Information on EC 3.2.1.1 - alpha-amylase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota, Bacteria, Archaea

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
3.2.1.1
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
alpha-amylase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
Endohydrolysis of (1->4)-alpha-D-glucosidic linkages in polysaccharides containing three or more (1->4)-alpha-linked D-glucose units
show the reaction diagram
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
hydrolysis
hydrolysis of O-glycosyl bond
-
-
endohydrolysis
-
O-glycosyl bond hydrolysis
-
-
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
Metabolic pathways
-
-
Starch and sucrose metabolism
-
-
starch degradation
-
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
4-alpha-D-glucan glucanohydrolase
Acts on starch, glycogen and related polysaccharides and oligosaccharides in a random manner; reducing groups are liberated in the alpha-configuration. The term "alpha" relates to the initial anomeric configuration of the free sugar group released and not to the configuration of the linkage hydrolysed.
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
9000-90-2
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
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-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 104-1A
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain A-2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain Agnano 101
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
several strains
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
several strains
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain MR3CT, DSM 15939T, ATCC BAA-872, isolated from geothermal soil located on Mount Rittmann, Antartica
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain MR3CT, DSM 15939T, ATCC BAA-872, isolated from geothermal soil located on Mount Rittmann, Antartica
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
var. columnaris
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain CICIM B2125
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain MTCC 610
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain NCIM 2829
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strains IFO 3032 and IFO 3034
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain G-6
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain CUMC512
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 38C-2-1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 38C-2-1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 44MB82
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain CCM 2145
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
wild-type; CICC 10181
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain CUMC305
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
IFO12196
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain NA-14
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain NCIB 6346
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain NCIB 6816
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain NCIB 7224
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain NCIB 8061
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain NCIB 8537
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain NCIB 8549
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain NCIB 8874
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain NCIB 9668
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain NCTC 8233
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain TCRDC-B13
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain WHO
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain A21
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain A21
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 11-15
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 11-1S
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus sp. A-40-2
A-40-2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain ANT-6
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus sp. IMD 434
strain IMD 434
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain YX-1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 65
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain AX20, isolated from soil
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain BF768
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain DM-03, isolated from traditional fermented food of India
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain DP 1, CCM 2267, CCM 2268, CCM 2744, CCM 2794, NA 64, CCM 2722, CCM 2216 and CCM 1718
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Marburg strain
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
SS71
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacteria SS71
SS71
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
human gut symbiont
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Caloglyphus redickorzevi
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain CBS 6678
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain CBS 6678
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Cardamine battagliae
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
safflower
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
tuberous-rooted chervil
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cultivar Abosora
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain T-7
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain T-7
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain D
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain D
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
earthworm
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
finger millet or ragi
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Fusicoccum sp.
strain BCC4124
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain BCC4124
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Fusidium sp.
strain BX-1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Fusidium sp. BX-1
strain BX-1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Gammarus palustris
isoenzymes Amy IW, Amy IC, Amy II.52, Amy II.55, and Amy III
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Geobacillus sp.
strain IIPTN, MTCC 5319
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain LH8
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain CCM 2183
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain JT2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain HRO10
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain NP54
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
mulberry moth
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain DD1, moderately halophilic bacterium
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain DD1, moderately halophilic bacterium
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
active site residues Asp214, Glu250, and Asp315, as well as the residues making up the calcium (Asn118, Arg175, Asp184, and His218) and chloride (Arg212, Asn313, and Arg351) binding sites are fully conserved in HdAmyI; disk abalone
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
entomopathogenic parasitic nematode, strain EGG, three isozymes
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Humicola brevis
-
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Humicola stellata
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain KCTC 3597
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain D-39
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain D-39
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain LMG 18010
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain LMG 18010
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
a strain belonging to the amylolytic lactic acid bacteria, plasmid encoded gene amy+
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
a strain belonging to the amylolytic lactic acid bacteria, plasmid encoded gene amy+
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
sandfly, Phlebotomus papatasi, infected
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain CBS 1809
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
hard clam, three isozymes AI-1 and AI-2, and AII
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Micromonospora vulgaris
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Morimus funereus
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
AAA, cultivar nanicao
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 7326
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 7326
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
red porgy
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
desert and oasis flies studied, male and female, Neot Hakikar (oasis), Jordan Valley spring (wet), Kfar Adumim starved (arid), Jordan Valley autumn (arid)
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 15-1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
MS1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
MS1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain CBS 814.70
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain CBS 814.70
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Rhizopus sp.
