpha-L-arabinose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl alpha-L-arabinoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + alpha-L-arabinose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl alpha-L-arabinoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + alpha-L-arabinose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl alpha-L-arabinoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + alpha-L-arabinose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl alpha-L-arabinoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + alpha-L-arabinose
show the reaction diagram
Escherichia coli ML 309
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl alpha-L-arabinoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + alpha-L-arabinose
show the reaction diagram
Thermoanaerobacter sp. TP6-B1
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl alpha-L-arabinoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + alpha-L-arabinose
show the reaction diagram
Escherichia coli ML 35
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl alpha-L-fucopyranoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + alpha-L-fucose
show the reaction diagram
-
beta-galactosidase I: 1.4% of the activity with p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside. beta-Galactosidase II, 1.1% of the activity with p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside. beta-Galactosidase III, 1.2% of the activity with p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside. beta-Galactosidase IV, 4.6% of the activity with p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside. beta-Galactosidase V, 1.6% of the activity with p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl alpha-L-galactopyranoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + alpha-L-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
beta-galactosidase I: 2.0% of the activity with p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside. beta-Galactosidase II, 3.0% of the activity with p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside. beta-Galactosidase III, 0.8% of the activity with p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside. beta-Galactosidase IV, 3.9% of the activity with p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside. beta-Galactosidase V, 1.4% of the activity with p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl beta-D-fucopyranoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + beta-D-fucose
show the reaction diagram
Planococcus sp.
Q9KI47
3.8% of the activity with o-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl beta-D-fucopyranoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + beta-D-fucose
show the reaction diagram
-
beta-galactosidase I: 27.6% of the activity with p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside. beta-Galactosidase II, 35.7% of the activity with p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside. beta-Galactosidase III, 31.2% of the activity with p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside. beta-Galactosidase IV, 14.8% of the activity with p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside. beta-Galactosidase V, 26.2% of the activity with p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl beta-D-fucoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + beta-D-fucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Thermoanaerobium sp.
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Q7WTU5
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Bullera singularis
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Kerstingiella geocarpa
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Planococcus sp.
Q9KI47
93% of the activity with o-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Bullera singularis KCTC 7534
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Thermoanaerobium sp. 2905
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl beta-D-glucopyranoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl beta-D-glucopyranoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
beta-galactosidase I: 1.4% of the activity with p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside. beta-Galactosidase II, 1.0% of the activity with p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside. beta-Galactosidase III, 3.6% of the activity with p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside. beta-Galactosidase IV, 4.4% of the activity with p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside. beta-Galactosidase V, 1.6% of the activity with p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl beta-D-glucuronide + H2O
p-nitrophenol + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
beta-galactosidase I: 4.7% of the activity with p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside. beta-Galactosidase II, 3.8% of the activity with p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside. beta-Galactosidase III, 0.8% of the activity with p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside. beta-Galactosidase IV, 15.6% of the activity with p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside. beta-Galactosidase V, 64% of the activity with p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl beta-D-mannopyranoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + beta-D-mannose
show the reaction diagram
-
beta-galactosidase I: 0.7% of the activity with p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside. beta-Galactosidase II, 0.8% of the activity with p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside. beta-Galactosidase III, 0.6% of the activity with p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside. beta-Galactosidase IV, 4.2% of the activity with p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside. beta-Galactosidase V, 0.5% of the activity with p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl beta-D-xylopyranoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + beta-D-xylose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl beta-D-xylopyranoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + beta-D-xylose
show the reaction diagram
-
beta-galactosidase I: 1.5% of the activity with p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside. beta-Galactosidase II, 2.2% of the activity with p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside. beta-Galactosidase III, 1.7% of the activity with p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside. beta-Galactosidase IV, 4.7% of the activity with p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside. beta-Galactosidase V, 2.3% of the activity with p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminide + H2O
p-nitrophenol + N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine
show the reaction diagram
-
beta-galactosidase I: 2.0% of the activity with p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside. beta-Galactosidase II, 4.8% of the activity with p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside. beta-Galactosidase III, 1.4% of the activity with p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside. beta-Galactosidase IV, 10.4% of the activity with p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside. beta-Galactosidase V, 1.4% of the activity with p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
A3FFK4, -, O52847
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus megaterium 2-37-4-1
A3FFK4, O52847
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + alpha-D-methyl-galactoside
?
show the reaction diagram
-
transgalactosylation
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + alpha-D-methyl-glucoside
?
show the reaction diagram
-
transgalactosylation
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + D-glucose
lactose + p-nitrophenol
show the reaction diagram
-
transgalactosylation
-
?
p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + glucose
?
show the reaction diagram
-
transgalactosylation
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Scopulariopsis sp.
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Rhizomucor sp.
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Q6RGS1
58% higher activity than with o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Cryptococcus laurentii OKN-4
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Streptococcus sp. 6646 K
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Escherichia coli K 12
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula V2-2
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Escherichia coli ML 308
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Thermoanaerobacterium thermosulfurigenes EM1
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Escherichia coli ML 309
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Treponema phagedenis Reiter
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Escherichia coli ML 35
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + myo-inositol
?
show the reaction diagram
-
transgalactosylation
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + p-nitrophenyl beta-D-glucoside
?
show the reaction diagram
-
transgalactosylation
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + sucrose
?
show the reaction diagram
-
transgalactosylation
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside + xylose
?
show the reaction diagram
-
transgalactosylation
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
20.6% of the activity with lactose
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Rhizobium leguminosarum 4S
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucuronide + H2O
p-nitrophenol + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
60% of the activity with p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside
-
-
?
pectic galactan + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
pectic galactan + H2O
galactose + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
pectic polysaccharides + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
1.27% relative activity compared to 2-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
-
?
phenyl-alpha-D-galactoside + H2O
phenol + alpha-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
14% of the activity with o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside
-
-
?
phenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
phenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Sulfolobus solfataricus, Sulfolobus solfataricus MT-4
-
-
-
-
?
phenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
phenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
phenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
phenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
phenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
phenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
phenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
phenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
phenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
phenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
phenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
phenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
11% of the activity with o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside
-
-
?
phenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
phenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Rhizobium leguminosarum 4S
-
-
-
-
?
phenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
phenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Streptococcus sp. 6646 K
-
-
-
-
?
phenyl-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
phenol + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Escherichia coli K 12, Escherichia coli ML 308, Escherichia coli ML 309
-
-
-
-
-
phlorizin + H2O
D-galactose + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
resorufin-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
resorufin-gal + H2O
resorufin + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
tetrahexosyl ceramide + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thio-(o-nitrophenyl)-beta-D-galactoside + H2O
thio-(o-nitrophenol) + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
trihexosyl ceramide + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
xyloglucan + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
structural xyloglucans show 0.57% relative activity compared to 2-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside, reserve xyloglucans show 1.8% relative activity compared to 2-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
-
?
xyloglucan oligosaccharides + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme hcbetagal is involved in storage xyloglucan mobilisation during seedling development, hcbetagal might be one of the biochemical control points in xyloglucan catabolism in vivo, the enzyme hcbetagal is specific for xyloglucan oligosaccharides, but does not attack the polymer
-
-
?
lactitol + H2O
D-galactose + D-glucitol
show the reaction diagram
Cryptococcus laurentii, Cryptococcus laurentii OKN-4
-
-
-
-
?
lactose
additional information
-
-
transgalactosylation
oligosaccharides with the general structure (Gal)n-Glc, where n is 1, 2, 3, and 4 with a glucose at a reducing terminal
?
lactose
additional information
-
-
transgalactosylation
O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1, 4)-o-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1, 4)-D-glucopyranose + lactose + galactodisaccharides + galactotrisaccharides + galactotetrasaccharides
?
lactose
additional information
-
Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula V2-2
-
transgalactosylation
oligosaccharides with the general structure (Gal)n-Glc, where n is 1, 2, 3, and 4 with a glucose at a reducing terminal
?
