Information on EC 2.4.1.19 - cyclomaltodextrin glucanotransferase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Bacteria, Archaea, Eukaryota

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
2.4.1.19
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
cyclomaltodextrin glucanotransferase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
Cyclizes part of a (1->4)-alpha-D-glucan chain by formation of a (1->4)-alpha-D-glucosidic bond
show the reaction diagram
cyclomaltodextrins (Schardinger dextrins) of various sizes (6,7,8, etc. glucose units) are formed reversibly from starch and similar substrates. Will also disproportionate linear maltodextrins without cyclizing (cf. EC 2.4.1.25, 4-alpha-glucanotransferase)
-
-
-
Cyclizes part of a (1->4)-alpha-D-glucan chain by formation of a (1->4)-alpha-D-glucosidic bond
show the reaction diagram
reaction in four steps via cyclization, disproportionation, hydrolysis, and coupling. The second step of the reaction involves the transfer of the covalently bound saccharide to an acceptor molecule
-
Cyclizes part of a (1->4)-alpha-D-glucan chain by formation of a (1->4)-alpha-D-glucosidic bond
show the reaction diagram
reaction in four steps via cyclization, disproportionation, hydrolysis, and coupling. The second step of the reaction involves the transfer of the covalently bound saccharide to an acceptor molecule
Thermoanaerobacterium thermosulfurigenes EM1
-
-
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
cyclization
-
-
-
-
hexosyl group transfer
-
-
-
-
hexosyl group transfer
-
-
hydrolysis
-
-
-
-
transglycosylation
-
-
-
-
PATHWAY
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
starch degradation III
-
starch degradation IV
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
(1->4)-alpha-D-glucan:(1->4)-alpha-D-glucan 4-alpha-D-[(1->4)-alpha-D-glucano]-transferase (cyclizing)
Cyclomaltodextrins (Schardinger dextrins) of various sizes (6,7,8, etc. glucose units) are formed reversibly from starch and similar substrates. Will also disproportionate linear maltodextrins without cyclizing (cf. EC 2.4.1.25, 4-alpha-glucanotransferase).
SYNONYMS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
1,4-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl transferase
-
-
Akrilex C cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase
-
immobilized enzyme
alpha-1,4-glucan 4-glycosyltransferase, cyclizing
-
-
-
-
alpha-CGTase
Q9FSW3
-
alpha-CGTase
Bacillus circulans A11
Q9FSW3
-
-
alpha-CGTase
Paenibacillus macerans JFB05-01
-
;
-
alpha-cyclodextrin glucanotransferase
-
-
-
-
alpha-cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase
-
-
-
-
alpha-cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase
-
-
alpha-cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase
Paenibacillus macerans JFB05-01
-
;
-
Bacillus macerans amylase
-
-
-
-
beta-CGTase
-
-
beta-CGTase
Bacillus firmus 5119
-
-
-
beta-CGTase
-
-
beta-CGTase
A3F9M7
-
beta-CGTase
Bacillus sp. BL-12
-
-
-
beta-CGTase
A3F9M7
-
-
beta-CGTase
O52766
-
beta-CGTase
Paenibacillus macerans IAM1243
O52766
-
-
beta-cyclodextrin glucanotransferase
-
-
-
-
beta-cyclodextrin glucanotransferase
-
-
beta-cyclodextrin glucanotransferase
Bacillus firmus 5119
-
-
-
beta-cyclodextrin glucanotransferase
-
-
beta-cyclodextrin glucanotransferase
A3F9M7
-
beta-cyclodextrin glucanotransferase
Bacillus sp. BL-12
-
-
-
beta-cyclodextrin glucanotransferase
A3F9M7
-
-
beta-cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase
-
-
-
-
beta-cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase
B1VC16
-
beta-cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase
Paenibacillus pabuli US132
B1VC16
-
-
BMA
-
-
-
-
C-CGTase
-
-
CD glucanotransferase
-
-
CGT
O52766
gene name
CGTase
-
-
-
-
CGTase
Bacillus agaradhaerens LS-3C
-
-
-
CGTase
C4MH58
-
CGTase
Bacillus circulans 251
P30920
-
-
CGTase
Bacillus circulans DF
-, C4MH58
-
-
CGTase
Bacillus clarkii 7384
-
-
-
CGTase
Bacillus clausii E16
-
-
-
CGTase
Q5U9V9
-
CGTase
-
;
-
CGTase
Q5U9V9
-
-
CGTase
Brevibacillus brevis CD162
-
-
-
CGTase
Geobacillus stearothermophilus ET1
-
-
-
CGTase
Klebsiella pneumoniae M5a1
-
;
-
CGTase
Paenibacillus campinasensis H69-3
-
-
-
CGTase
Paenibacillus graminis NC22.13
-
-
-
CGTase
Paenibacillus illinoisensis ST-12
-
-
-
CGTase
Paenibacillus macerans JFB05-01
-
;
-
CGTase
Paenibacillus macerans LMD24.10
P31835
-
-
CGTase
Paenibacillus pabuli US132
-
-
-
CGTase
Paenibacillus pabuli US132
B1VC16
;
-
CGTase
-
-
-
CGTase
Thermoanaerobacterium thermosulfurigenes EM1
-
-
-
CGTase
-
-
-
CGTse ET1
Geobacillus stearothermophilus ET1, Geobacillus stearothermophilus NO2
-
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferase
-
-
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferase
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferase
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferase
Bacillus agaradhaerens LS-3C
-
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferase
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferase
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferase
Bacillus clarkii 7384
-
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferase
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferase
Bacillus clausii E16
-
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferase
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferase
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferase
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferase
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferase
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferase
-
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferase
-
;
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferase
-
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferase
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferase
Brevibacillus brevis CD162
-
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferase
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferase
Geobacillus stearothermophilus ET1
-
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferase
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferase
Klebsiella pneumoniae M5a1
-
;
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferase
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferase
Paenibacillus campinasensis H69-3
-
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferase
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferase
Paenibacillus graminis NC22.13
-
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferase
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferase
Paenibacillus illinoisensis ST-12
-
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferase
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferase
Paenibacillus pabuli US132
-
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferase
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferase
Thermoanaerobacterium thermosulfurigenes EM1
-
;
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferase
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferase
-
-
-
cyclodextrin glucosyltransferase
-
-
cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase
-
-
-
-
cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase
-
-
cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase
C4MH58
-
cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase
Bacillus circulans DF
-, C4MH58
-
-
cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase
-
-
cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase
-
-
cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase
-
-
cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase
P31835
-
cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase
Paenibacillus macerans JFB05-01
-
-
-
cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase
B1VC16
-
cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase
Paenibacillus pabuli US132
B1VC16
-
-
cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase
-
-
cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase
-
-
-
cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase
-
-
cyclomaltodextrin glucanyltransferase
-
-
cyclomaltodextrin glucotransferase
-
-
-
-
cyclomaltodextrin glycosyltransferase
-
-
-
-
gamma-cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase
-
-
-
-
konchizaimu
-
-
-
-
neutral-cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase
-
-
-
-
PFCGT
Q3HUR2
-
additional information
-
CGTases are members of the largest family of glycoside hydrolases acting on starch and related alpha-glucans, glycoside hydrolase family 13
additional information
Bacillus agaradhaerens LS-3C
-
CGTases are members of the largest family of glycoside hydrolases acting on starch and related alpha-glucans, glycoside hydrolase family 13
-
additional information
-
CGTase is a member of the glycoside hydrolase family 13, also known as the alpha-amylase family
additional information
-
CGTases are members of the largest family of glycoside hydrolases acting on starch and related alpha-glucans, glycoside hydrolase family 13
additional information
C4MH58
the enzyme is a member of the GH13 family, also known as the alpha-amylase family1
additional information
Bacillus circulans DF
-
CGTase is a member of the glycoside hydrolase family 13, also known as the alpha-amylase family
-
additional information
Bacillus circulans DF
C4MH58
the enzyme is a member of the GH13 family, also known as the alpha-amylase family1
-
additional information
-
CGTases are members of the largest family of glycoside hydrolases acting on starch and related alpha-glucans, glycoside hydrolase family 13
additional information
Bacillus clarkii 7384
-
CGTases are members of the largest family of glycoside hydrolases acting on starch and related alpha-glucans, glycoside hydrolase family 13
-
additional information
-
CGTases are members of the largest family of glycoside hydrolases acting on starch and related alpha-glucans, glycoside hydrolase family 13
additional information
Bacillus clausii E16
-
CGTases are members of the largest family of glycoside hydrolases acting on starch and related alpha-glucans, glycoside hydrolase family 13
-
additional information
-
CGTases are members of the largest family of glycoside hydrolases acting on starch and related alpha-glucans, glycoside hydrolase family 13
additional information
-
CGTases are members of the largest family of glycoside hydrolases acting on starch and related alpha-glucans, glycoside hydrolase family 13
-
additional information
-
CGTases are members of the largest family of glycoside hydrolases acting on starch and related alpha-glucans, glycoside hydrolase family 13
additional information
Brevibacillus brevis CD162
-
CGTases are members of the largest family of glycoside hydrolases acting on starch and related alpha-glucans, glycoside hydrolase family 13
-
additional information
-
CGTases are members of the largest family of glycoside hydrolases acting on starch and related alpha-glucans, glycoside hydrolase family 13
additional information
Geobacillus stearothermophilus ET1
-
CGTases are members of the largest family of glycoside hydrolases acting on starch and related alpha-glucans, glycoside hydrolase family 13
-
additional information
-
CGTases are members of the largest family of glycoside hydrolases acting on starch and related alpha-glucans, glycoside hydrolase family 13
additional information
Klebsiella pneumoniae M5a1
-
CGTases are members of the largest family of glycoside hydrolases acting on starch and related alpha-glucans, glycoside hydrolase family 13
-
additional information
-
CGTases are members of the largest family of glycoside hydrolases acting on starch and related alpha-glucans, glycoside hydrolase family 13
additional information
-
the enzyme is a member of the alpha-amylase family, family 13, of glycosyl hydrolases
additional information
Paenibacillus campinasensis H69-3
-
CGTases are members of the largest family of glycoside hydrolases acting on starch and related alpha-glucans, glycoside hydrolase family 13; the enzyme is a member of the alpha-amylase family, family 13, of glycosyl hydrolases
-
additional information
-
CGTases are members of the largest family of glycoside hydrolases acting on starch and related alpha-glucans, glycoside hydrolase family 13
additional information
Paenibacillus graminis NC22.13
-
CGTases are members of the largest family of glycoside hydrolases acting on starch and related alpha-glucans, glycoside hydrolase family 13
-
additional information
-
CGTases are members of the largest family of glycoside hydrolases acting on starch and related alpha-glucans, glycoside hydrolase family 13
additional information
Paenibacillus illinoisensis ST-12
-
CGTases are members of the largest family of glycoside hydrolases acting on starch and related alpha-glucans, glycoside hydrolase family 13
-
additional information
-
CGTases are members of the largest family of glycoside hydrolases acting on starch and related alpha-glucans, glycoside hydrolase family 13
additional information
-
CGTases belong to the important alpha-amylase family, GH13
additional information
-
CGTases are members of the largest family of glycoside hydrolases acting on starch and related alpha-glucans, glycoside hydrolase family 13
additional information
B1VC16
CGTases belong to the glycoside hydrolase family 13, alpha-amylase family
additional information
Paenibacillus pabuli US132
-
CGTases are members of the largest family of glycoside hydrolases acting on starch and related alpha-glucans, glycoside hydrolase family 13
-
additional information
Paenibacillus pabuli US132
B1VC16
CGTases belong to the glycoside hydrolase family 13, alpha-amylase family
-
additional information
-
CGTases are members of the largest family of glycoside hydrolases acting on starch and related alpha-glucans, glycoside hydrolase family 13
additional information
-
the enzyme belongs to the glycoside hydrolase family 13
additional information
-
the enzyme belongs to the glycoside hydrolase family 13
-
additional information
-
CGTase belongs to the glycoside hydrolase family 13 or alpha-amylase family
additional information
-
CGTases are members of the largest family of glycoside hydrolases acting on starch and related alpha-glucans, glycoside hydrolase family 13
additional information
-
CGTases belong to the important alpha-amylase family, GH13
additional information
-
CGTases are members of the largest family of glycoside hydrolases acting on starch and related alpha-glucans, glycoside hydrolase family 13
additional information
-
the enzyme belongs to the superfamily of glycoside hydrolases
additional information
Thermoanaerobacterium thermosulfurigenes EM1
-
CGTases are members of the largest family of glycoside hydrolases acting on starch and related alpha-glucans, glycoside hydrolase family 13; the enzyme belongs to the superfamily of glycoside hydrolases
-
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY
9030-09-5
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SEQUENCE CODE
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
DSM9948; LS-3C
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain LS-3C
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus agaradhaerens DSM8721
DSM8721
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus agaradhaerens DSM9948
DSM9948
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus agaradhaerens LS-3C
LS-3C
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus agaradhaerens LS-3C
strain LS-3C
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus agaradhaerens WN-I
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
B-3103; BA-4229
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus alcalophilus B-3103