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 70
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 70
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
ST 2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene for alpha-amylase from Debaryomyces occidentalis was integrated into genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
pathogenic fungus, grown on oats flour
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
maize weevil, insecticide-susceptible, resistant no-cost, and resistant cost strains
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
var. M25-1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
DAS 131, alkali-thermotolerant strain
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
DAS 131, alkali-thermotolerant strain
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain SD12
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain SD12
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
ATCC 15068
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain No. 15
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Thermoactinomyces sp. No. 15
strain No. 15
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain R-47
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain E 101-69
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isolated from compost soils collected in Taiwan
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain HJ21, extremely thermophilic anaerobic archaeon
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain HJ21, extremely thermophilic anaerobic archaeon
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Thermomonospora viridis
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Thermomonospora vulgaris
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain IISc91
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
DSM 3109, hyperthermophilic bacterium
Uniprot
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 41025
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 41025
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Torula thermophila
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
L. cv. Apeldoorn
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
marine
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
azuki bean
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
evolution
malfunction
metabolism
physiological function
additional information
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
2 starch + H2O
2 malto-oligosaccharides + maltose
show the reaction diagram
2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-4)-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-4)-alpha-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-chloro-4-nitrophenol + alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-4)-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-4)-alpha-D-galactopyranose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
the increase of absorbance of 2-chloro-4-nitrophenol liberated by HSA is measured continuously at 400 nm
-
?
2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl alpha-D-maltoheptaoside + H2O
2-chloro-4-nitrophenol + alpha-D-maltoheptaose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl alpha-D-maltotrioside + H2O
2-chloro-4-nitrophenol + alpha-D-maltotriose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl alpha-D-maltotrioside + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl alpha-maltotrioside + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-4)-beta-D-glucopyranoside + H2O
2-chloro-4-nitrophenol + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
pH 6.8, 30C
-
-
?
2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl beta-D-maltoheptaoside + H2O
2-chloro-4-nitrophenol + beta-D-maltoheptaose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl beta-D-maltoheptaoside + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl-4-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-maltoside + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-maltotrioside + H2O
2-chloro-4-nitrophenol + alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-4)-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-4)-alpha-D-glucopyranose
show the reaction diagram
-
commercial substrate for a flourescence-based assay, pH 7.0
-
-
?
2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-maltotrioside + H2O
2-chloro-4-nitrophenol + maltotriose
show the reaction diagram
2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl-alpha-maltotrioside + H2O
2-chloro-4-nitrophenol + alpha-maltotrioside
show the reaction diagram
3 glycogen
maltotriose + maltotetraose + maltopentaose
show the reaction diagram
-
approx. 10% of activity with starch
-
-
?
3 starch + 2 H2O
3 malto-oligosaccharides + D-glucose + maltose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4,6-ethylidene-4-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-maltoheptaoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + 4,6-ethyliden-[G7]-alpha-D-maltoheptaoside
show the reaction diagram
-
hydrolysis of alpha-1,4-glucosidic linkages
-
-
?