monosialoganglioside + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
transglycosylation
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
transgalactosylation with o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside or phenyl-beta-D-galactoside as galactosyl donor and methanol, glycerol, 2-mercaptoethanol, Tris or 2-phenylethyl alcohol as acceptor, synthesis of beta-D-galactosides by the direct condensation of free galactose and alcohols
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
high selectivity for oligosaccharides which have terminal beta1-3 linked galactose residues, no hydrolysis of beta1-4 linked galactooligosaccharides
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
specific for beta-D-anomeric linkages
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
transfer of galactose from p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside and ganglioside GM1 to various carbohydrate acceptors
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
cleaves beta1-4 linkage much faster than the beta1-3 and the beta1-6 linkage
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
specifically splits off beta-1,3-linked and beta-1,6-linked D-galactosyl residues from the nonreducing ends, their rates of hydrolysis increases with increasing chain length
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
specifically hydrolyzes oligosaccharides and polymers of (1-3)-linked beta-D-galactopyranosyl residues. Hydrolysis of carbohydrate portion of acacia gum and radish arabinogalactan-proteins increases with their decreasing branching. The action pattern of the enzyme includes the capability of bypassing the branching points. The side chains carrying additional D-galactosyl group at the reducing termini are released as neutral (1-6)-linked beta-D-galactooligosaccharides and their acidic derivatives having a 4-O-methyl-beta-D-glucuronosyl residue as the nonreducing end-group
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
high level of transgalactosylation activity
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
inducible enzyme
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
inducible enzyme
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
constitutive enzyme
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
constitutive enzyme
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Caldariella acidophila
-
constitutive enzyme
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Corynebacterium murisepticum
-
the enzyme is inducible by lactose and galactose
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
degalactosylation of peanut agglutinin-positive glycoprotein of MW 130000-150000 Da, present in the caput sperm
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
induction by lactose
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
addition of lactose to the growth medium containing galactose inhibits enzyme synthesis
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
patients with type 1 HM1 gangliosidosis (mutation D332N on one allele and mutation S532G on the other allele) have less than 1% residual beta-galactosidase activity and minimal detectable levels of immunoreactive beta-galactosidase protein in fibroblasts. Most of the missense mutations described in GM1 gangliosidosis have little effect on catalytic activity, but do affect protein conformation such that the resulting protein cannot be transported out of the ER and fails to arrive in the lysosome. This accounts for the minimal amounts of the enzyme protein and activity seen in most GM1 gangliosidosis patient fibroblast
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme along with other exoglycohydrolases and proteases, is thought to aid in penetration of the zona pellucida, the extracellular glycocalyx that surrounds the mammalian egg
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
beta-Gal II shows no activity towards lactose
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
beta-galactosidase II and II are capable of releasing D-galactose residues from the hemicellulose fraction isolated from mung bean
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
efficient hydrolysis of whey
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
enzyme shows a remarkably hydrolytic activity and a weak transgalactosylation activity, even in the presence of high concentrations of lactose, production of Gal-Gal and Gal-Gal-Glu
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
enzyme shows a remarkably hydrolytic activity and a weak transgalactosylation activity, even in the presence of high concentrations of lactose, production of Gal-Gal-Glu
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Bullera singularis
-
high transgalactosylation activity resulting in the oligosaccharide conversion of over 34% using pure lactose and cheese whey permeate as substrates
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
strong transgalactosylation activity
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme stimulates the proliferation of T cells from allergic subjects, and favor the emergence of CD4+ T cell clones with specific in vitro reactivity to beta-galactosidase. The enzyme may represent the major native allergen among Mediterranean trees
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
beta-galactosidase I is substantially active in hydrolyzing the endogenous wall polymers (1->4)beta-linked spruce galactan at a rate twice as rapid as that against the (1->3)beta-linked gum arabic galactan and (1->6)beta-linked gum arabic galactan
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
substrate specificity of recombinant wild-type and mutant enzymes, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Talaromyces thermophilus
-
the enzyme is active with both glucosides such as cellobiose and galactosides including lactose. Based on the catalytic efficiencies determined glucosides are preferred substrates. In addition to its hydrolytic activity, the enzyme shows a significant transferase activity which results in formation of galacto-oligosaccharides
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
regulation and physiologic functions of LacA and GalA, GH42 and GH53 enzymes, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme activity is correlated with the senescence of cells, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
enzyme substrate specificity, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-, Q08KN3
no activity with other nitrophenyl derivatives, the cold-active enzyme also shows transglycosylation activity forming trisaccharides from acceptor lactose, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
no activity with xylose- or mannose-containing substrates
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
structure-activity relationship as a function of the pH, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme also exhibits transglycosylation activity with lactose as acceptor
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme displays a quite broad specificity, showing wide tolerance regarding the structure of the aglycon moiety, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme hydrolyzes methyl-, butyl-, and phenyl-beta-D-galactosides, no activity with thiomethyl-and thiophenyl-beta-D-galactosides or with methyl-beta-L-arabinoside
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-, Q0R5R5
the enzyme is very specific for glycosides with an axial C4-OH at their non-reducing end, no activity with cellobiose, glucosides, or xylosides
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-, O07684, O07685
the enzyme performs the synthesis of prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides from lactose with the maximum yield of 38.5% of total sugars at about 75% lactose conversion, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the mutant E184A enzyme also acts as thioglycoligase, reaction mechanism, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q10RB4
the OsBGal1 isozyme releases significant amounts of galactose from 1,3-, 1,4-, and 1,6-beta-linked galactose di- and trisaccharides, with beta-1,3-galactobiose and beta-1,3-galactotriose appearing to be hydrolyzed the fastest, no activity of isozyme OsBGal1 with lactose, as well as with 4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-mannoside, 4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-arabinoside, and 4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-xyloside
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
A3FFK4, -, O52847
highest activity for o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside and 89% activity using p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside as the substrate, no activity for p-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-galactoside, o-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-galactoside, o-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-glucoside, o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucoside, p-nitrophenyl-N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminide, p-nitrophenyl-N-acetyl-alpha-D-galactosaminide
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
A3FFK4, -, O52847
wide acceptor specificity for transglycosylation reactions capable of the synthesis of important galactosyl compounds such as alkyl glycoside, beta-galactosidase prefers fructose, glucose, sorbitose, sucrose, cellobiose, sorbitol, mannitol, and alkyl alcohol as acceptor than other saccharides
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
A3FFK4, -, O52847
enzyme additionally has transglycosylation activity with a series of acceptors, including pentose, hexose, hydroxyl, and alkyl alcohol using 2-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside as a donor
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q8DR24
enzyme displays a highly regiospecific and sugar-specific hydrolysis activity for the Gal-beta(1-3)-GlcNAc moiety of oligosaccharides
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q9LFA6, Q9MAJ7
enzyme shows a broad specificity for the aglycone moiety and a strict specificity for the glycone moiety preferring galactose and fucose in the substrate. Enzyme cleaves beta-(1,4) and beta-(1,3) linkages in galacto-oligosaccharides and hydrolyzes the pectic fraction of Arabidopsis cell wall
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
high level of transgalactosidase activity in hydrolysis of lactose in milk
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
during the transglycosylation reaction with lactose of the evolved beta-galactosidases, a major trisaccharide, beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-3)-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-4)-D-glucopyranoside (3'-galactosyl-lactose) is formed. At the lactose concentration of 18% (w/v), this trisaccharide is obtained in yields of 11.5% (w/w) with BgaB mutant enzyme R109K, 21% (w/w) with BgaB mutant enzyme R109V, 23% (w/w) with BgaB mutant enzyme R109W, and 2% (w/w) with the wild type BgaB enzyme
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
P29853
no activity towards 4-nitrophenyl alpha-D-glucopyranoside and 4-nitrophenyl alpha-D-mannopyranoside