B-3103
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus alcalophilus BA-4229
BA-4229
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus autolyticus
11149
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus autolyticus 11149
11149
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
NCIMB 13123
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus cereus NCIMB 13123
NCIMB 13123
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
ATCC 9995; B. sp. var. alkalophilus No. 38-2, ATCC 21783; C31
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
ATCC 9995; B. sp. var. alkalophilus No. 38-2, ATCC 21783; E 192; no. 8
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
B. sp. var. alkalophilus No. 38-2, ATCC 21783
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
B. sp. var. alkalophilus No. 38-2, ATCC 21783; no. 8
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
B. sp. var. alkalophilus No. 38-2, ATCC 21783; strain 251
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
E 192; no. 8
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
no. 8; strain 251
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 251
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 8
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain A11
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain ATCC 21783
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain DF 9R
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strains 8, 251, A11, and DF 9R
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strains BC8 and BC251
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus circulans 251
strain 251
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus circulans 251
strain 251
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus circulans 251
strain 251
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus circulans 8
no. 8
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus circulans 8
strain 8
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus circulans A11
A11
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus circulans A11
strain A11
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus circulans BIO-3m
BIO-3m
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus circulans C31
C31
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus circulans DF
strain DF 9R
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus circulans DF
strain DF 9R
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus circulans DF 9R
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus circulans DF9
DF9
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus circulans E 192
E 192
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
recombinant
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 7364
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 7384
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 7384
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus clarkii 7364
strain 7364
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus clarkii 7384
strain 7384
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus clarkii 7384
strain 7384
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain E16
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus clausii E16
strain E16
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus coagulans BIO-13m
BIO-13m
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
; strain 7b, isolated from Brazilian oat soil
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
alkalophilic strain 5119
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 290-3
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 5119
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strains 290-3, 7B, NCIM 5119 and no. 37
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
var. alkalophilus
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus firmus 290-3
strain 290-3
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus firmus 5119
strain 5119
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus firmus 7b
strain 7b, isolated from Brazilian oat soil
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
B-4025; BIO-9m
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
NBRF database accession number
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus licheniformis B-4025
B-4025
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus licheniformis BIO-9m
BIO-9m
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus megaterium No5
No5
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
sp. nov. C-1400
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strains 20RF and 8SB, isolated from Bulgarian habitats
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus pseudalcaliphilus 20RF
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus pseudalcaliphilus 8SB
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
1011; 17-1; B1018
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
1011; AL-6; INMIA 1919; INMIA A7/1; INMIA T4; INMIA t6
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
27 strains, e.g. strains 20RF, 8SB and 24WE, isolated from 17 Bulgarian alkaline and normal habitats, springs and soils
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
alkalophilic strain 1011; alkalophilic strain 1-1; alkalophilic strain 17-1; alkalophilic strain 20RF; alkalophilic strain 38-2; alkalophilic strain 8SB; alkalophilic strain A2-5a; alkalophilic strain G-825-6; alkalophilic strain I-5; strain B1018; strain BL-31; strain G1; strain KC201; strains B1018, BL-31, G1, KC201, and TS1-1, and the alkalophilic strains 1-1, 17-1, 38-2, 1011, 8SB, 20RF, A2-5a, G-825-6, and I-5; strain TS1-1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
alkalophilic strain ATCC 21595
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
alkalophilic, strain A2-5a
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
BE101
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
G-825-6
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Ha3-3-2/ATCC 39612
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
IT25
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
NBRF database accession number
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
No. 5 strain
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 1011
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 1018
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 17.1; strain 38.2
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 6.6.3
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain A2-5a
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain BL-12
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain BL-31
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain G1, gene cgt
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain KC201
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain TS1-1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
TS1-1
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 1011
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus sp. 1018
strain 1018
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus sp. 17. Jan
17-1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus sp. 17.1
strain 17.1
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus sp. 38.2
strain 38.2
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
No. 5 strain
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus sp. 6.6.3
strain 6.6.3
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus sp. A2-5a
strain A2-5a
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus sp. AL-6
AL-6
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain B1018
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus sp. BE101
BE101
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus sp. BL-12
strain BL-12
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain BL-31
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain BL-31
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain G1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain G1, gene cgt
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus sp. Ha3-3-2/ATCC 39612
Ha3-3-2/ATCC 39612
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus sp. INMIA 1919
INMIA 1919
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus sp. INMIA A7/1
INMIA A7/1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus sp. INMIA T4
INMIA T4
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus sp. INMIA t6
INMIA t6
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus sp. IT25
IT25
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain KC201
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain KC201
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain TS1-1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
TS1-1
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus subtilis 313
no.313
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus subtilis NA-1
NA-1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain CD162
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain CD162
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Brevibacillus brevis CD162
strain CD162
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Brevibacillus brevis CD162
strain CD162
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Brevibacterium sp. 9605
no. 9605
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
i.e. Geobacillus stearothermophilus, strain NO2; strain ET1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
NBRF database accession number
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
NO2, gene cgt-1, nucleotide sequence accession number; NO2 gene cgt-232, nucleotide sequence accession number; NO2 gene cgt-5, nucleotide sequence accession number
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Geobacillus stearothermophilus B-4006
B-4006
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Geobacillus stearothermophilus ET1
ET1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Geobacillus stearothermophilus ET1
strain ET1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Geobacillus stearothermophilus N2
N2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Geobacillus stearothermophilus NO2
NO2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Geobacillus stearothermophilus NO2
strain NO2
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Geobacillus stearothermophilus TC-60
TC-60
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Geobacillus stearothermophilus TC-91
TC-91
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
human
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
formerly Klebsiella pneumoniae M5a1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain M5a1
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Klebsiella oxytoca M5a1
strain M5a1
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Klebsiella pneumoniae M5
M5
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Klebsiella pneumoniae M5a1
strain M5a1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
alkalophilic strain 41, isolated from soybean-soil culture
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Lysinibacillus sphaericus ATCC7055
ATCC7055
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 9229
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Nostoc sp. 9229
strain 9229
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Paenibacillus campinasensis H69-3
strain H69-3
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain NC22.13
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strains RSA19 and MC22.13
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Paenibacillus graminis NC22.13
strain NC22.13
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain ST-12 K
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Paenibacillus illinoisensis ST-12
strain ST-12 K
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Paenibacillus illinoisensis ST-12K
ST-12K
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
ATCC 8514; IAM1243; IFO3490 (NRRL B-388)
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
formerly Aeromonas macerans
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
i.e. Paenibacillus macerans
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
IAM1243; IFO3490 (NRRL B-388)
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
IFO3490 (NRRL B-388)
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
IFO3490, gene cgtM, nucleotide sequence accession number
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
NBRF database accession number
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
recombinant
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain ATCC 8517
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain JFB05-01
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain JFB05-01, CCTCCM 203062
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain LMD24.10
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain strain JFB05-01
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Paenibacillus macerans BIO-2m
BIO-2m
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Paenibacillus macerans IAM1243
IAM1243
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Paenibacillus macerans IAM1243
IAM1243
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Paenibacillus macerans JBF05-01
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Paenibacillus macerans JFB05-01
strain JFB05-01
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Paenibacillus macerans JFB05-01
strain JFB05-01, CCTCCM 203062
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Paenibacillus macerans LMD24.10
strain LMD24.10
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain US132
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain US132 isolated from a Tunisian soil
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain US132, gene cgtase
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Paenibacillus pabuli US132
strain US132
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Paenibacillus pabuli US132
strain US132 isolated from a Tunisian soil
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Paenibacillus pabuli US132
strain US132, gene cgtase
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strains BT01, C36, RB01, and T16
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
thermotolerant strain T16 isolated from hot spring soil in northern Thailand
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
DSM3638, gene pfcgt
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
BIO-12H, BIO-13H
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Salimicrobium halophilum BIO-12H BIO-13H
BIO-12H, BIO-13H
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Salimicrobium halophilum INMIA-3849
INMIA-3849
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
hog
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Thermoactinomyces vulgaris Tac-3554
Tac-3554
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
ATCC 53.627
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain ATCC 53627
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strains 501, ATCC 53627, and P4
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
EMBL database accession number
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Thermoanaerobacterium thermosulfurigenes EM1
EM1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Thermoanaerobacterium thermosulfurigenes EM1
strain EM1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
KOD1, UniProt accession No. Q8X268
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
B1001
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
B1001, DNA sequence of CGTase gene, EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ database accession No.