4,6-ethylidene-[G7]-p-nitrophenyl-[G1]-alpha-D-maltoheptaoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + 4,6-ethyliden-[G7]-alpha-D-maltoheptaoside
show the reaction diagram
4,6-O-benzylidene 4-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-maltoheptaoside + H2O
4,6-O-benzylidene 4-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-maltosides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl alpha-D-maltoheptaoside-4,6-O-ethylidene + H2O
4-nitrophenol + 4,6-O-ethylidene-[G7]-alpha-D-maltoheptaose
show the reaction diagram
4-nitrophenyl alpha-D-maltohexaoside + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl alpha-D-maltopentaoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + alpha-D-maltopentaose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl alpha-D-maltoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + alpha-D-maltose
show the reaction diagram
4-nitrophenol is bound at the ative site
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl maltoheptaoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + maltoheptaoside
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl maltoheptaoside + H2O
maltotriose + maltotetraose + 4-nitrophenyl maltotetraoside + 4-nitrophenyl maltotrioside
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-maltopentaoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + alpha-D-maltopentaose
show the reaction diagram
-
activity measured in total fly homogenates, substrate concentration of 2.2 mM in HEPES buffer, enzyme activity preferentially required for degrading starch components of plant tissue
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-maltopentaoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + alpha-D-maltopentaoside
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-maltoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + maltose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acarbose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
the substrate is a potent inhibitor of alpha-amylases, cyclomaltodextrinase activity
-
-
?
alpha-1,4-glucan + H2O
fragments of alpha-1,4-glucan
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
alpha-cyclodextrin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
alpha-cyclodextrin + H2O
maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
92% of activity with soluble starch
-
-
?
alpha-maltosyl fluoride + H2O
maltose + fluoride
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
alpha-maltotriosyl fluoride + H2O
maltotriose + fluoride
show the reaction diagram
ammylopectin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme exhibits higher activity toward soluble starch rather than amylose (55%), amylopectin (41%), dextrin (60%), and glycogen (29%)
-
-
?
amylase + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
amylopectin + H2O
D-glucose + ?
show the reaction diagram
amylopectin + H2O
D-glucose + maltose + maltotriose
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme can degrade both the alpha-1,4 and alpha-1,6-linkages of alpha-glucans
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
fragments of amylopectin
show the reaction diagram
amylopectin + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
amylopectin + H2O
maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
amylopectin + H2O
maltose + maltotriose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
main products
-
?
amylopektin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
activity is 41% compared to the activity with soluble starch
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
amylose + H2O
D-glucose + maltose + maltotriose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
D-glucose + maltose + maltotriose + maltodextrins
show the reaction diagram
-
best substrate for AmyC, hydrolysis of alpha-1,4-glucosidic linkages
small amount of longer maltodextrins, degradation process via malto-oligosaccharides
-
?
amylose + H2O
fragments of amylose
show the reaction diagram
amylose + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
amylose + H2O
maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
amylose + H2O
maltose + maltotriose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
main products
-
?
amylose + H2O
maltotriose + maltotetraose + maltopentaose
show the reaction diagram
-
approx. 10% of activity with starch
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
amylose DP17, preferred substrate of mutant enzyme T212Y
-
-
?
amylose DP440 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
beta-cyclodextrin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
beta-cyclodextrin + H2O
maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
27% of activity with potato starch
-
-
?
beta-cyclodextrin + H2O
panose + maltoheptaose
show the reaction diagram
-
cyclomaltodextrinase activity
-
-
?
beta-limit dextrin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
beta-limit dextrin + H2O
fragments of beta-limit dextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
beta-limit-dextrin + H2O
D-glucose + maltose + maltotriose + maltodextrins
show the reaction diagram
-
28% of the activity with amylose, hydrolysis of alpha-1,4-glucosidic linkages
small amount of longer maltodextrins, degradation process via malto-oligosaccharides
-
?
cassava starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
corn flour + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
corn starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
corn starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
100% activity
-
-
?