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme does no show activity for 4-nitrophenyl beta-D-glucopyranoside, 2-nitrophenyl beta-D-glucopyranoside, 4-nitrophenyl beta D-mannopyranoside, 4-nitrophenyl beta-D-xylopyranoside, 4-nitrophenyl alpha-L-arabinopyranoside, or cellobiose
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme shows a strong preference for the formation of beta-(1-6) linkages in its transgalactosylation mode, while beta-(1-3)-linked products are formed to a lesser extent, comprising about 80% and 9%, respectively, of the newly formed glycosidic linkages in the oligosaccharide mixture at maximum galacto-oligosaccharides formation
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the SPD0065 protein shows no activity towards 4-methylumbelliferyl-N-acetyl-alpha-D-glucosaminide, 4-methylumbeliferyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoside, 2-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-galactopyranoside, 4-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-glucoside 6-phosphate, 4-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-mannose 6-phosphate, 4-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-galactose 6-phosphate, and 4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucose 6-phosphate
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
when lactose is present in substantial amounts, the enzyme displays transgalactosylation activity
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
quantitative determination of the products of the transglycosylation reactions shows that the amount of glucose is always much higher than that of galactose, which indicates that, during the reaction, galactoside of lactose is used in the transglycosylation reaction to form galactooligosaccharides. Compared to the wild-type enzyme, the yields of galacto-oligosaccharides produced by F441Y and F359Q are increased by 10.8% and 7.4%, respectively
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
P22498
the enzyme catalyzes the production of the synthetic disaccharide lactulose (4-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-D-fructose) via a transgalactosylation using lactose as a galactose donor and fructose as an acceptor
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
E7FHC0
activity with 4-nitrophenyl alpha-D-glucopyranoside is 0.26% of the activity compared to 2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside, activity with 4-nitrophenyl alpha-D-glucopyranoside is 10.91% of the activity compared to 2-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the recombinant enzyme produces galactooligosaccharides from lactose by transgalactosylation. Galactooligosaccharide production increases with increasing lactose concentration, whereas the yield of galactooligosaccharides from lactose is almost constant. The final concentration of galactooligosaccharide is maximal at 80C
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the selectivity hexanol vs. water increases with increasing water activity in the reaction medium. It seems that the ideal condition for the transglycosylation reaction is a water activity close to 1.0
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
substrate specificity of recombinant wild-type and mutant enzymes, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Sterigmatomyces elviae CBS8119
-
high level of transgalactosylation activity
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Sulfolobus solfataricus MT-4
-
the enzyme displays a quite broad specificity, showing wide tolerance regarding the structure of the aglycon moiety, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Bacillus megaterium 2-37-4-1
A3FFK4, O52847
highest activity for o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside and 89% activity using p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside as the substrate, no activity for p-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-galactoside, o-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-galactoside, o-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-glucoside, o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucoside, p-nitrophenyl-N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminide, p-nitrophenyl-N-acetyl-alpha-D-galactosaminide
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Bacillus megaterium 2-37-4-1
A3FFK4, O52847
wide acceptor specificity for transglycosylation reactions capable of the synthesis of important galactosyl compounds such as alkyl glycoside, beta-galactosidase prefers fructose, glucose, sorbitose, sucrose, cellobiose, sorbitol, mannitol, and alkyl alcohol as acceptor than other saccharides
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Bacillus megaterium 2-37-4-1
A3FFK4, O52847
enzyme additionally has transglycosylation activity with a series of acceptors, including pentose, hexose, hydroxyl, and alkyl alcohol using 2-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside as a donor
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Bacillus coagulans L4
-
constitutive enzyme
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Thermus sp. 4-1A
-
inducible enzyme
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Thermus aquaticus YT-I
-
specific for beta-D-anomeric linkages
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Sulfolobus solfataricus DSM 1617
P22498
the enzyme catalyzes the production of the synthetic disaccharide lactulose (4-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-D-fructose) via a transgalactosylation using lactose as a galactose donor and fructose as an acceptor
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Bullera singularis KCTC 7534
-
high transgalactosylation activity resulting in the oligosaccharide conversion of over 34% using pure lactose and cheese whey permeate as substrates
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Talaromyces thermophilus CBS 236.58
-
the enzyme is active with both glucosides such as cellobiose and galactosides including lactose. Based on the catalytic efficiencies determined glucosides are preferred substrates. In addition to its hydrolytic activity, the enzyme shows a significant transferase activity which results in formation of galacto-oligosaccharides
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Lactobacillus acidophilus R22
O07684, O07685
the enzyme performs the synthesis of prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides from lactose with the maximum yield of 38.5% of total sugars at about 75% lactose conversion, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Arthrobacter psychrolactophilus F2
Q08KN3
no activity with other nitrophenyl derivatives, the cold-active enzyme also shows transglycosylation activity forming trisaccharides from acceptor lactose, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Geobacillus stearothermophilus ATCC8005
-
high level of transgalactosidase activity in hydrolysis of lactose in milk
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Geobacillus stearothermophilus KVE39
-
during the transglycosylation reaction with lactose of the evolved beta-galactosidases, a major trisaccharide, beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-3)-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-4)-D-glucopyranoside (3'-galactosyl-lactose) is formed. At the lactose concentration of 18% (w/v), this trisaccharide is obtained in yields of 11.5% (w/w) with BgaB mutant enzyme R109K, 21% (w/w) with BgaB mutant enzyme R109V, 23% (w/w) with BgaB mutant enzyme R109W, and 2% (w/w) with the wild type BgaB enzyme
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Escherichia coli ML 309
-
transgalactosylation with o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside or phenyl-beta-D-galactoside as galactosyl donor and methanol, glycerol, 2-mercaptoethanol, Tris or 2-phenylethyl alcohol as acceptor, synthesis of beta-D-galactosides by the direct condensation of free galactose and alcohols
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Bacillus coagulans RCS3
-
efficient hydrolysis of whey
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
P22498
quantitative determination of the products of the transglycosylation reactions shows that the amount of glucose is always much higher than that of galactose, which indicates that, during the reaction, galactoside of lactose is used in the transglycosylation reaction to form galactooligosaccharides. Compared to the wild-type enzyme, the yields of galacto-oligosaccharides produced by F441Y and F359Q are increased by 10.8% and 7.4%, respectively
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis HL96
-
strong transgalactosylation activity
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Bacillus megaterium KM
-
the enzyme hydrolyzes methyl-, butyl-, and phenyl-beta-D-galactosides, no activity with thiomethyl-and thiophenyl-beta-D-galactosides or with methyl-beta-L-arabinoside
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Escherichia coli ML 35
-
transgalactosylation with o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside or phenyl-beta-D-galactoside as galactosyl donor and methanol, glycerol, 2-mercaptoethanol, Tris or 2-phenylethyl alcohol as acceptor, synthesis of beta-D-galactosides by the direct condensation of free galactose and alcohols
-
-
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
galactan + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
the GHF 42 enzyme LacA can act on the oligosaccharides released by the GH53 enzyme GalA from galactan, overview
-
-
?
galactobiose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Q70SY0
-
-
-
?
galactotetraose + H2O
beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
the GHF 42 enzyme LacA can act on the oligosaccharides released by the GH53 enzyme GalA from galactan, overview
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
P22498
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-, Q08KN3
the enzyme is involved in lactose degradation in milk
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-, P00723, Q6QTF4
the enzyme is involved in lactose hydrolysis in the small intestine of the host organism
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-galactose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-galactose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
P00722
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-galactose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-galactose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-galactose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-galactose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-galactose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Q70SY0
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-galactose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
P00723
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-galactose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-, Q1G9Z4
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
beta-D-glucose + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
beta-D-glucose + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme is involved in the lactose metabolism of the organism, overview
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-galactose + D-glucose + oligosaccharide
show the reaction diagram
Bispora sp.