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
B1001; EMBL database accession number
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain B1001
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain B1001
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain B1001
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain B1001
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
pv. campestris
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
physiological function
-
it is an important hydrolytic enzyme that carries out reversible intermolecular as well as intramolecular transglycosylation and performs cyclization, coupling and disproportionation of maltooligosaccharides
physiological function
-
the enzyme is responsible for cyclodextrin formation. Cyclodextrins are cyclic, nonreducing oligo-glucopyranose molecules linked via alpha(1,4)-glycosidic bonds mainly consisting of six, seven, or eight glucose residue, alpha-, beta-, or gamma-cyclodextrin, respectively
physiological function
Paenibacillus macerans JFB05-01
-
the enzyme is responsible for cyclodextrin formation. Cyclodextrins are cyclic, nonreducing oligo-glucopyranose molecules linked via alpha(1,4)-glycosidic bonds mainly consisting of six, seven, or eight glucose residue, alpha-, beta-, or gamma-cyclodextrin, respectively
-
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                      
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
3-ketobutylidene-beta-2-chloro-4-nitrophenylmaltopentaoside + D-glucose
3-ketobutylidene-beta-2-chloro-4-nitrophenylmaltotetraoside + maltose
show the reaction diagram
-
strain 1011, disproportionation
-
-
?
3-ketobutylidene-beta-2-chloro-4-nitrophenylmaltopentaoside + maltose
3-ketobutylidene-beta-2-chloro-4-nitrophenylmaltotetraoside + maltotriose
show the reaction diagram
-
strain 1011, disproportionation
-
-
?
4,6-benzylidene-alpha-D-4-nitrophenylmaltoheptaose + acceptor
4,6-benzylidene-alpha-D-4-nitrophenylmaltopentaose + p-nitrophenyl-(alpha-1,4-glucopyranosyl)2-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
blocked p-nitrophenyl-(alpha-1,4-glucopyranosyl)6-D-glucose , weak cleavage
-
-
?
4,6-O-ethylidene-4-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-maltoheptaoside + maltose
?
show the reaction diagram
Thermoanaerobacterium thermosulfurigenes, Thermoanaerobacterium thermosulfurigenes EM1
-
maltose as donor and acceptor, overview
-
-
?
alpha-1,4-glucan + acceptor
cyclodextrins
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
alpha-1,4-glucan + acceptor
cyclodextrins
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
alpha-1,4-glucan + acceptor
cyclodextrins
show the reaction diagram
-
strain 1011
-
-
r
alpha-1,4-glucan + acceptor
cyclodextrins
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus sp. AL-6
-
-
-
-
r
alpha-1,4-glucan + acceptor
cyclodextrins
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus sp. B1018, Bacillus sp. 17. Jan
-
strain 1011
-
-
r
alpha-1,4-glucan + acceptor
cyclodextrins
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus sp. INMIA t6, Bacillus sp. INMIA A7/1, Bacillus sp. INMIA 1919, Bacillus sp. INMIA T4, Paenibacillus macerans IAM1243
-
-
-
-
r
alpha-1,4-glucan + acceptor
cyclodextrins
show the reaction diagram
-
strain 1011
-
-
r
alpha-1,4-glucan + acceptor
cyclodextrins
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
alpha-1,4-glucan + acceptor
cyclohexaamylose + cycloheptaamylose + cyclooctaamylose
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus megaterium No5
-
-
product ratio 1: 2.4: 1
r
alpha-cyclodextrin + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin + maltooligosaccharide
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
alpha-cyclodextrin + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin + maltooligosaccharide
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
alpha-cyclodextrin + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin + maltooligosaccharide
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
alpha-cyclodextrin + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin + maltooligosaccharide
show the reaction diagram
-
immobilized enzyme
-
-
r
alpha-cyclodextrin + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin + maltooligosaccharide
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus circulans 8
-
-
-
-
r
alpha-cyclodextrin + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin + maltooligosaccharide
show the reaction diagram
Geobacillus stearothermophilus NO2
-
-
-
-
r
alpha-cyclodextrin + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin + maltooligosaccharide
show the reaction diagram
Geobacillus stearothermophilus N2
-
-
-
-
r
alpha-cyclodextrin + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin + maltooligosaccharide
show the reaction diagram
Paenibacillus macerans IAM1243
-
immobilized enzyme
-
-
r
alpha-cyclodextrin + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin + maltooligosaccharide
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus circulans E 192
-
-
-
-
r
alpha-cyclodextrin + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin + maltooligosaccharide
show the reaction diagram
Geobacillus stearothermophilus ET1
-
-
-
-
r
alpha-cyclodextrin + ascorbic acid
L-ascorbic acid-2-O-alpha-D-glucoside + L-ascorbic acid-2-O-alpha-D-oligoglucoside
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
alpha-cyclodextrin + D-glucose
beta-cyclodextrin + maltooligosaccharide
show the reaction diagram
-
immobilized enzyme
-
r
alpha-cyclodextrin + D-lactose
O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-1,4-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl alpha-D-glucopyranoside + glucose
show the reaction diagram
Geobacillus stearothermophilus, Geobacillus stearothermophilus TC-91
-
-
oligosaccharide A
r
alpha-cyclodextrin + isoascorbic acid
L-isoascorbic acid-2-O-alpha-D-glucoside + L-isoascorbic acid-2-O-alpha-D-oligoglucoside
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
alpha-cyclodextrin + maltohexaose
beta-cyclodextrin + maltooligosaccharide
show the reaction diagram
-
immobilized enzyme
-
r
alpha-cyclodextrin + maltose
beta-cyclodextrin + maltooligosaccharide
show the reaction diagram
-
immobilized enzyme
-
r
alpha-cyclodextrin + maltotetraose
beta-cyclodextrin + maltooligosaccharide
show the reaction diagram
-
immobilized enzyme
-
r
alpha-cyclodextrin + maltotriose
beta-cyclodextrin + maltooligosaccharide
show the reaction diagram
-
immobilized enzyme
-
r
alpha-cyclodextrin + sucrose
beta-cyclodextrin + maltooligosaccharide
show the reaction diagram
-
immobilized enzyme
-
r
alpha-cyclodextrin + sucrose
?
show the reaction diagram
-
ATCC 21783
-
-
r
amylopectin + acceptor
cycloheptaamylose + cyclohexaamylose + exo-branched cyclohexaamylose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
amylopectin + acceptor
cycloheptaamylose + cyclohexaamylose + exo-branched cyclohexaamylose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
amylopectin + acceptor
cycloheptaamylose + cyclohexaamylose + exo-branched cyclohexaamylose
show the reaction diagram
-
ATCC 21783
-
-
r
amylopectin + acceptor
cycloheptaamylose + cyclohexaamylose + exo-branched cyclohexaamylose
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus circulans, Bacillus circulans C31
-
C31
-
-
-
amylopectin + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta-cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
alpha-cyclodextrin is preferentially produced. With a longer incubation period, the alpha-cyclodextrin to beta-cyclodextrin ratio declines
larger cyclodextrins (>8 glucose units) are formed in the initial reaction period
-
?
amylopectin beta-limit dextrin + acceptor
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
amylose
alpha-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
catalyzes the conversion of amylose to cyclodextrins, circular alpha-(1,4)-linked glucopyranose oligosaccharides of different ring sizes, the cyclodextrin containing 12 alpha-D-glucopyranose residues is preferentially synthesized by the enzyme. Interactions at oligosaccharide-binding subsites located close to the catalytic site apparently play a more important role in the determination of the size of the cyclodextrin formed
product identification by amperometric detection, overview
-
?
amylose + acceptor
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
amylose + acceptor
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
amylose + acceptor
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
amylose + acceptor
?
show the reaction diagram
-
ATCC 21783
-
-
r
amylose + acceptor
?
show the reaction diagram
-
C31
-
-
-
amylose + acceptor
?
show the reaction diagram
-
NO2, spiral amylose
-
-
r
amylose + acceptor
?
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus circulans C31
-
C31
-
-
-
amylose + acceptor
?
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus circulans 8
-
-
-
-
r
amylose + acceptor
?
show the reaction diagram
Geobacillus stearothermophilus NO2, Geobacillus stearothermophilus TC-91
-
NO2, spiral amylose
-
-
r
amylose + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta-cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
alpha-cyclodextrin is preferentially produced. With a longer incubation period, the alpha-cyclodextrin to beta-cyclodextrin ratio declines
larger cyclodextrins (>8 glucose units) are formed in the initial reaction period
-
?
amylose + acceptor
cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
higher yield of large-ring cyclodextrins are ontained with a reaction temperature of 60C compared to 40C
-
?
beta-cyclodextrin + 4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucopyranose
?