corn starch + H2O
maltohexaose + maltopentaose + maltotriose
show the reaction diagram
-
64% activity compared to potato starch
major end-products of starch hydrolysis
-
?
cyclodextrin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
cyclodextrin + H2O
panose + maltoheptaose
show the reaction diagram
-
cyclomaltodextrinase activity, hydrolysis of alpha-1,4-glucosidic linkages
-
-
?
cyclomaltohexaose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
dextrin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
dextrin + H2O
fragments of dextrin
show the reaction diagram
dextrin + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
67% activity compared to corn starch
-
-
?
dextrin + H2O
maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
dextrinm + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme exhibits higher activity toward soluble starch rather than amylose (55%), amylopectin (41%), dextrin (60%), and glycogen (29%)
-
-
?
gamma-cyclodextrin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
gelatinized starch + H2O
maltotetraose + maltopentaose + maltohexaose
show the reaction diagram
-
isozyme RBLA prefers gelatinized starch
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
glycogen + H2O
fragments of glycogen
show the reaction diagram
glycogen + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
glycogen + H2O
maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
glycogen + H2O
maltose
show the reaction diagram
glycogen + H2O
maltose + maltotriose
show the reaction diagram
glycogen starch + H2O
maltose + maltotriose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
insoluble Blue Starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
pH 5.5, 37C
-
-
?
isomaltose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
23% of the activity with soluble starch
-
-
?
isopanose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
cyclomaltodextrinase activity, hydrolysis of alpha-1,6-glucosidic linkages
-
-
?
laminarin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
lower activity with isozyme AI-1, low activity with isozymes AI-2 and AII
-
-
?
malto-oligosaccharides + H2O
maltose
show the reaction diagram
-
hydrolysis of alpha-1,4-glucosidic linkages
-
-
?
maltodextran + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
maltodextrin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
maltodextrin + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
85% activity compared to starch
-
-
?
maltodextrin + H2O
maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
maltodextrin G5 + H2O
maltodextrin G2 + maltodextrin G3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltodextrin G6 + H2O
maltodextrin G2 + maltodextrin G4
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltodextrin G6 + H2O
maltodextrin G3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltodextrin G7 + H2O
maltodextrin G3 + maltodextrin G4
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltoheptaose + 3 H2O
2 maltose + maltotriose
show the reaction diagram
-
additional product: maltotetraose
-
?
maltoheptaose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
maltoheptaose + H2O
D-glucose + maltose + maltotriose
show the reaction diagram
Fusicoccum sp.
-
-
-
-
?
maltoheptaose + H2O
maltohexaose + maltopentaose + maltotetraose + maltotriose + maltose
show the reaction diagram
maltoheptaose + H2O
maltose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
maltoheptaose + H2O
maltotriose + maltose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
identified by thin-layer-chromatography
-
?
maltoheptaoside + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
all mutants possess the ability to hydrolyze heptasaccharide substrates and generate a similar product profile like the wild-type enzyme. The three mutants W203A, W284A, HSAmy-ar generate less products. They require higher enzyme concentration (600 nM vs. 60 nM for HSAmy and the other mutants) and more time (5 min vs. 2 min) 25C, pH 6.9
-
-
?
maltohexaitol + H2O
maltotriose + maltotriitol
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltohexaose + H2O
3 maltose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
maltohexaose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
maltohexaose + H2O
glucose + maltose + maltotriose
show the reaction diagram
Fusicoccum sp.
-
-
-
-
?
maltohexaose + H2O
maltopentaose + maltotetraose + maltotriose + maltose
show the reaction diagram
-
45% of activity with potato starch
-
-
?
maltohexaose + H2O
maltotetraose + maltotriose + maltose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
identified by thin-layer-chromatography
-
?
maltooctaose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltooligosaccharide + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
the enzyme shows a liquefying activity, hydrolyzing maltooligosaccharides, amylopectin, and starch to produce mainly maltose (G2) to maltoheptaose (G7)
-
-
?
maltooligosaccharides + H2O
maltohexaose + maltopentaose + maltotetraose + maltotriose + maltose
show the reaction diagram
-
11% of activity with potato starch
-
-
?
maltooligosaccharides + H2O
maltotriose + maltotetraose
show the reaction diagram
-
alpha-amylase activity
main products
-
?
maltopentaose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
maltopentaose + H2O
glucose + maltose + maltotriose
show the reaction diagram
Fusicoccum sp.