C7SLY9
under simulated gastric conditions, BgalA has greater stability (about 100%) and hydrolysis ratio (more than 80%) toward milk lactose than the commercially available beta-galactosidase from Aspergillus oryzae (ATCC 20423)
the main products of lactose hydrolysis by recombinant BgalA are 19.5% D-galactose, 72.5% D-glucose, and 8.0% oligosaccharide
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Sulfolobus solfataricus DSM 1617
P22498
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Arthrobacter psychrolactophilus F2
Q08KN3
the enzyme is involved in lactose degradation in milk
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Lactobacillus johnsonii JCM2122, Lactobacillus reuteri MEP181R88, Lactobacillus vaginalis MEP181R91
-
the enzyme is involved in lactose fermentation in the colon playing a central role in lactose intolerance in humans
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-galactose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Hypocrea jecorina FTKO-39
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Lactobacillus acidophilus JCM1132T
-
the enzyme is involved in lactose fermentation in the colon playing a central role in lactose intolerance in humans
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Kluyveromyces lactis MW 190-9B
-
-
-
-
?
lactose + H2O
beta-D-glucose + beta-D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus megaterium KM
-
-
-
-
?
xyloglucan oligosaccharides + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme hcbetagal is involved in storage xyloglucan mobilisation during seedling development, hcbetagal might be one of the biochemical control points in xyloglucan catabolism in vivo
-
-
?
lactulose + H2O
D-fructose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
Q70SY0
-
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
inducible enzyme
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
inducible enzyme
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
constitutive enzyme
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
constitutive enzyme
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Caldariella acidophila
-
constitutive enzyme
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Corynebacterium murisepticum
-
the enzyme is inducible by lactose and galactose
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
degalactosylation of peanut agglutinin-positive glycoprotein of MW 130000-150000 Da, present in the caput sperm
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
induction by lactose
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
addition of lactose to the growth medium containing galactose inhibits enzyme synthesis
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
patients with type 1 HM1 gangliosidosis (mutation D332N on one allele and mutation S532G on the other allele) have less than 1% residual beta-galactosidase activity and minimal detectable levels of immunoreactive beta-galactosidase protein in fibroblasts. Most of the missense mutations described in GM1 gangliosidosis have little effect on catalytic activity, but do affect protein conformation such that the resulting protein cannot be transported out of the ER and fails to arrive in the lysosome. This accounts for the minimal amounts of the enzyme protein and activity seen in most GM1 gangliosidosis patient fibroblast
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme along with other exoglycohydrolases and proteases, is thought to aid in penetration of the zona pellucida, the extracellular glycocalyx that surrounds the mammalian egg
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme stimulates the proliferation of T cells from allergic subjects, and favor the emergence of CD4+ T cell clones with specific in vitro reactivity to beta-galactosidase. The enzyme may represent the major native allergen among Mediterranean trees
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
regulation and physiologic functions of LacA and GalA, GH42 and GH53 enzymes, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme activity is correlated with the senescence of cells, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Bacillus coagulans L4
-
constitutive enzyme
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Thermus sp. 4-1A
-
inducible enzyme
-
-
-
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
Al3+
-
0.1 mM, activation to 118% of initial activity
Al3+
-
1 mM, 30% activation
Ba2+
-
1 mM, minor stimulation
Ca2+
-
0.01 mM, activation at low concentrations in a system containing Na+ at optimal concentration
Ca2+
Rattus norvegicus, Saccharomyces lactis
-
-
Ca2+
Saccharomyces lactis
-
0.32 mM, activates isoenzyme betaG550
Ca2+
-
activates
Ca2+
-
1 mM, minor stimulation
Ca2+
-
activates
Ca2+
-
2.5 mM CaCl2, activates hydrolysis of lactose and p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside
Ca2+
-
0.01 mM, activates
Ca2+
-
1 mM, 1.85fold stimulation of activity with o-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside
Ca2+
-
activates at 50-100 mg/l, inhibits at concentrations above 200 mg/l
Ca2+
Bispora sp.
C7SLY9
108.7% relative activity at 10 mM
Ca2+
-
slightly stimulates activity
Co2+
-
0.1 mM, activation in a system containing Na+ at optimal concentration
Co2+
Saccharomyces fragilis
-
-
Co2+
-
30 mM, 6% activation
Co2+
Saccharomyces fragilis
-
maximal activation at 0.1 mM
Co2+
-
10 mM, activates
Co2+
-
activates
Co2+
-
1 mM, 8.1fold stimulation of activity with o-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside, 4.7fold stimulation of activity with lactose
Co2+
-
0.1 mM, activation to 124% of initial activity
Co2+
Bispora sp.
C7SLY9
109.1% relative activity at 10 mM
Co2+
Q1G9Z4
the enzyme requires 1 mM Co2+ for optimal activity and thermostability
Cr3+
Bispora sp.
C7SLY9
115.0% relative activity at 2 mM
Cs+
-
stimulates
Cu2+
Bispora sp.
C7SLY9
110.1% relative activity at 10 mM
Fe2+
-
0.01-0.1 mM, activation in a system containing Na+ at optimal concentration
Fe2+
-
1 mM, 4.5fold stimulation of activity with o-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside, 4.1fold stimulation of activity with lactose
Fe2+
-
activates at 50-100 mg/l, inhibits at concentrations above 200 mg/l
Fe2+
-
increases activity
Fe3+
-
activates
Fe3+
Bispora sp.
C7SLY9
104.4.4% relative activity at 10 mM
Hg2+
Bispora sp.
C7SLY9
110.4% relative activity at 2 mM
K+
-
activates hydrolysis of lactose more effectively than Na+; activates hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside and p-nitrophenyl alpha-L-arabinoside more effectively than Na+
K+
Saccharomyces lactis
-
-
K+
-
activates hydrolysis of lactose more effectively than Na+
K+
Saccharomyces fragilis
-
-
K+
-
0.1 M, activates
K+
Saccharomyces lactis
-
0.32 mM KCl, activates isoenzyme betaG550
K+
-
synergistic activation with Mg2+ and Na+ or Mg2+ and K+. Na+ is the better activator with either o-nitrophenyl-D-galactoside or 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-galactoside as substrates while K+ is the better activator of lactose and p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside
K+
-
10 mM, slight activation
K+
-
maximal activation of cell wall enzyme and extracellular enzyme by Na+ and Zn2+
K+
Saccharomyces fragilis
-
activates
K+
-
activates
K+
-
10 mM, activates
K+
-
activates
K+
Q7WTU5
slight stimulation
K+
-
either 10 mM K+ or 10 mM Na+ is required for maximal activity, strain L103; either 10 mM K+ or 10 mM Na+ is required for maximal activity, strain L461
K+
Talaromyces thermophilus
-
activates
K+
-
stimulates
K+
-
10fold activation
K+
-
49% increase of activity at 5 mM
K+
-
326% relative activity at 10 mM
K+
Bispora sp.
C7SLY9
107.7% relative activity at 10 mM
K+
-
slightly stimulates activity
K+
D9IU57, D9IU58
activates enzymatic activity
KCl
Planococcus sp.
Q9KI47
still active in presence of 4 M, more active in presence of KCl than in presence of NaCl
Li+
-
0.1 M, activates
Li+
-
50 mM, minor stimulation
Li+
-
activates
Li+
-
stimulates
Li+
Bispora sp.