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus sp., Bacillus sp. BL-12
-
beta-cyclodextrin as a glycosyl donor and 4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucopyranose as a glycosyl acceptor
-
-
?
beta-cyclodextrin + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + maltooligosaccharide
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
beta-cyclodextrin + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + maltooligosaccharide
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
beta-cyclodextrin + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + maltooligosaccharide
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
beta-cyclodextrin + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + maltooligosaccharide
show the reaction diagram
-
immobilized enzyme
-
r
beta-cyclodextrin + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + maltooligosaccharide
show the reaction diagram
Geobacillus stearothermophilus TC-60
-
-
-
-
r
beta-cyclodextrin + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + maltooligosaccharide
show the reaction diagram
Geobacillus stearothermophilus N2
-
-
-
-
r
beta-cyclodextrin + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + maltooligosaccharide
show the reaction diagram
Paenibacillus macerans IAM1243
-
immobilized enzyme
-
r
beta-cyclodextrin + D-glucose
?
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus circulans, Bacillus circulans 8, Bacillus circulans E 192
-
E 192, rapid degradation of beta-cyclodextrin by increasing the coupling reaction
-
-
r
beta-cyclodextrin + D-glucose
alpha-cyclodextrin + maltooligosaccharide
show the reaction diagram
-
immobilized enzyme
-
r
beta-cyclodextrin + maltohexaose
alpha-cyclodextrin + maltooligosaccharide
show the reaction diagram
-
immobilized enzyme
-
r
beta-cyclodextrin + maltose
alpha-cyclodextrin + maltooligosaccharide
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
beta-cyclodextrin + maltose
alpha-cyclodextrin + maltooligosaccharide
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
beta-cyclodextrin + maltose
alpha-cyclodextrin + maltooligosaccharide
show the reaction diagram
-
ATCC 21783
-
-
r
beta-cyclodextrin + maltose
alpha-cyclodextrin + maltooligosaccharide
show the reaction diagram
-
immobilized enzyme
-
r
beta-cyclodextrin + maltose
alpha-cyclodextrin + maltooligosaccharide
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus circulans 8
-
-
-
-
r
beta-cyclodextrin + maltose
?
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus circulans, Bacillus circulans DF
-
-
-
-
?
beta-cyclodextrin + maltotetraose
alpha-cyclodextrin + maltooligosaccharide
show the reaction diagram
-
immobilized enzyme
-
r
beta-cyclodextrin + maltotriose
alpha-cyclodextrin + maltooligosaccharide
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
beta-cyclodextrin + maltotriose
alpha-cyclodextrin + maltooligosaccharide
show the reaction diagram
-
ATCC 21783
-
-
r
beta-cyclodextrin + maltotriose
alpha-cyclodextrin + maltooligosaccharide
show the reaction diagram
-
immobilized enzyme
-
r
beta-cyclodextrin + salicin
?
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus circulans, Bacillus circulans 8, Bacillus circulans E 192
-
E 192, rapid degradation of beta-cyclodextrin by increasing the coupling reaction
-
-
?
beta-cyclodextrin + sucrose
?
show the reaction diagram
-
ATCC 21783
-
-
r
beta-cyclodextrin + sucrose
alpha-cyclodextrin + maltooligosaccharide
show the reaction diagram
-
immobilized enzyme
-
r
cycloamylose + D-glucose
?
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus circulans, Bacillus circulans 8, Bacillus circulans E 192
-
E 192, rapid degradation of beta-cyclodextrin by increasing the coupling reaction
-
-
?
cycloamylose + salicin
?
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus circulans, Bacillus circulans 8, Bacillus circulans E 192
-
E 192, rapid degradation of beta-cyclodextrin by increasing the coupling reaction
-
-
?
cyclodextrins + acceptor
linear maltooligosaccharide
show the reaction diagram
-
strain 1011, cyclodextrin ring opening
-
r
cycloheptaamylose + acceptor
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
cyclohexaamylose + acceptor
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
cyclohexaamylose + D-glucose
linear oligosaccharide
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
cyclohexaamylose + maltose
linear oligosaccharide
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
cyclohexaamylose + sucrose
linear oligosaccharide
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
cyclomaltohexaose + cyclo-[alpha-D-Glcp-(1-3)-alpha-D-Glcp-(1-6)-alpha-D-Glcp-(1-3)-alpha-D-Glp-(1-6)]
cyclo-[alpha-D-Glcp-(1-3)-alpha-D-Glcp-(1-6)-alpha-D-Glcp-(1-3)-[alpha-D-Glcp-(1-4)]-alpha-D-Glp-(1-6)]
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
cyclomaltohexaose + cyclo-[alpha-D-Glcp-(1-3)-alpha-D-Glcp-(1-6)-alpha-D-Glcp-(1-3)-alpha-D-Glp-(1-6)]
cyclo-[alpha-D-Glcp-(1-3)-[alpha-D-Glcp-(1-4)]-alpha-D-Glcp-(1-6)-alpha-D-Glcp-(1-3)-[alpha-D-Glcp-(1-4)]-alpha-D-Glp-(1-6)]
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
cyclomaltohexaose + D-lactose
O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-1,4-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl alpha-D-glucopyranoside + maltooligosyl sugars
show the reaction diagram
Geobacillus stearothermophilus, Geobacillus stearothermophilus TC-91
-
-
oligosaccharide A
r
cyclomaltohexaose + methyl alpha-D-glucopyranoside
maltodextrin glycoside
show the reaction diagram
-
the reactions are optimized by using different ratios of the D-glucopyranosides to cyclomaltohexaose. The lower ratios of 0.5-1.0 give a wide range of sizes from d.p. 2-17 and higher. As the molar ratio is increased from 1.0 to 3.0, the larger sizes, d.p. 917, decrease, and the small and intermediate sizes, d.p. 28, increase. As the molar ratios are increased further from 3.0 to 5.0, the large sizes completely disappear, the intermediate sizes, d.p. 48, decrease, and the small sizes, d.p. 2 and 3 become predominant
-
-
?
cyclomaltohexaose + methyl beta-D-glucopyranoside
maltodextrin glycoside
show the reaction diagram
-
the reactions are optimized by using different ratios of the D-glucopyranosides to cyclomaltohexaose. The lower ratios of 0.5-1.0 give a wide range of sizes from d.p. 2-17 and higher. As the molar ratio is increased from 1.0 to 3.0, the larger sizes, d.p. 917, decrease, and the small and intermediate sizes, d.p. 28, increase. As the molar ratios are increased further from 3.0 to 5.0, the large sizes completely disappear, the intermediate sizes, d.p. 48, decrease, and the small sizes, d.p. 2 and 3 become predominant
-
-
?
cyclomaltohexaose + phenyl alpha-D-glucopyranoside
maltodextrin glycoside
show the reaction diagram
-
the reactions are optimized by using different ratios of the D-glucopyranosides to cyclomaltohexaose. The lower ratios of 0.51.0 give a wide range of sizes from d.p. 217 and higher. As the molar ratio is increased from 1.0 to 3.0, the larger sizes, d.p. 917, decrease, and the small and intermediate sizes, d.p. 28, increase. As the molar ratios are increased further from 3.0 to 5.0, the large sizes completely disappear, the intermediate sizes, d.p. 48, decrease, and the small sizes, d.p. 2 and 3 become predominant
-
-
?
cyclomaltohexaose + phenyl beta-D-glucopyranoside
maltodextrin glycoside
show the reaction diagram
-
the reactions are optimized by using different ratios of the D-glucopyranosides to cyclomaltohexaose. The lower ratios of 0.51.0 give a wide range of sizes from d.p. 217 and higher. As the molar ratio is increased from 1.0 to 3.0, the larger sizes, d.p. 917, decrease, and the small and intermediate sizes, d.p. 28, increase. As the molar ratios are increased further from 3.0 to 5.0, the large sizes completely disappear, the intermediate sizes, d.p. 48, decrease, and the small sizes, d.p. 2 and 3 become predominant
-
-
?
dextrin
beta-cyclodextrin + alpha-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
the maximum conversion of dextrin to beta-cyclodextrin and alpha-cyclodextrin is 29% both for the soluble and immobilized enzymes
-
-
?
dextrin + acceptor
cyclodextrins
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
dodecyl-beta-D-maltoside + alpha-cyclodextrin
dodecyl-beta-D-maltooctaoside + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
dodecyl-beta-D-maltoside + alpha-cyclodextrin
dodecyl-beta-D-maltooctaoside + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
the equilibrium lays to 80% on the side of dodecyl-beta-D-maltooctaoside production when the enzyme from Bacillus macerans is used as biocatalyst
-
-
r
gamma-cyclodextrin + acceptor
maltooligosaccharide
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
Glucidex 12 + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
E 192
-
r
Glucidex 2B + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus circulans, Bacillus circulans 8, Bacillus circulans E 192
-
E 192
-
r
glycogen + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
glycogen + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
glycogen + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
glycogen + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
ATCC 21783
-
-
r
glycogen + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
C31
-
-
-
glycogen + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
E 192
-
r
glycogen + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus circulans C31
-
C31
-
-
-
glycogen + H2O
cyclodextrins
show the reaction diagram
Q8X268, -
-
-
-
?
hydrolyzed cassava starch
beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus firmus, Bacillus firmus 7b
-
-
-
-
?
hydrolyzed corn starch
beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus firmus, Bacillus firmus 7b
-
-
-
-
?
hydrolyzed potato starch
beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus firmus, Bacillus firmus 7b
-
-
-
-
?
L-ascorbic acid + beta-cyclodextrin
L-ascorbic acid-2-O-alpha-D-glucoside + ?
show the reaction diagram
O52766
-
-
-
?
L-ascorbic acid + maltodextrin
L-ascorbic acid-2-O-alpha-D-glucoside + ?
show the reaction diagram
O52766
-
-
-
?