-
-
-
-
?
maltopentaose + H2O
malto-oligomers + maltose
show the reaction diagram
maltopentaose + H2O
maltose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
maltopentaose + H2O
maltose + maltotriose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
maltopentaose + H2O
maltotetraose + maltotriose + maltose
show the reaction diagram
-
26% of activity with potato starch
-
-
?
maltopentaose + H2O
maltotetraose + maltotriose + maltose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
identified by thin-layer-chromatography
-
?
maltopentaose + H2O
maltotriose + maltose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
major products
-
?
maltopentaoside + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
all mutants possess the ability to hydrolyze pentasaccharide substrates and generate a similar product profile like the wild-type enzyme. The three mutants W203A, W284A, HSAmy-ar generate less products. They require higher enzyme concentration (600 nM vs. 60 nM for HSAmy and the other mutants) and more time (5 min vs. 2 min) 25C, pH 6.9
-
-
?
maltose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
maltose + H2O
D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
maltose + H2O
D-glucose + ?
show the reaction diagram
maltose + H2O
D-glucose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltosyl fluoride + H2O
maltose + fluoride
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
maltotetraose + H2O
2 maltose
show the reaction diagram
maltotetraose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
maltotetraose + H2O
glucose + maltose + maltotriose
show the reaction diagram
Fusicoccum sp.
-
-
-
-
?
maltotetraose + H2O
maltotriose + maltose
show the reaction diagram
maltotriose
maltose + glucose + maltotetraose + maltopentaose + maltohexaose
show the reaction diagram
-
the final optimum also mirrors the reverse reaction
-
r
maltotriose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
maltotriose + H2O
maltose
show the reaction diagram
maltotriose + H2O
maltose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
maltotriose + H2O
maltose + glucose
show the reaction diagram
oyster glycogen + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl alpha-D-maltoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + maltose
show the reaction diagram
p-nitrophenyl maltoheptaoside + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
a maximum of substrate cleavage was identified at 152 MPa and 64C, yielding approximately 25% higher substrate conversion after 30 min, as compared to the maximum at ambient pressure and 59C
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-maltopentaoside + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
p-nitrophenyldi[alpha-D-glucopyranosyl(1-4)]-alpha-D-glucopyranoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + p-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoside + p-nitrophenyldi[alpha-D-glucopyranosyl(1-4)]-alpha-D-glucopyranoside + p-nitrophenyltri[alpha-D-glucopyranosyl(1-4)]-alpha-D-glucopyranoside
show the reaction diagram
-
-
intestine alpha-amylase
-
?
p-nitrophenyldi[alpha-D-glucopyranosyl(1-4)]-alpha-D-glucopyranoside + H2O
p-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoside + p-nitrophenyldi[alpha-D-glucopyranosyl(1-4)]-alpha-D-glucopyranoside + p-nitrophenyltri[alpha-D-glucopyranosyl(1-4)]-alpha-D-glucopyranoside
show the reaction diagram
-
-
muscle alpha-amylase
-
?
p-nitrophenylhexa[alpha-D-glucopyranosyl(1-4)]-alpha-D-glucopyranoside + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenylhexa[alpha-D-glucopyranosyl(1-4)]-alpha-D-glucopyranoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + p-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoside + p-nitrophenyldi[alpha-D-glucopyranosyl(1-4)]-alpha-D-glucopyranoside + p-nitrophenyltri[alpha-D-glucopyranosyl(1-4)]-alpha-D-glucopyranoside + p-nitrophenyltetra[alpha-D-glucopyranosyl(1-4)]-alpha-D-glucopyranoside
show the reaction diagram
-
-
intestine and muscle alpha-amylase
-
?