C7SLY9
110.1% relative activity at 10 mM
Mg2+
-
0.1-10 mM, activation in a system containing Na+ at optimal concentration
Mg2+
Saccharomyces lactis
-
-
Mg2+
-
strain ML 308 shows absolute requirement, strain ML 309 does not
Mg2+
Saccharomyces fragilis
-
-
Mg2+
Saccharomyces lactis
-
0.32 mM MgCl2, activates isoenzyme betaG550 and betaG19
Mg2+
-
synergistic activation with Mg2+ and Na+ or Mg2+ and K+. Na+ is the better activator with either o-nitrophenyl-D-galactoside or 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-galactoside as substrates while K+ is the better activator of lactose and p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside
Mg2+
Bacteroides polypragmatus
-
required, optimal concentration 5-10 mM
Mg2+
-
10 mM MgCl2, 3fold higher activity
Mg2+
-
maximal activation of intracellular enzyme by Mg2+ or Mn2+
Mg2+
-
30 mM, 20% activation
Mg2+
-
activates
Mg2+
Saccharomyces fragilis
-
maximal activation at 1 mM
Mg2+
-
contains 0.19 Mg2+ per monomer
Mg2+
-
activates
Mg2+
-
0.01 mM, activates
Mg2+
-
activates
Mg2+
-
1 mM, 7fold stimulation of activity with o-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside, 5.4fold stimulation of activity with lactose
Mg2+
Q7WTU5
stimulation
Mg2+
-
good activator
Mg2+
Talaromyces thermophilus
-
activates
Mg2+
-
activates at 50-200 mg/l
Mg2+
-
the enzyme requires metal ions, Mg2+ or Mn2+ can restore the enzyme activity of recombinant wild-type and mutant apoenzymes, but not Ca2+, Cu2+, and Na+, overview
Mg2+
O07684, O07685
activates 21-28% at 1-10 mM; activates 21-28% at 1-10 mM
Mg2+
-
activation of the recombinant hybrid enzyme
Mg2+
-
activation of both the wild-type Kluyveromyces lactis enzyme and the recombinant hybrid enzyme
Mg2+
-
activates
Mg2+
-
the enzyme needs MgCl2 for its stability retaining 73% and 85% of its activity after an incubation at 37C for 5 h in the presence of 1 and 10 mM MgCl2, 414% relative activity at 10 mM
Mg2+
P00722
beta-galactosidase requires Mg2+ for full catalytic activity, one Mg2+ is at each active site but 3-4 others bind to other parts of each subunit
Mg2+
-
the active site of beta-galactosidase contains a Mg2+ ion ligated by Glu-416, His-418 and Glu-461 plus three water molecules
Mg2+
Q1G9Z4
the enzyme requires 1 mM Mn2+ for optimal activity and thermostability
Mg2+
-
stimulates activity
Mg2+
-
enhances activity and stability
Mg2+
-
enhances stability
Mg2+
E7FHC0
5 mM, 1.1fold stimulation of activity, 80C, pH 7.0
Mn2+
-
0.01-0.1 mM, activation in a system containing Na+ at optimal concentration
Mn2+
Rattus norvegicus, Saccharomyces fragilis
-
-
Mn2+
-
10 mM, slight activation
Mn2+
-
maximal activation of intracellular enzyme by Mg2+ or Mn2+
Mn2+
Kluyveromyces marxianus, Torulopsis sphaerica, Torulopsis versatilis
-
0.2 mM, slight activation
Mn2+
-
30 mM, 25% activation
Mn2+
-
10 mM MnCl2, 2fold activation
Mn2+
-
1 mM, minor stimulation
Mn2+
Saccharomyces fragilis
-
maximal activation at 0.1 mM
Mn2+
-
10 mM, activates
Mn2+
-
2.5 mM MnCl2, activates hydrolysis of lactose and p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside
Mn2+
-
0.01 mM, activates
Mn2+
-
activates
Mn2+
-
1 mM, 8.9fold stimulation of activity with o-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside, 5.6fold stimulation of activity with lactose
Mn2+
-
0.1 mM, activation to 120% of initial activity
Mn2+
Q7WTU5
slight stimulation
Mn2+
-
most effective divalent cation for beta-galactosidase activity on both o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside and lactose
Mn2+
-
stimulates
Mn2+
-
the enzyme requires metal ions, Mg2+ or Mn2+ can restore the enzyme activity of recombinant wild-type and mutant apoenzymes, but not Ca2+, Cu2+, and Na+, overview
Mn2+
-
activates the recombinant hybrid enzyme
Mn2+
-
activates the recombinant hybrid enzyme, but inhibits the wild-type Kluyveromyces lactis enzyme
Mn2+
-
11% increase of activity at 5 mM
Mn2+
-
0.0274% of Mn2+ ions lead to 18% enhancement of beta-galactosidase activity in strain CF2-7F
Mn2+
-
341% relative activity at 10 mM
Mn2+
D9IU57, D9IU58
activates enzymatic activity
Na+
Rattus norvegicus, Saccharomyces lactis
-
-
Na+
-
activates hydrolysis of o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside more effectively than K+
Na+
-
0.1 M, activates
Na+
Saccharomyces lactis
-
0.32 mM NaCl or NaF, activates isoenzyme betaG550
Na+
-
synergistic activation with Mg2+ and Na+ or Mg2+ and K+. Na+ is the better activator with either o-nitrophenyl-D-galactoside or 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-galactoside as substrates while K+ is the better activator of lactose and p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside
Na+
-
slight activation
Na+
-
hydrolysis of 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-galactoside is mildly stimulated by NaCl
Na+
-
50 mM, minor stimulation
Na+
-
activates
Na+
-
10 mM, activates; half-maximal activation at 0.1 mM
Na+
-
activates
Na+
-
either 10 mM K+ or 10 mM Na+ is required for maximal activity, strain L103; either 10 mM K+ or 10 mM Na+ is required for maximal activity, strain L461
Na+
Talaromyces thermophilus
-
activates
Na+
-
stimulates
Na+
-
activates
Na+
-
10fold activation
Na+
-
53% increase of activity at 5 mM
Na+
-
165% relative activity at 10 mM
Na+
Bispora sp.
C7SLY9
105.3% relative activity at 2 mM
Na+
-
the active site of beta-galactosidase contains a Na+ ion
Na+
-
slightly stimulates activity
Na+
D9IU57, D9IU58
activates enzymatic activity
NaCl
Planococcus sp.
Q9KI47
still active in presence of 4 M, more active in presence of KCl than in presence of NaCl
NH4+
-
stimulates
Ni2+
-
0.1 mM, activation in a system containing Na+ at optimal concentration
Ni2+
-
0.1 mM, activation to 118% of initial activity
Ni2+
-
activates the recombinant hybrid enzyme
Ni2+
-
activates the recombinant hybrid enzyme, but inhibits the wild-type Kluyveromyces lactis enzyme
Ni2+
Bispora sp.
C7SLY9
103.4% relative activity at 2 mM
nitrate
-
activates
Pb2+
Bispora sp.
C7SLY9
105.6% relative activity at 2 mM
Sn2+
-
2.5 mM SnCl2, activates hydrolysis of lactose
sulfate
-
activates
Zn2+
-
0.01-0.1 mM, activation in a system containing Na+ at optimal concentration
Zn2+
-
maximal activation of cell wall enzyme and extracellular enzyme by Na+ and Zn2+
Zn2+
-
30 mM, 10% activation
Zn2+
-
10 mM, activates
Zn2+
-
activates
Zn2+
-
slightly activates the wild-type Kluyveromyces lactis enzyme, but slightly inhibits the recombinant hybrid enzyme
Zn2+
Bispora sp.
C7SLY9
105.2% relative activity at 10 mM
Mn2+
-
enhances stability
additional information
-
purified enzyme does not require Ca2+, Cu2+, Zn2+ or Mg2+
additional information
Q0R5R5
the enzyme is not affected by 5 mM of Mg2+, Mn2+, or Ca2+
additional information
-
the enzyme is not affected by Mg2+
additional information
-
the addition of Mg2+ does not cause significant change in the activity of beta-galactosidase in all the tested strains except in MF14C
additional information
C7ASJ5
the activity is not considerably affected by Na+, K+, Mg2+, Co2+, and Ca2+ (5 mM)
additional information
Bispora sp.