L-ascorbic acid-(2-O-alpha-D-glucosyl)2 + acceptor
ascorbic acid 2-O-alpha-glucoside + glucosyl-acceptor
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
L-ascorbic acid-(2-O-alpha-D-glucosyl)2 + H2O
L-ascorbic acid-2-O-alpha-D-glucoside + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
L-ascorbic acid-(2-O-alpha-D-glucosyl)3 + acceptor
L-ascorbic acid-(2-O-alpha-D-glucosyl)2 + glucosyl-acceptor
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
L-ascorbic acid-(2-O-alpha-D-glucosyl)3 + H2O
L-ascorbic acid-(2-O-alpha-D-glucosyl)2 + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
L-ascorbic acid-(2-O-alpha-D-glucosyl)4 + acceptor
L-ascorbic acid-(2-O-alpha-D-glucosyl)3 + glucosyl-acceptor
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
L-ascorbic acid-(2-O-alpha-D-glucosyl)4 + H2O
L-ascorbic acid-(2-O-alpha-D-glucosyl)3 + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
L-ascorbic acid-2-O-alpha-D-glucoside + H2O
L-ascorbic acid + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
linear maltooligosaccharide + acceptor
?
show the reaction diagram
-
strain 1011, disproportionation reaction
-
-
r
maltodextrin
beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltodextrin
beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
main product
-
?
maltodextrin
beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
intramolecular transglycosylation
-
-
?
maltodextrin
beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus firmus 7b
-
-
main product
-
?
maltodextrin
beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus circulans DF
-
intramolecular transglycosylation
-
-
?
maltodextrin + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin + alpha-cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltodextrin + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin + alpha-cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
displays unusually high amylolytic activity in relation to the cyclization activity. Disproportionation activity of the CGTase is optimal with maltose as the acceptor substrate. Cyclization reaction and beta-cyclodextrin formation are significantly promoted in the presence of CaCl2. The salt allows the cyclization reaction to be performed at higher temperature
the product of cyclization reaction is predominantly beta-cyclodextrin along with alpha-cyclodextrin as a minor product. The CDs profile is influenced by the reaction conditions. At pH 10, alpha-cyclodextrin is replaced by gamma-cyclodextrin formation
-
?
maltodextrin + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin + alpha-cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Paenibacillus campinasensis H69-3
-
-
-
-
?
maltodextrin + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin + alpha-cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus agaradhaerens LS-3C
-
displays unusually high amylolytic activity in relation to the cyclization activity. Disproportionation activity of the CGTase is optimal with maltose as the acceptor substrate. Cyclization reaction and beta-cyclodextrin formation are significantly promoted in the presence of CaCl2. The salt allows the cyclization reaction to be performed at higher temperature
the product of cyclization reaction is predominantly beta-cyclodextrin along with alpha-cyclodextrin as a minor product. The CDs profile is influenced by the reaction conditions. At pH 10, alpha-cyclodextrin is replaced by gamma-cyclodextrin formation
-
?
maltoheptaose + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
ATCC 21783
-
-
-
maltoheptaose + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
E 192
-
r
maltohexaose + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
E 192
-
r
maltohexaose + L-ascorbic acid
L-ascorbic acid-(2-O-alpha-D-glucosyl)6
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
maltooligosaccharides + acceptor
cyclodextrins
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
maltooligosaccharides + acceptor
cyclodextrins
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
maltooligosaccharides + acceptor
cyclodextrins
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
maltooligosaccharides + acceptor
cyclodextrins
show the reaction diagram
-
ATCC 21783
-
-
r
maltooligosaccharides + acceptor
cyclodextrins
show the reaction diagram
-
C31
-
-
-
maltopentaose + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
ATCC 21783
-
r
maltose + acceptor
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
maltose + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
maltose + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
maltose + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
ATCC 21783
-
-
-
maltose + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
E 192, poor substrate
-
r
maltose + ascorbic acid
L-ascorbic acid-2-O-alpha-D-glucoside + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
maltotetraose + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
maltotetraose + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
ATCC 21783
-
r
maltotriose + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
maltotriose + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
maltotriose + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
ATCC 21783
-
-
-
maltotriose + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
E 192
-
r
maltotriose + maltotetraose
maltopentaose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
naringin + maltodextrin
?
show the reaction diagram
A3F9M7
cyclization reaction with naringin as acceptor and maltodextrin as donor
-
-
?
native starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta-cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
alpha-cyclodextrin is preferentially produced. With a longer incubation period, the alpha-cyclodextrin to beta-cyclodextrin ratio declines
larger cyclodextrins (>8 glucose units) are formed in the initial reaction period
-
?
p-nitrophenyl-(alpha-1,4-glucopyranosyl)2-D-glucose + acceptor
p-nitrophenyl-D-glucose + p-nitrophenyl-alpha-1,4-glucopyranosyl-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
E 192
main product p-nitrophenyl-glucose when chain length of substrate is 4 glucose or less, p-nitrophenyl-alpha-1,4-glucopyranosyl-D-glucose when substrate chain length is 5 or more glucose residues
?
p-nitrophenyl-(alpha-1,4-glucopyranosyl)3-D-glucose + acceptor
p-nitrophenyl-glucose + p-nitrophenyl-alpha-1,4-glucopyranosyl-D-glucose + p-nitrophenyl-(alpha-1,4-glucopyranosyl)2-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
E 192
product proportions 48:31:21
?
p-nitrophenyl-(alpha-1,4-glucopyranosyl)6-D-glucose + acceptor
p-nitrophenyl-glucose + p-nitrophenyl-alpha-1,4-glucopyranosyl-D-glucose + p-nitrophenyl-(glucose)3 + p-nitrophenyl-(alpha-1,4-glucopyranosyl)3-D-glucose + p-nitrophenyl-(alpha-1,4-glucopyranosyl)4-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
E 192
product proportions 33:27:16:6:17
?
p-nitrophenyl-(alpha-1,4-glucopyranosyl)7-D-glucose + acceptor
p-nitrophenyl-glucose + p-nitrophenyl-alpha-1,4-glucopyranosyl-D-glucose + p-nitrophenyl-(alpha-1,4-glucopyranosyl)2-D-glucose + p-nitrophenyl-(alpha-1,4-glucopyranosyl)3-D-glucose + p-nitrophenyl-(alpha-1,4-glucopyranosyl)4-D-glucose + p-nitrophenyl-(alpha-1,4-glucopyranosyl)5-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
E 192
product proportions 16:51:12:13:4:4
?
p-nitrophenyl-(glucose)5 + acceptor
p-nitrophenyl-glucose + p-nitrophenyl-alpha-1,4-glucopyranosyl-D-glucose + p-nitrophenyl-(alpha-1,4-glucopyranosyl)2-D-glucose + p-nitrophenyl-(alpha-1,4-glucopyranosyl)3-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
E 192
product proportions 32:50:12 6
?
p-nitrophenyl-(glucose)6 + acceptor
p-nitrophenyl-glucose + p-nitrophenyl-alpha-1,4-glucopyranosyl-D-glucose + p-nitrophenyl-(alpha-1,4-glucopyranosyl)2-D-glucose + p-nitrophenyl-(alpha-1,4-glucopyranosyl)3-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
E 192
product proportions 18:53:21:8
?
Paselli starch
beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus agaradhaerens, Bacillus agaradhaerens WN-I
-
-
78% conversion, 1.9fold higher activity with Paselli starch than with soluble starch
-
?
potato starch + acceptor
gamma-cyclodextrin + beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
potato starch + acceptor
gamma-cyclodextrin + beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
AL-6
-
-
r
potato starch + acceptor
gamma-cyclodextrin + beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus sp. AL-6
-
-
-
r
potato starch + acceptor
gamma-cyclodextrin + beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus sp. AL-6, Bacillus sp. INMIA t6, Bacillus sp. INMIA A7/1, Bacillus sp. INMIA 1919, Bacillus sp. INMIA T4, Bacillus sp. 1011
-
AL-6
-
-
r
raw corn starch
beta-cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus pseudalcaliphilus, Bacillus pseudalcaliphilus 8SB
-
-
ratio of beta- to gamma-cyclodextrin products is about 4:1
-
?
raw starch
beta-cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus pseudalcaliphilus, Bacillus pseudalcaliphilus 20RF
-
-
sole products, beta- and gamma-cyclodextrin in a ratio of 80%:20%
-
?
soluble potato starch
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta-cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
ratio for alpha- to beta- to gamma-cyclodextrin 1:1.3:0.5
-
?
soluble potato starch
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta-cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-, Q53I75
-
ratio of products is alpha-cyclodextrin to beta-cyclodextrin to gamma-cyclodextrin 1:0.6:0.3
-
?
soluble potato starch
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta-cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus circulans DF 9R
-
-
ratio for alpha- to beta- to gamma-cyclodextrin 1:1.3:0.5
-
?
soluble potoato starch
cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
soluble starch
alpha-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
poly-lysine fused immobilization increases the Vmax of the immobilized CGTase by 40% without a change in Km. Maximum alpha-cyclodextrin productivity of 539.4 g/l*h is obtained with 2% soluble starch solution which is constantly fed at a flow rate of 4.0 ml/min in a continuous operation mode of a packed-bed reactor
-
-
?
soluble starch
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta-cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Paenibacillus macerans, Paenibacillus macerans JBF05-01
-
-
at the initial stage of the reaction, alpha-cyclodextrin is the main product. Subsequently, the proportion of beta-cyclodextrin increases and becomes the main product after prolonged incubation. After 10 h or 40 h of incubation, the conversion rates of starch into cyclodextrins are 36.8% or 42.3%, respectively
-
?
soluble starch
beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Q5U9V9
-
main product
-
?
soluble starch
beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
51.5% conversion
71% of total cyclodextrin formed
-
?
soluble starch
beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Q5U9V9
-
main product
-
?
soluble starch
beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus agaradhaerens WN-I
-
51.5% conversion
71% of total cyclodextrin formed
-
?