p-nitrophenylhexa[alpha-D-glucopyranosyl(1-4)]-alpha-D-glucopyranoside + H2O
p-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoside + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
predominant product, no p-nitrophenol detected
-
?
p-nitrophenylhexa[alpha-D-glucopyranosyl(1-4)]-alpha-D-glucopyranoside + H2O
p-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoside + p-nitrophenyldi[alpha-D-glucopyranosyl(1-4)]-alpha-D-glucopyranoside + p-nitrophenyltri[alpha-D-glucopyranosyl(1-4)]-alpha-D-glucopyranoside + p-nitrophenyltetra[alpha-D-glucopyranosyl(1-4)]-alpha-D-glucopyranoside
show the reaction diagram
-
-
muscle alpha-amylase
-
?
p-nitrophenylpenta[alpha-D-glucopyranosyl(1-4)]-alpha-D-galactopyranoside
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
potato soluble starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
potato starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
potato starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
potato starch + H2O
maltohexaose + maltopentaose + maltotriose
show the reaction diagram
-
100% activity
major end-products of starch hydrolysis
-
?
pullulan + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
pullulan + H2O
maltose + maltotriose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
main products
-
?
pullulan + H2O
panose
show the reaction diagram
pullulan + H2O
panose + maltoheptaose
show the reaction diagram
-
cyclomaltodextrinase activity
-
-
?
rabbit glycogen + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
raw sago starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
raw starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
raw starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
isozymes RBSA-1 and BSA-2, raw starch from corn and potato, the latter is preferred
-
-
?
raw starch + H2O
maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
raw starch from corn, 20% of activity with soluble starch
-
-
?
Remazol Brilliant Blue dyed starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
Remazol Brilliant Blue-dyed starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
rice starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
soluble potato starch + H2O
maltotriose + maltose + maltotetraose
show the reaction diagram
-
major products of the enzymatic reaction with starch as substrate
-
?
soluble starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
soluble starch + H2O
alpha-maltose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
soluble starch + H2O
glucose + maltose + maltotriose
show the reaction diagram
soluble starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
soluble starch + H2O
maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
soluble starch + H2O
maltose
show the reaction diagram
Morimus funereus
-
maximal activity is achieved with horse-radish starch, undetectable activity towards potato starch
-
-
?
soluble starch + H2O
maltose + maltotriose
show the reaction diagram
starch + butanol
butylglucoside + alpha-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
butylglucoside: wild-type ca. 4.5 mg/ml, mutant H222Q ca. 6.5 mg/ml, mutant H222E ca. 3.5 mg/ml, mutant H222D ca. 5.5 mg/mk, identified and analyzed by thin-layer-chromatography and HPLC
-
?
starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
starch + H2O
alpha-D-glucose + maltose
show the reaction diagram
pH 7.0, 85C
wild-type (alpha-D-glucose: ca. 22 mg/ml, maltose: ca. 5.5 mg/ml), mutants: W177V (alpha-D-glucose: ca. 20 mg/ml, maltose: ca. 5 mg/ml), Y178V (alpha-D-glucose: ca. 19 mg/ml, maltose: ca. 4 mg/ml), and F179V (alpha-D-glucose: ca. 17.5 mg/ml, maltose: ca. 7 mg/ml), almost no maltotriose as product for all variants, identified and analyzed by thin-layer-chromatography and HPLC
-
?