C7SLY9
not stimulated by Mg2+ and Mn2+
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
1,4-dithiothreitol
-
10 mM, 41% inhibition, strain L103; 10 mM, 58% inhibition, strain L461
1-D-galactosylamine
-
mixed-type inhibition
1-D-galactosylamine
-
50 mM, 78% inhibition
2,4-dinitrophenyl-2-deoxy-2-chloro-beta-D-galactoside
-
-
2-amino-2-deoxy-D-galactopyranose
-
-
2-mercaptoethanol
-
-
2-mercaptoethanol
-
-
2-mercaptoethanol
-
10 mM, 22% inhibition, strain 461
2-mercaptoethanol
Bispora sp.
C7SLY9
41.5% residual activity at 10 mM
2-nitrophenyl 1-thio-beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
-
2-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside
O07684, O07685
substrate inhibition at high concentrations; substrate inhibition at high concentrations
2-phenylethyl 1-thio-beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
-
4-aminophenyl beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside
-
-
4-aminophenyl beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside
-
competitive inhibition
4-chloromercuribenzoic acid
-
complete inhibition at 10 mM
Ag+
-
1 mM, almost complete inhibition
Ag+
-
0.1 mM AgNO3, complete inhibition
Ag+
-
1 mM, complete inhibition
Ag+
-
1-2.5 mM
Ag2+
-
0.1 mM, complete inactivation
Ag2+
-
1 mM, 92% inhibition of beta-galactosidase I, 87% inhibition of beta-galactosidase II, 95% inhibition of beta-galactosidase III
AgNO3
Bullera singularis
-
10 mM, 87% inhibition
AgNO3
-
competitive inhibitor
Al3+
-
1 mM, 93% inhibition
Ba2+
-
10 mM, 28% inhibition
Ba2+
Saccharomyces fragilis
-
0.1 mM Ba(OH)2, 12% inhibition
Ba2+
-
1 mM, 56% inhibition of activity with o-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside
benzyl 3-deoxy-4-S-(beta-D-galactopyranosyl)-4-thio-beta-D-erythro-pentopyranoside
-
non-competitive inhibitor
benzyl 3-deoxy-4-S-(beta-D-galactopyranosyl)-4-thio-beta-D-threo-pentopyranoside
-
mixed-type inhibitor
beta-D-galactose
-
product inhibition
beta-D-glucose
-
product inhibition
beta-mercaptoethanol
-
100 mM of beta-mercaptoethanol shows an inhibitory effect on activity (91% residual activity)
Ca2+
-
1.5 mM, 45% inhibition
Ca2+
-
10 mM CaCl2, 74% inhibition
Ca2+
-
0.2 mM, 55-65% inhibition
Ca2+
Torulopsis sphaerica
-
-
Ca2+
Torulopsis versatilis
-
0.2 mM, 55-65% inhibition
Ca2+
-
10 mM CaCl2, 6% inhibition
Ca2+
-
2.5 mM CaCl2, inhibition of transferase activity
Ca2+
-
1 mM, 60% inhibition of activity with lactose
Ca2+
-
1 mM, 15% inhibition of beta-galactosidase I, 12% inhibition of beta-galactosidase II, 13% inhibition of beta-galactosidase III
Ca2+
-
1 mM in presence of 10 mM Na+, 30% inhibition, strain L461
Ca2+
-
activates at 50-100 mg/l, inhibits at concentrations above 200 mg/l
Ca2+
O07684, O07685
45% inhibition at 10 mM; 45% inhibition at 10 mM
Ca2+
-
slight inhibition of both the wild-type Kluyveromyces lactis enzyme and the recombinant hybrid enzyme
Ca2+
-
95% residual activity at 5 mM
Ca2+
-
88.29% residual activity at 1 mM
Ca2+
E7FHC0
5 mM, inhibits the enzyme activity by 22.7%, 80C, pH 7.0
CaCl2
-
inhibits at 5%, the netrapped complexed enzyme is less sensitive, overview
Cd2+
-
1 mM, 94% inhibition
Cd2+
-
1 mM, 39% inhibition
cellobiose
-
hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside
cellobiose
Kluyveromyces marxianus, Torulopsis sphaerica, Torulopsis versatilis
-
slight inhibition
cellobiose
-
10 mM, 33% inhibition
cellobiose
-
10 mM, 30% inhibition
ceramide
-
hydrolysis of lactosyl ceramide
CH2ICOOH
-
1 mM, 50% inhibition
Citric acid
-
slight inhibition at 200 mg/l
Co2+
-
1.5 mM, complete inhibition
Co2+
-
10 mM CoCl2, 5% inhibition
Co2+
-
1 mM, 54% inhibition
Co2+
-
2.5 mM CoCl2, inhibits hydrolysis of lactose and transferase activity
Co2+
-
0.1 mM, 88% inhibition
Co2+
-
recombinant LacA
Cu2+
Saccharomyces fragilis
-
-
Cu2+
-
1 mM, almost complete inhibition
Cu2+
-
1.5 mM, complete inhibition
Cu2+
-
0.1 mM, complete inhibition
Cu2+
-
10 mM, 28% inhibition
Cu2+
-
inhibition of intracellular enzyme, no inhibition of extracellular enzyme and cell wall enzyme
Cu2+
-
0.001 M, complete inhibition
Cu2+
-
10 mM CuSO4, 45% inhibition
Cu2+
-
1 mM, 95% inhibition
Cu2+
-
1 mM, 59% inhibition
Cu2+
-
0.1 mM, 92% inhibition
Cu2+
Saccharomyces fragilis
-
0.01 mM, 36% inhibition
Cu2+
-
10 mM, 32% inhibition
Cu2+
Rhizomucor sp.
-
-
Cu2+
P81650, -
1 mM, strong inhibition
Cu2+
-
2.0 mM, 91% inhibition
Cu2+
-
1 mM, 97% inhibition of activity with o-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside, 88% inhibition of activity with lactose
Cu2+
-
0.1 mM, 55% inhibition
Cu2+
-
1-2.5 mM
Cu2+
-
1 mM, 23% inhibition of beta-galactosidase I, 4% inhibition of beta-galactosidase II, 16% inhibition of beta-galactosidase III
Cu2+
-
1 mM, 16% inhibition
Cu2+
-
10 mM Cu2+ in presence of 10 mM Na+, complete inhibition, strain L103; 10 mM Cu2+ in presence of 10 mM Na+, complete inhibition, strain L461
Cu2+
-
recombinant LacA
Cu2+
O07684, O07685
complete inhibition at 10 mM; complete inhibition at 10 mM
Cu2+
Q10RB4
complete inhibition at 10 mM of recombinant isozyme OsGal1
Cu2+
-
; 5 mM, 85% inhibition
Cu2+
-
46% residual activity at 5 mM
Cu2+
-
complete inhibition at 5 mM
Cu2+
C7ASJ5
the enzyme activity is completely inhibited by 5 mM Cu2+
Cu2+
Q1G9Z4
1 mM Cu2+ inhibits the activity more than 13fold
Cu2+
-
inhibitory effect
Cu2+
D9IU57, D9IU58
inactivates enzymatic activity
Cu2+
E7FHC0
5 mM, inhibits the enzyme activity by 99.71%, 80C, pH 7.0
Cys
-
8 mM, 7.5% inhibition
D-arabinose
-
10 mM, 15% inhibition
D-fucose
-
10 mM, 20% inhibition
D-Galactal
-
potent, competitive
D-Galactal
-
-
D-Galactal
Q7WTU5
-
D-Galactono-1,4-lactone
-
potent, competitive
D-Galactono-1,4-lactone
-
-
D-Galactono-1,4-lactone
-
hydrolysis of lactosyl ceramide and p-nitrophenyl galactoside
D-Galactono-1,4-lactone
-
50 mM, strong inhibition
D-Galactono-1,4-lactone
-
12.5 mM, 98% inhibition of beta-galactosidase I, II and III, hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside
D-galactonolactone
-
-
D-galactose
-
10 mM D-galactose, 60% inhibition
D-galactose
-
hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside
D-galactose
-
-
D-galactose
Kluyveromyces marxianus, Torulopsis sphaerica, Torulopsis versatilis
-
slight inhibition
D-galactose
-
competitive
D-galactose
-
-
D-galactose
-
10 mM, 60% loss of activity
D-galactose
-
50 mM, 81% inhibition
D-galactose
-
10 mM, 71% inhibition, product inhibition
D-galactose
-
0.1 mM, slight inhibition of hydrolysis of o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside
D-galactose
Rhizomucor sp.