soluble starch + acceptor
Schardinger dextrins
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
Schardinger dextrins
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
soluble starch + acceptor
Schardinger beta-dextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
soluble starch + acceptor
Schardinger beta-dextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
soluble starch + acceptor
Schardinger beta-dextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
ATCC 21783
-
-
-
soluble starch + acceptor
Schardinger beta-dextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
ATCC 21783
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
Schardinger beta-dextrin
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus sp. AL-6
-
-
-
-
-
soluble starch + acceptor
cyclodextrins
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
cyclodextrins
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
cyclodextrins
show the reaction diagram
P31797
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
cyclodextrins
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
cyclodextrins
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
cyclodextrins
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
cyclodextrins
show the reaction diagram
P04830, -
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
cyclodextrins
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
cyclodextrins
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
cyclodextrins
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
cyclodextrins
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
cyclodextrins
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
cyclodextrins
show the reaction diagram
-
corn starch
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
cyclodextrins
show the reaction diagram
-
tapioca starch, wheat starch
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
cyclodextrins
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus circulans 8
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
cyclodextrins
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus subtilis NA-1
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
cyclodextrins
show the reaction diagram
Geobacillus stearothermophilus NO2
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
cyclodextrins
show the reaction diagram
Geobacillus stearothermophilus N2, Thermoanaerobacterium thermosulfurigenes EM1
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
cyclodextrins
show the reaction diagram
Paenibacillus macerans IAM1243
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
cyclodextrins
show the reaction diagram
Geobacillus stearothermophilus TC-91
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
cyclodextrins
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus circulans E 192
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
cyclodextrins
show the reaction diagram
Geobacillus stearothermophilus ET1
-
corn starch
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
P31797
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Q9UWN2
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Q8X268, -
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
IFO 3490, product proportions 2.7: 1: 1
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
strain ATCC 21783, pH 4.5-4.7, producing ratio 23.5: 1.0: 1.0, pH 7.0 0.2: 6.0: 1.0
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
product ratio 2.0:5.0:1.0
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
21783, neutral CGTase, 0.4, 14 and 2.5%
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
product ratios 43% alpha-cyclodextrin, 46% beta-cyclodextrin and 11% gamma-cyclodextrin
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
product proportions 4.2: 5.9: 1
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
strain 251, product proportions 9: 82: 9 with addition of tert-butanol, 15: 65: 20 without solvent
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
product proportions 1: 67: 1.6
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
producing ratio 0.0: 0.0: 1.0
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
producing ratio 5.5: 8.0: 1.0
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
product proportions 1: 2.4: 1
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
producing ratio 0.0: 4.0: 1.0
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
ratio 12: 82: 6
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
product proportions 0.2:9.2:0.6 from gelatinized tapioca starch, 0.2:8.6:1.2 from raw wheat starch
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
ATCC 21783
-
-
-
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
ATCC 21783
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
potato starch, sweet potato starch, rice starch, corn starch, wheat starch
producing ratio 5.0: 2.0: 1.0
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
potato starch, sweet potato starch, rice starch, corn starch, wheat starch
potato starch, 20 h at 50C, ratio 8.1: 8.9: 1.0, various conditions, product proportions 1.0: 1.0: 0.3
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus sp., Bacillus sp. AL-6
-
INMIA A/7
INMIA A/7, product proportions 1: 58.4: 7.4
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Paenibacillus illinoisensis ST-12K
-
-
ratio 12: 82: 6
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus licheniformis B-4025
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Geobacillus stearothermophilus TC-60
-
-
producing ratio 5.5: 8.0: 1.0
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Paenibacillus macerans BIO-2m
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus sp. INMIA t6, Bacillus sp. INMIA A7/1
-
INMIA A/7
INMIA A/7, product proportions 1: 58.4: 7.4
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus megaterium No5
-
-
product proportions 1: 2.4: 1
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Thermoactinomyces vulgaris Tac-3554
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus circulans 8
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus coagulans BIO-13m, Geobacillus stearothermophilus B-4006, Bacillus circulans BIO-3m
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus sp. INMIA 1919
-
INMIA A/7
INMIA A/7, product proportions 1: 58.4: 7.4
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Q9UWN2
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Geobacillus stearothermophilus N2
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Thermoanaerobacterium thermosulfurigenes EM1
-
-
product ratios 43% alpha-cyclodextrin, 46% beta-cyclodextrin and 11% gamma-cyclodextrin
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus sp. INMIA T4
-
INMIA A/7
INMIA A/7, product proportions 1: 58.4: 7.4
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus licheniformis BIO-9m
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus subtilis 313
-
-
producing ratio 0.0: 0.0: 1.0
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Paenibacillus macerans IAM1243
-
-
-
-
-
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Paenibacillus macerans IAM1243
-
-
IFO 3490, product proportions 2.7: 1: 1
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus circulans 251
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus circulans 251
-
-
strain 251, product proportions 9: 82: 9 with addition of tert-butanol, 15: 65: 20 without solvent
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus sp. BE101
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
INMIA A/7
INMIA A/7, product proportions 1: 58.4: 7.4
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Geobacillus stearothermophilus ET1
-
-
product proportions 4.2: 5.9: 1
r
soluble starch + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
AL-6
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
tapioca starch is the best substrate
production ratio of beta-cyclodextrin to gamma-cyclodextrin is 0.11/0.89 after 24 h at 60C, without presence of any selective agents
-
?
soluble starch + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus sp. AL-6
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus sp. AL-6
-
AL-6
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus alcalophilus B-3103
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus sp. INMIA t6, Bacillus sp. INMIA A7/1
-
AL-6
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus circulans 8
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
tapioca starch is the best substrate
production ratio of beta-cyclodextrin to gamma-cyclodextrin is 0.11/0.89 after 24 h at 60C, without presence of any selective agents
-
?
soluble starch + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus circulans BIO-3m
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus sp. INMIA 1919
-
AL-6
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Salimicrobium halophilum BIO-12H BIO-13H
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus sp. INMIA T4
-
AL-6
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus alcalophilus BA-4229
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Salimicrobium halophilum INMIA-3849
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
AL-6
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
P04830, -
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Q9UWN2, -
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus sp., Bacillus sp. AL-6
-
INMIA 1919
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus cereus NCIMB 13123
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus sp. INMIA t6, Bacillus sp. INMIA A7/1, Bacillus sp. INMIA 1919
-
INMIA 1919
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus sp. INMIA T4
-
INMIA 1919
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Paenibacillus macerans IAM1243
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
INMIA 1919
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
soluble starch + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
soluble starch + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
soluble starch + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
soluble starch + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
P04830, -
-
-
-
-
soluble starch + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
soluble starch + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
soluble starch + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
soluble starch + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Q8X268, -
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
ATCC 21783
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
E 192, waxy maize starch is the best substrate, wheat starch, corn starch, potato starch
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
C31
-
-
-
soluble starch + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus autolyticus
-
potato starch, small amounts of alpha- and gamma-cyclodextrin
-
-
-
soluble starch + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
INMIA 3849
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
INMIA T42, INMIA A7/1
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus sp. AL-6
-
-
-
-
-
soluble starch + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Paenibacillus illinoisensis ST-12K
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus circulans C31
-
C31
-
-
-
soluble starch + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus megaterium No5
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus circulans 8
-
E 192, waxy maize starch is the best substrate, wheat starch, corn starch, potato starch
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus circulans 8
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus autolyticus 11149
-
potato starch, small amounts of alpha- and gamma-cyclodextrin
-
-
-
soluble starch + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus sp. Ha3-3-2/ATCC 39612
-
-
-
-
-
soluble starch + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Thermoanaerobacterium thermosulfurigenes EM1
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Salimicrobium halophilum INMIA-3849
-
INMIA 3849
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Paenibacillus macerans IAM1243
-
-
-
-
-
soluble starch + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus circulans 251
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus sp. BE101
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus circulans E 192
-
E 192, waxy maize starch is the best substrate, wheat starch, corn starch, potato starch
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
soluble starch + acceptor
gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
soluble starch + acceptor
gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
AL-6
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
strain no.313
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus sp. AL-6
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus subtilis 313
-
strain no.313
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus subtilis 313
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
C31
product ratio 1: 10.5
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-, P31797
strain NO2
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus circulans C31
-
C31
product ratio 1: 10.5
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus circulans 8
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Geobacillus stearothermophilus NO2
-
strain NO2
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
cyclohexaamylose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
cycloheptaamylose
show the reaction diagram
-
No. 5 strain
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
maltose + maltotriose + maltotetraose + maltopentaose
show the reaction diagram
Geobacillus stearothermophilus, Geobacillus stearothermophilus NO2, Geobacillus stearothermophilus ET1
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + acceptor
cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
soluble starch + acceptor
gamma-cyclodextrin + beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
alpha-cyclodextrin production is not observed at any pH examined. The enzyme produces gamma-cyclodextrin principally at any pH and the ratio of gamma-cyclodextrin to beta-cyclodextrin is always more than 1.7 and 4.7 with 1% and 10% substrate
-
?
soluble starch + cellobiose
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + D-galactose
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + D-galactose
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + D-galactose
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + D-glucose
cyclodextrins
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + D-glucose
cyclodextrins
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
soluble starch + D-glucose
cyclodextrins
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + D-glucose
cyclodextrins
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus autolyticus
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + D-glucose
cyclodextrins
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + D-glucose
cyclodextrins
show the reaction diagram
Paenibacillus macerans BIO-2m
-
-
-
-
-
soluble starch + D-glucose
cyclodextrins
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus alcalophilus B-3103, Geobacillus stearothermophilus B-4006
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + D-glucose
cyclodextrins
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus autolyticus 11149
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + D-glucose
cyclodextrins
show the reaction diagram
Salimicrobium halophilum BIO-12H BIO-13H, Bacillus alcalophilus BA-4229
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + D-glucose
cyclodextrins
show the reaction diagram
Geobacillus stearothermophilus TC-91
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + D-maltose
cyclodextrins
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + D-maltose
cyclodextrins
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + D-maltose
cyclodextrins
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + D-maltose
cyclodextrins
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + D-maltose
cyclodextrins
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + D-maltose
cyclodextrins
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus autolyticus
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + D-maltose
cyclodextrins
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + D-maltose
cyclodextrins
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus autolyticus 11149
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + D-rhamnose
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + D-sorbose
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + D-sorbose
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + D-sorbose
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + D-sorbose
?