starch + H2O
alpha-D-glucose + maltose + maltotriose
show the reaction diagram
pH 7.0, 85C
mutants: H222Q (alpha-D-glucose: ca. 21 mg/ml, maltose: ca. 5 mg/ml, maltotriose: ca. 2.5 mg/ml), H222D (alpha-D-glucose: ca. 21 mg/ml, maltose: ca. 8 mg/ml, maltotriose: ca. 2.5 mg/ml), H222E (alpha-D-glucose: ca. 13 mg/ml, maltose: ca. 8 mg/ml, maltotriose: ca. 2.0 mg/ml), and V259W (alpha-D-glucose: ca. 16 mg/ml, maltose: ca. 8 mg/ml, maltotriose: ca. 2.5 mg/ml), identified and analyzed by thin-layer-chromatography and HPLC
-
?
starch + H2O
D-glucooligomer
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
starch + H2O
D-glucose + ?
show the reaction diagram
starch + H2O
D-glucose + maltose + maltotriose
show the reaction diagram
starch + H2O
D-glucose + maltose + maltotriose + maltodextrins
show the reaction diagram
-
soluble starch, 68% of the activity with amylose, hydrolysis of alpha-1,4-glucosidic linkages
small amount of longer maltodextrins, degradation process via malto-oligosaccharides
-
?
starch + H2O
D-glucose disaccharides + D-glucose trisaccharides
show the reaction diagram
starch + H2O
dextrin
show the reaction diagram
starch + H2O
fragments of starch
show the reaction diagram
starch + H2O
glucooligosaccharide
show the reaction diagram
starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
starch + H2O
maltohexaose
show the reaction diagram
starch + H2O
maltohexaose + maltopentaose + maltotriose
show the reaction diagram
starch + H2O
maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
starch + H2O
maltose
show the reaction diagram
starch + H2O
maltose + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
maltose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
starch + H2O
maltose + malto-oligosaccharides + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
soluble starch
trace amounts of D-glucose
-
?
starch + H2O
maltose + maltotriose
show the reaction diagram
starch + H2O
maltose + maltotriose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
starch + H2O
maltotriose
show the reaction diagram
-
AmyD produces mainly maltotriose
-
-
?
starch + H2O
maltotriose + glucose + maltose + maltotetraose
show the reaction diagram
-
pH 4, 55C, various starches are tested: soluble potato starch as reference 100% relative activity, gelatinized amylose: 74%, potato native starch: 0.2%, potato gelatinized starch: 106%, maize native starch: 0.8%, maize gelatinized starch: 53%, rice native starch: 0.5%, and rice gelatinized starch: 52%
identified by thin-layer-chromatography, maltotriose represents 70% of the end products, only traces of glucose, small amounts of maltose and maltotetraose
-
?
starch + H2O
maltotriose + maltohexaose + maltoheptaose + maltose
show the reaction diagram
-
soluble starch
first two are major products, maltohexose and maltose are intermediate products, maltotriose and maltohexaose are major products, maltoheptaose and maltose are intermediate products
-
?
starch + H2O
maltotriose + maltotetraose
show the reaction diagram
-
alpha-amylase activity, preferred substrate
main products
-
?
starch + H2O
maltotriose + maltotetraose + maltopentaose
show the reaction diagram
starch + H2O
oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
insoluble blue starch, preferred substrate of mutant enzyme Y105A
-
-
?
starch + methanol
methylglucoside + alpha-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
methylglucoside: wild-type ca. 7.5 mg/ml, mutant H222Q ca. 13 mg/ml, mutant H222E ca. 11 mg/ml, mutant H222D ca. 11 mg/mk, identified and analyzed by thin-layer-chromatography and HPLC
-
?
sweet sorghum starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Geobacillus sp.
-
62% activity compared to potato soluble starch
-
-
?
tapioca root starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Geobacillus sp.
-
88% activity compared to potato soluble starch
-
-
?
wheat starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
56.5% relative enzyme activity compared to reaction with soluble starch as substrate, pH 5.0, 50C
-
-
?
wheat starch + H2O
maltohexaose + maltopentaose + maltotriose
show the reaction diagram
-
78% activity compared to potato starch
major end-products of starch hydrolysis
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
additional information
-