-
-
D-galactose
-
10 mM, 40% loss of activity
D-galactose
-
10 mM, inhibits hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside at substrate concentrations below 3 mM
D-galactose
Q7WTU5
-
D-galactose
-
50 mM, 72% inhibition of beta-galactosidase I, 71% inhibition of beta-galactosidase II, 72% inhibition of beta-galactosidase III, hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside
D-galactose
-
strain L103; strain L461
D-galactose
-, P00723, Q6QTF4
5 mM, 93% residual activity
D-galactose
-
competitive product inhibition
D-galactose
-
product inhibition
D-galactose
-
product inhibition
D-galactose
-
competitive product inhibition
D-galactose
Q10RB4
10% inhibition at 5 mM of recombinant isozyme OsGal1
D-galactose
-
uncompetitive inhibition
D-galactose
-
uncompetitive inhibition, 26% residual activity at 50 g/l, when adding D-galactose (200 g/l) only 14% of the lactose s hydrolyzed after 180 min
D-galactose
-
50% residual activity at 10 mM
D-galactose
-
2% residual activity at 50 mM and 86% residual activity at 0.1 mM (purified lactase)
D-galactose
B6HYI9
-
D-galactose 6-phosphate
-
-
D-glucono-delta-lactone
-
mixed-type inhibition
D-glucono-delta-lactone
-
-
D-gluconolactone
Q10RB4
40% inhibition at 10 mM of recombinant isozyme OsGal1
D-glucose
-
hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside
D-glucose
-
no inhibition
D-glucose
Kluyveromyces marxianus, Torulopsis sphaerica, Torulopsis versatilis
-
slight inhibition
D-glucose
-
10 mM, 15% inhibition
D-glucose
-
50 mM, 10% inhibition
D-glucose
-
10 mM, 20% inhibition
D-glucose
-
10 mM, 30% inhibition
D-glucose
-
0.1 M, 12% inhibition
D-glucose
-, P00723, Q6QTF4
5 mM, 86% residual activity
D-glucose
-
uncompetitive inhibition
D-glucose
-
noncompetitive inhibition
D-glucose
-
competitive inhibition
D-glucose
-
noncompetitive inhibition
D-glucose
-
competitive inhibition
D-glucose
-
noncompetitive inhibition using 4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside as substrate and uncompetitive inhibition using lactose as substrate
D-glucose
-
82% residual activity at 400 g/l
delta-galactonolactone
Q10RB4
62% inhibition at 10 mM of recombinant isozyme OsGal1
dextrose
-
noncompetitive
diethyldicarbonate
-
-
dithiothreitol
-
100 mM of dithiothreitol shows an inhibitory effect on activity (84% residual activity)
EDTA
Saccharomyces fragilis, Streptococcus pneumoniae
-
-
EDTA
-
inhibition of intracellular enzyme, no inhibition of extracellular enzyme and cell wall enzyme
EDTA
-
5 mM, 30% loss of activity
EDTA
-
1 mM, 80% loss of activity
EDTA
-
1 mM, 10% inhibition
EDTA
P81650, -
5 mM, 90% loss of activity. Excess of Mg2+, Mn2+, Li2+ and Ca2+ restores activity
EDTA
Q7WTU5
100 mM, inactivation after 1.5 h
EDTA
-
0.1 mM, 85% inhibition, strain L461; 0.1 mM, 90% inhibition, strain L103
EDTA
-
EDTA strongly inactivates the enzyme even at 1 mM (17% residual activity), 13% residual activity at 100 mM EDTA
EDTA
Bispora sp.
C7SLY9
86.2% residual activity at 10 mM
EDTA
Q1G9Z4
35% residual activity at 10 mM
ethanolamine
-
-
ethylenediamine
-
-
Fe2+
-
1.5 mM, complete inhibition
-
Fe2+
-
10 mM, 20% inhibition
-
Fe2+
-
-
-
Fe2+
-
0.001 M, complete inhibition
-
Fe2+
-
1 mM, 38% inhibition
-
Fe2+
-
10 mM, 16% inhibition
-
Fe2+
-
1 mM, 20% inhibition
-
Fe2+
-
1 mM, 15% inhibition of beta-galactosidase I, 12% inhibition of beta-galactosidase II, 13% inhibition of beta-galactosidase III
-
Fe2+
-
1 mM in presence of 10 mM Na+, 30% inhibition, strain L461
-
Fe2+
-
activates at 50-100 mg/l, inhibits at concentrations above 200 mg/l
-
Fe2+
-
; 5 mM, 52% inhibition
-
Fe2+
-
68% residual activity at 5 mM
-
Fe2+
-
about 50% residual activity at 1 mM
-
Fe2+
C7ASJ5
25% residual activity at 5 mM Fe2+
-
Fe3+
-
1 mM, almost complete inhibition
-
Fe3+
-
1.5 mM, complete inhibition
-
Fe3+
-
weak
-
Fe3+
-
0.001 M, complete inhibition
-
Fe3+
Q10RB4
complete inhibition at 1 mM of recombinant isozyme OsGal1
-
Fe3+
E7FHC0
5 mM, inhibits the enzyme activity by 95.2%, 80C, pH 7.0
-
ferulic acid
-
-
fructose
Kluyveromyces marxianus, Torulopsis sphaerica, Torulopsis versatilis
-
slight inhibition
galactose
-
inhibits hydrolysis of lactose
galactose
-
0.1 M, 91% inhibition, competitive
galactose
-
-
galactose
-
competitive
galactose
Kerstingiella geocarpa
-
competitive
galactose
-
acts as an inhibitor at low concentrations of galactose and lactose, but does not inhibit the activity of beta-galactosidase at high concentrations of galactose (above 50 mM) and lactose (above 100 mM)
galactose
Talaromyces thermophilus
-
-
gamma-galactonolactone
-
-
glucose
Kerstingiella geocarpa
-
competitive at low concentrations, uncompetitive at high concentrations
glucose
-
strain L461
glucose
Talaromyces thermophilus
-
-
glucose
-
82% residual activity at 100 mM and 95% residual activity at 20 mM (purified lactase)
Hg2+
Escherichia coli, Felis catus, Saccharomyces fragilis
-
-
Hg2+
-
1 mM, almost complete inhibition
Hg2+
-
0.1 mM HgCl2, complete inhibition
Hg2+
-
10 mM, complete inactivation
Hg2+
Kluyveromyces marxianus, Torulopsis sphaerica
-
0.2 mM, complete inhibition
Hg2+
Torulopsis versatilis
-
-
Hg2+
-
0.001 M, complete inhibition
Hg2+
-
10 mM HgCl2, 12% inhibition
Hg2+
-
0.005 mM, 64.5% inhibition
Hg2+
-
0.1 mM, complete inactivation
Hg2+
-
1 mM, complete inhibition
Hg2+
-
0.2 mM, complete inhibition
Hg2+
-
1 mM, complete inhibition
Hg2+
Saccharomyces fragilis
-
0.01 4 mM CuSO4, 36% inhibition
Hg2+
Rhizomucor sp.