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus alcalophilus, Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, Salimicrobium halophilum, Bacillus licheniformis B-4025, Paenibacillus macerans BIO-2m, Thermoactinomyces vulgaris Tac-3554, Bacillus coagulans BIO-13m, Geobacillus stearothermophilus B-4006, Bacillus circulans BIO-3m, Bacillus licheniformis BIO-9m
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + D-xylose
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + D-xylose
?
show the reaction diagram
Geobacillus stearothermophilus, Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus circulans, Paenibacillus macerans, Bacillus alcalophilus, Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, Salimicrobium halophilum, Bacillus licheniformis B-4025, Paenibacillus macerans BIO-2m, Bacillus alcalophilus B-3103, Thermoactinomyces vulgaris Tac-3554, Bacillus coagulans BIO-13m, Geobacillus stearothermophilus B-4006, Bacillus circulans BIO-3m, Salimicrobium halophilum BIO-12H BIO-13H, Bacillus licheniformis BIO-9m, Bacillus alcalophilus BA-4229
-
less efficient acceptor
-
-
r
soluble starch + H2O
cyclodextrins
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
soluble starch + H2O
cyclodextrins
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
soluble starch + H2O
cyclodextrins
show the reaction diagram
Q8X268, -
-
-
-
-
soluble starch + H2O
cyclodextrins
show the reaction diagram
-
potato starch
-
-
-
soluble starch + H2O
cyclodextrins
show the reaction diagram
-
potato starch
-
-
?
soluble starch + H2O
cyclodextrins
show the reaction diagram
-
potato starch
-
-
-
soluble starch + H2O
cyclodextrins
show the reaction diagram
-
potato starch
-
-
?
soluble starch + H2O
cyclodextrins
show the reaction diagram
Lysinibacillus sphaericus ATCC7055
-
-
-
-
?
soluble starch + H2O
cyclodextrins
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus circulans 251
-
-
-
-
?
soluble starch + H2O
cyclodextrins
show the reaction diagram
Klebsiella pneumoniae M5
-
potato starch
-
-
-
soluble starch + L-sorbose
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + myo-inositol
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + ribose
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + sucrose
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + sucrose
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + sucrose
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + sucrose
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + sucrose
?
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus alcalophilus, Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, Salimicrobium halophilum, Bacillus licheniformis B-4025, Thermoactinomyces vulgaris Tac-3554, Bacillus coagulans BIO-13m, Bacillus licheniformis BIO-9m
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + sucrose
?
show the reaction diagram
Geobacillus stearothermophilus TC-91
-
-
-
-
r
soluble starch + sucrose
maltosylfructose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
starch
alpha-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
starch
beta-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus circulans, Bacillus circulans DF
-
intramolecular transglycosylation
-
-
?
starch
beta-cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
P30920
-
-
-
?
starch
beta-cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Q5U9V9
86% beta-cyclodextrin and 14% of gamma-cyclodextrin are produced after 24 h incubation at 60C, without adding any selective agent, in 0.1 M phosphate buffer
-
-
?
starch
beta-cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
the maximum starch conversion to beta-cyclodextrin and gamma-cyclodextrin is 29% and 38%, for the immobilized and soluble enzyme, respectively
-
-
?
starch
beta-cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Q5U9V9
86% beta-cyclodextrin and 14% of gamma-cyclodextrin are produced after 24 h incubation at 60C, without adding any selective agent, in 0.1 M phosphate buffer
-
-
?
starch
beta-cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus circulans 251
P30920
-
-
-
?
starch
cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
enzymes from Escherichia coli, Bacillus macerans and Bacillus subtilis show similar production profile in cyclization reaction
-
-
?
starch
cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
enzymes from Escherichia coli, Bacillus macerans and Bacillus subtilis show similar pruduction profile in cyclization reaction
-
-
?
starch
cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
in acetatebuffer, pH 6.0, 60C, the CGTase produces pre dominantly beta-cyclodextrin from either raw or gelatinized sago (Cycas revoluta) starch. Changing the buffer from acetate to phosphate reduces the yield of beta-cyclodextrin from 2.48 to 1.42 mg/ml, production of both alpha- and beta-cyclodextrins are more pronounced. The decrease in the production of cyclodextrins in phosphate buffer is significant at both pH 6.0 and 7.0. Changing the buffer to Tris/HCl (pH 7.0) shows a significant increase in beta-cyclodextrin production
-
-
?
starch
cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
to manipulate the product specificity of the Paenibacillus sp. A11 and Bacillus macerans cyclodextrin glycosyltransferases towards the preferential formation of gamma-cyclodextrin (CD8), crosslinked imprinted protein of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase is prepared by applying enzyme imprinting and immobilization methodologies. The native enzyme produces CD6:CD7:CD8:CD9 ratios of 15:65:20:0 at 40C. The size of the synthesis products formed by the crosslinked imprinted cyclodextrin glycosyltransferases is shifted towards CD8 and CD9, and the overall cyclodextrin yield is increased by 12% compared to the native enzymes
-
-
?
starch
cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
to manipulate the product specificity of the Paenibacillus sp. A11 and Bacillus macerans cyclodextrin glycosyltransferases towards the preferential formation of gamma-cyclodextrin (CD8), crosslinked imprinted protein of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase is prepared by applying enzyme imprinting and immobilization methodologies. The native enzyme produces CD6:CD7:CD8:CD9 ratios of 43:36:21:0 at 40C. The size of the synthesis products formed bythe crosslinked imprinted cyclodextrin glycosyltransferases is shifted towards CD8 and CD9, and the overall cyclodextrin yield is increased by 12% compared to the native enzymes
-
-
?
starch
cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
to manipulate the product specificity of the Paenibacillus sp. A11 and Bacillus macerans cyclodextrin glycosyltransferases towards the preferential formation of gamma-cyclodextrin (CD8), crosslinked imprinted protein of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase is prepared by applying enzyme imprinting and immobilization methodologies. The native enzyme produces CD6:CD7:CD8:CD9 ratios of 15:65:20:0 at 40C. The size of the synthesis products formed by the crosslinked imprinted cyclodextrin glycosyltransferases is shifted towards CD8 and CD9, and the overall cyclodextrin yield is increased by 12% compared to the native enzymes
-
-
?
starch
cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Paenibacillus macerans IAM1243
-
enzymes from Escherichia coli, Bacillus macerans and Bacillus subtilis show similar pruduction profile in cyclization reaction
-
-
?
starch
gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus clarkii, Bacillus clarkii 7364
-
-
-
-
?
starch + acceptor
alpha-cyclodextrin + beta-cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
alpha-cyclodextrin, beta-cyclodextrin and gamma-cyclodextrin in the ratio of 0.26:1.0:0.86
-
?
starch + acceptor
cyclodextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
the cyclodextrin product specificity can be changed into linear product specificity, by introducing a five-residue insertion mutation at the donor substrate binding subsites. The CGTase mutants remain clearly different from the maltogenic alpha-amylase, as they have much lower hydrolytic activities, they form linear products of variable sizes and they retain a low cyclodextrin forming activity, whereas maltogenic alpha-amylases produce primarily maltose. The five-residue insertion, concomitantly, strongly enhances the exo-specificity of CGTase
-
-
?
starch + ascorbic acid
2-O-alpha-glucopyranosyl L-ascorbic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
starch + hesperidin
glycosyl hesperidin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
starch + maltose
beta-cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin + maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
starch + maltose
beta-cyclodextrin + gamma-cyclodextrin + maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + rutin
glycosyl rutin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
starch + salicin
glycosyl salicin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
starch + stevioside
glycosyl stevioside
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
starch + stevioside
glycosyl stevioside
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
starch + stevioside
glycosyl stevioside
show the reaction diagram
-
extrusion starch, raw starch and liquefied starch as glucosyl donor
-
-
r
starch + sucrose
maltooligosyl sucrose
show the reaction diagram
Geobacillus stearothermophilus, Geobacillus stearothermophilus TC-91
-
-
-
r
stevioside + beta-cyclodextrin
4'-O-alpha-D-glycosyl stevioside + 4''-O-alpha-D-maltosyl stevioside + ?
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus firmus, Bacillus firmus 5119
-
1,4-intermolecular transglycosylation, the substrate is an entkaurene diterpene glycoside, and is a constituent in Stevia rebaudiana leaves. It has therapeutic importance as substitute of sugar for diabetics. Enhancement of thre reaction under microwave assisted reaction, overview
formed to 66% and 24%, respectively, product identification by detailed NMR, LC-MS/MS studies
-
?
stevioside + maltodextrin
?
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus sp., Bacillus sp. BL-12
-
the enzyme from strain BL-12 is more suitable for transglycosylation than the cyclization reaction, and is specific for the intermolecular transglycosylation of stevioside with maltodextrin as the most suitable glycosyl donor
-
-
?
stevioside + starch
?
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus sp., Bacillus sp. BL-12
-
soluble, extrusion, or potato starch
-
-
?