-
-
Hg2+
-
1 mM, 95% inhibition
Hg2+
-
2.0 mM, 66% inhibition
Hg2+
-
1-2.5 mM
Hg2+
-
1 mM, complete inhibition
Hg2+
-
1 mM, 95% inhibition of beta-galactosidase I, 95% inhibition of beta-galactosidase II, 91% inhibition of beta-galactosidase III
Hg2+
-
1 mM, complete inhibition
Hg2+
-
complete inhibition at 5 mM
Hg2+
Q10RB4
complete inhibition at 1 mM of recombinant isozyme OsGal1
imidazole
-
above 50 mM, irreversible
imidazole
-
inhibition mechanism and kinetics, modeling, overview
iodoacetamide
Kluyveromyces marxianus, Torulopsis sphaerica, Torulopsis versatilis
-
-
iodoacetamide
-
0.5 mM, complete inhibition
iodoacetate
-
1 mM, 52% inhibition
iodoacetate
-
-
iodoacetic acid
-
1 mM, 77% inhibition; inhibition of 73.0% enzyme activity
IPTG
Q10RB4
38% inhibition at 10 mM of recombinant isozyme OsGal1
isopropyl beta-D-thiogalactoside
-
-
isopropyl beta-D-thiogalactoside
-, P00723, Q6QTF4
5 mM, 91% residual activity
isopropyl thiogalactoside
Rhizomucor sp.
-
-
isopropyl-thio-beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
-
L-arabinose
-
10 mM, 18% inhibition
L-arabinose
-
-
L-fucose
-
10 mM, 30% inhibition
Lactate
-
noncompetitive
lactose
-
hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside
lactose
Planococcus sp.
Q9KI47
10 mM, 29% inhibition at 1.1 mM o-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside
lactose
-
50 mM, 28% inhibition of beta-galactosidase I, 26% inhibition of beta-galactosidase II, 27% inhibition of beta-galactosidase III, hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside
lactose
Kerstingiella geocarpa
-
competitive
lactose
-
substrate inhibition
lactose
Q10RB4
15% inhibition at 5 mM of recombinant isozyme OsGal1
lactose
-
competitive
lactose
-
92% residual activity at 50 mM and 97% residual activity at 20 mM (purified lactase)
maltose
Kluyveromyces marxianus, Torulopsis sphaerica, Torulopsis versatilis
-
slight inhibition
maltose
-
0.1 mM, slight inhibition; of hydrolysis of o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside
maltose
-
10 mM, 24% loss of activity
melibiose
-
10 mM, 49% inhibition
melibiose
-
; 44% residual activity at 100 mM and 86% residual activity at 0.1 mM (purified lactase); 44% residual activity at 100 mM and 86% residual activity at 10 mM (purified lactase)
mercaptoethylamine
-
-
methyl beta-D-thiogalactoside
-
-
methyl beta-galactopyranoside
-
-
Mg2+
-
1.5 mM, 56% inhibition
Mg2+
Torulopsis sphaerica
-
-
Mg2+
Torulopsis versatilis
-
weak
Mg2+
-
1 mM, 31% inhibition
Mg2+
Q10RB4
27% inhibition at 10 mM of recombinant isozyme OsGal1
Mg2+
-
85.18% residual activity at 1 mM
Mn2+
-
1 mM, almost complete inhibition
Mn2+
-
2.5 mM MnCl2, inhibition of transferase activity
Mn2+
-
0.1 mM, 90% inhibition
Mn2+
O07684, O07685
complete inhibition at 10 mM; complete inhibition at 10 mM
Mn2+
-
activates the recombinant hybrid enzyme, but inhibits the wild-type Kluyveromyces lactis enzyme
Mn2+
C7ASJ5
11% residual activity at 5 mM Mn2+
Mn2+
Bispora sp.
C7SLY9
90.1% residual activity at 5 mM
N-bromoacetylgalactosamine
-
reactivation with mercaptoethanol
N-bromoacetylgalactosamine
-
-
N-bromosuccimide
-
strong inhibition, attacks a tryptophan residue
N-bromosuccinimide
-
-
Na+
-
competitive inhibitor of the Mg2+ and K+ activated reaction with either lactose or p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside
NaCl
-
the activity of both soluble beta-Gal and encapsulated beta-Gal decrease with salt addition. While in the case of soluble beta-Gal at 150 mM NaCl the reaction rate has decreased to half of the control value, in the case of encapsulated bet-Gal the same inhibition level is reached at 300 mM NaCl
NEM
Kluyveromyces marxianus, Torulopsis sphaerica, Torulopsis versatilis
-
-
Ni2+
-
1.5 mM, complete inhibition
Ni2+
-
10 mM, 28% inhibition
Ni2+
P81650, -
1 mM, strong inhibition
Ni2+
-
2.0 mM, 76% inhibition
Ni2+
-
1 mM, 16% inhibition
Ni2+
-
activates the recombinant hybrid enzyme, but inhibits the wild-type Kluyveromyces lactis enzyme
Ni2+
C7ASJ5
38% residual activity at 5 mM Ni2+
Ni2+
-
inhibits activity
Ni2+
E7FHC0
5 mM, inhibits the enzyme activity by 92.9%, 80C, pH 7.0
octyl-beta-thio-galactoside
-
-
oligosaccharides
-
oligosaccharides which are produced as a by-product in the hydrolysis of lactose promote a reversible inactivation of the immobilized enzyme. The inactivation can be reduced by having the reaction in a continuous stirred reactor at a high percent conversion of lactose or by using any immobilized enzyme having a low specific activity
-
p-aminophenyl beta-D-thiogalactoside
-
-
p-chlorobenzene sulfonic acid
-
-
p-chloromercuribenzoate
-
1 mM, complete inhibition
p-chloromercuribenzoate
-
1 mM, 85% inhibition
p-chloromercuribenzoic acid
-
inhibition of 86.2% enzyme activity
p-hydroxymercuribenzoate
-
1 mM, complete inactivation
p-hydroxymercuribenzoate
-
5 mM, 20% inhibition
p-hydroxymercuribenzoate
-
-
p-nitrophenyl beta-D-fucoside
-
-
p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
-
p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-thiogalactoside
Bacteroides polypragmatus
-
-
Pb2+
-
0.1 mM, complete inactivation
Pb2+
-
1 mM, 66% inhibition
Pb2+
-
2 mM, complete inhibition; no enzyme activity
Pb2+
-
15% residual activity at 5 mM
PCMB
-
10 mM, 20% loss of activity
PCMB
-
1 mM, complete inhibition
Phenyl-beta-D-thiogalactoside
-
43 mM, strong inhibition
phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride
-
-
phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride
-
-
phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride
-
1 mM, 23% inhibition
raffinose
-
; 53% residual activity at 200 mM and 95% residual activity at 20 mM (purified lactase)
reduced glutathione
C7ASJ5
6% residual activity at 5 mM
SDS
-
0.01%, complete inactivation
SDS
Bullera singularis
-
10 mM, 84% inhibition
SDS
-
0.5 mM, 87% inactivation
SDS
-
1 mM, complete inactivation
SDS
-
1 mM, 62% inhibition
SDS
-
1 mM, 98% inhibition of beta-galactosidase I, 97% inhibition of beta-galactosidase II, 93% inhibition of beta-galactosidase III
SDS
-
1% (w/v) SDS strongly inhibits the ONPGase activity
SDS
Bispora sp.
C7SLY9
7.2% residual activity at 5 mM
SDS
-
12.69% residual activity at 0.1% (w/v)
Sn2+
-
2.5 mM SnCl2, inhibition of hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside and of transferase activity
Sn2+
-
no enzyme activity
sodium hypochlorite
-
-
sphingosine
-
hydrolysis of lactosyl ceramide
stachyose
-
90% residual activity at 100 mM and 79% residual activity at 10 mM (purified lactase)
starch
-
0.2% soluble starch
Sucrose
Kluyveromyces marxianus, Torulopsis sphaerica, Torulopsis versatilis
-
slight inhibition
Sucrose
-
30 mM, 10% inhibition
Triton X-100
-
61% residual activity at 10% (v/v)
Tween 80
-
0.5% in Tris-HCl, 25% inactivation