methyl-alpha-D-glucoside + acceptor
cyclodextrins
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
-
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
P31797
-
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
-
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
-
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
-
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
disaccharides are not substrates, except maltose
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
ATCC 21783 contains 3 types of enzymes, acid, neutral and alcaline
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
isomaltose, sucrose, melibiose, phenyl-alpha-D-glucoside, cellobiose and lactose are not acceptors, L-ascorbic acid-2-O-phosphate and, L-ascorbic acid-2-O-sulfate are not substrates
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
glucose is no substrate
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Bacillus autolyticus
-
sorbitol, mannitol, xylulose, galactose, fructose, lactose, glycerol and arabinose are not acceptors
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q8X268, -
pullulan is no substrate
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
no reaction with p-nitrophenyl-glucose and p-nitrophenyl-alpha-1,4-glucopyranosyl-D-glucose, heptakis(2,6-di-O-methyl)-beta cyclodextrin is not transformed
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
D-glucuronate is ineffective as acceptor
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
D-galactose, D-ribose, D-mannose, D-arabinose and D-fructose do not contribute as glucosyl acceptor
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
increasing substrate concentrations (0.5%-20.0%) and glucans containing branching points (alpha-1,6-glycosidic linkages) shift the product pattern to: beta-cyclodextrin > alpha-cyclodextrin > gamma-cyclodextrin
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
when the coupling reaction is measured utilizing beta-cyclodextrin as substrate, CGTase from Escherichia coli displays a 14fold greater catalytic activity as compared to CGTase from Bacillus macerans or CGTase from Bacillis subtilis. The coupling activity of CGTase from Escherichia coli is not significantly different from that of CGTase from Bacillus macerans or CGTase from Bacillus subtilis when alpha-cyclodextrin is used as the substrate
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
CGTase can hydrolyze glucan chains, e.g. starch, in a manner similar to alpha-amylases, but differs in its ability to form cyclodextrins as reaction products. Cyclodextrins are formed from starch molecules through intramolecular transglycosylation, i.e. cyclization, and can be made up of 6 to 8 glucan residues, alpha-, beta-, and gamma-cyclodextrin, respectively. The enzyme is multifunctional
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
isolation of alkaliphilic Bacillus strains and determination of their phylogenetic and phenotypic characteristics, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
P30920
beta-cyclodextrin-forming activity from partially hydrolyzed potato starch with an average degree of polymerization of 50. Disproportionation activity is determined using 4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-maltoheptaoside-4-6-O-ethylidene, i.e. pNPG7, as substrate
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
CGTase produces alpha-, beta-, and gamma-cyclodextrins from soluble starch, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
P30920
conversion of starch into beta- and gamma-cyclodextrins in a ratio 73:27
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
cyclization activity forming cyclodextrins from starch
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
cyclization with maltodextrin as substrate
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
glycosyl donor specificity for intermolecular transglycosylation of stevioside, overview, cyclization reaction with soluble starch as substrate
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
B1VC16
production of beta-cyclodextrin from potato starch
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-, Q3HUR2
reversible cyclization reaction with alpha-1,4-glucans, e.g. starch, the major final product of PFCGT cyclization is beta-cyclodextrin, and thus the enzyme is a beta-CGTase
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
soluble potato starch, cellobiose, and cyclodextrins as substrates, cyclodextrin product spectrum of native and recombinant enzymes, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
A3F9M7
the enzyme from strain BL-31 is highly specific for the intermolecular transglycosylation of bioflavonoids, with high specificities for glycosyl acceptor bioflavonoids, including naringin, rutin, and hesperidin, and especially naringin
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme preforms cyclization of different alpha-1,4-glucans, e.g. soluble potato starch, or amylopectin, and amylose, the enzyme forms preferably beta-cyclodextrins, the ratio of products is 27:68:5 for alpha, beta, and gamma cyclodextrins
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme primarily catalyses the formation of cyclic alpha-1,4-linked cyclodextrins from starch. This enzyme also possesses unusually high hydrolytic activity as a side reaction, thought to be due to partial retention of ancestral enzyme function. Product formation, alpha-, beta-, and gamma-cyclodextrins, of wild-type and mutant enzymes, substrate-binding subsites of CGTase, and sugar binding structure, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme produces cyclodextrins from starch, enzymes from strains 20RF and 8SB Bacillus strains form only two types of cyclodextrins, beta and gamma
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme shows cyclization activity on different raw and hydrolyzed starches, hydrolyzed cornstarch gives the highest activity. The enzyme from strain 7b mainly forms beta-cyclodextrin, but also alpha- and gamma-cyclodextrins, from maltodextrin, influence of substrate concentration on CGTase activity, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
B1VC16, -
the main amino acid residues of cyclization activity are Lys47, Tyr89, Asn94, Phe183, Asn193, Leu194, Tyr195, Asp196, Phe259, Phe283, and Asp371
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
CGTase catalyzes the transfer of dextrin units from cyclodextrins or longer dextrins to polyols, such as glycerol, sugars, and flavonoids
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
CGTase is an extracellular enzyme capable of converting starch or starch derivatives into cyclodextrins through an intramolecular transglycosylation reaction. Cyclodextrins are cyclic, nonreducing oligoglucopyranose molecules linked via alpha(1,4)-glycosidic bonds
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
P31797
CGTases produce a mixture of cyclodextrins from starch consisting of 6 alpha, 7 beta, or 8 gamma glucose units, specificity, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
CGTases produce a mixture of cyclodextrins from starch consisting of 6 alpha, 7 beta, or 8 gamma glucose units, specificity, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
P05618
CGTases produce a mixture of cyclodextrins from starch consisting of 6 alpha, 7 beta, or 8 gamma glucose units, specificity, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
CGTases produce a mixture of cyclodextrins from starch consisting of 6 alpha, 7 beta, or 8 gamma glucose units, specificity, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from Anaerobranca gottschalkii produces alpha-cyclodextrins
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from Bacillus agaradhaerens produces beta-cyclodextrins
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from Bacillus clarkii produce beta-cyclodextrins, except for strain 290-3 that also produces gamma-cyclodextrins
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from Bacillus clarkii produces 80% gamma-cyclodextrins with an overall conversion of starch into cyclodextrins of 14%
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from Bacillus clarkii produces alpha- and beta-cyclodextrins
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from Bacillus clarkii produces beta-cyclodextrins
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from Bacillus lichenifoormis produces alpha- and beta-cyclodextrins
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from Bacillus macerans produces alpha-cyclodextrins
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from Bacillus megaterium produces beta-cyclodextrins
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from Bacillus obhensis produces beta-cyclodextrins
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from Bacillus strains produce beta-cyclodextrins, strain G-825-6 also produces alpha-cyclodextrins
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from Brevibacillus brevis produces beta-cyclodextrins
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from Geobacillus stearothermophilus produces beta-cyclodextrins
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from Klebsiella pneumoniae produces alpha-cyclodextrins
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from Paenibacillus campinasensis produces beta-cyclodextrins
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from Paenibacillus graminis produces alpha- and beta-cyclodextrins
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from Paenibacillus illinoisensis produces beta-cyclodextrins
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from Paenibacillus pabuli produces beta-cyclodextrins
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from Paenibacillus sp. strains produce alpha- and beta-cyclodextrins
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from the Bacillus strain G-825-6 produces beta-cyclodextrins and alpha-cyclodextrins, cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from the Bacillus strain produces beta-cyclodextrins
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from Thermoanaerobacterium thermosulfurigenes produces alpha- and beta-cyclodextrins
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzymes from Bacillus circulans strans produce beta-cyclodextrins, except for strain DF 9R that also produces alpha-cyclodextrins
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzymes from Thermoanaerobacter sp. strains produce alpha- and beta-cyclodextrins
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the extracelluar enzyme converts starch into non-reducing, cyclic malto-oligosacchrarides called cyclodextrins
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
Asp372 and Tyr89 at subsite -3 play important roles in cyclodextrin product specificity of CGTase. Comparison of alpha-, beta- and gamma-cyclization specificity of wild-type and mutant enzymes, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
assay method optimization, the optimum ratio of stevioside to beta-cyclodextrin for optimum transglycosylation is 1:2, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-, C4MH58
CGTase catalyzes the formation of cyclomaltooligosaccharides, cyclic molecules formed by alpha-(1,4)-linked D-glucopyranosyl units with an apolar central cavity and a hydrophilic outer surface. alpha-, beta-Cyclizing and amylolytic activities withpotato starch as substrate, enzyme structure-function relationship, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
CGTase transfers glycosyl residues from dextrin, maltosides with an alkyl side chain of C4, C8, C12, to the maltosides of butanol, octanol, and lauryl alcohol generating maltosides with 3-4 glucose units, substrate specificity, overview. Product identification with TLC, NMR, and ESI mass spectrometry
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
CGTases function according to an alpha-retaining double displacement mechanism with a covalent glycosyl-enzyme intermediate. Efficient synthesis of a long carbohydrate chain alkyl glycoside catalyzed by CGTase
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additional information
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CGTases function according to an alpha-retaining double displacement mechanism with a covalent glycosyl-enzyme intermediate. Synthesis of a long carbohydrate chain alkyl glycoside catalyzed by CGTase
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additional information
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cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase produces a mixture of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-cyclodextrins from starch
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additional information
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formation of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-cyclodextrins from starch and matotriose
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additional information
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in addition to the intramolecular transglycosylation and cyclization producing beta-cyclodextrins, using maltodextrin and starch as substrates, the CGTase shows disproportionation and coupling activities, intermolecular transglycosylation reactions. The enzyme produces alpha-, beta-, and gamma-cyclodextrins in the ratio of 0.40:1:0.45. Activity with different starch types, overview
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additional information
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production of beta-cyclodextrin
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additional information
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reaction mechanism, a linear glucan chain binds to the substrate binding subsites of CGTase followed by bond cleavage to yield a covalent glycosyl-enzyme intermediate. The nature of the acceptor molecule in the second step of the reaction, to which the covalently bound oligosaccharide is transferred, determines the enzyme reaction specificity, schematic overview
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additional information
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P05618
reaction mechanism, a linear glucan chain binds to the substrate binding subsites of CGTase followed by bond cleavage to yield a covalent glycosyl-enzyme intermediate. The nature of the acceptor molecule in the second step of the reaction, to which the covalently bound oligosaccharide is transferred, determines the enzyme reaction specificity, schematic overview
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additional information
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reaction mechanism, a linear glucan chain binds to the substrate binding subsites of CGTase followed by bond cleavage to yield a covalent glycosyl-enzyme intermediate. The nature of the acceptor molecule in the second step of the reaction, to which the covalently bound oligosaccharide is transferred, determines the enzyme reaction specificity, schematic overview. The enzyme also shows high also shows hydrolytic activity on potato starch
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additional information
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reaction mechanism, a linear glucan chain binds to the substrate binding subsites of CGTase followed by bond cleavage to yield a covalent glycosyl-enzyme intermediate. The nature of the acceptor molecule in the second step of the reaction, to which the covalently bound oligosaccharide is transferred, determines the enzyme reaction specificity, schematic overview. The enzyme also shows high hydrolytic activity on potato starch
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additional information
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P31797
reaction mechanism, a linear glucan chain binds to the substrate binding subsites of CGTase followed by bond cleavage to yield a covalent glycosyl-enzyme intermediate. The nature of the acceptor molecule in the second step of the reaction, to which the covalently bound oligosaccharide is transferred, determines the enzyme reaction specificity, schematic overview. The enzyme also shows hydrolytic activity on potato starch
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additional information
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reaction mechanism, a linear glucan chain binds to the substrate binding subsites of CGTase followed by bond cleavage to yield a covalent glycosyl-enzyme intermediate. The nature of the acceptor molecule in the second step of the reaction, to which the covalently bound oligosaccharide is transferred, determines the enzyme reaction specificity, schematic overview. The enzyme also shows hydrolytic activity on potato starch
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additional information
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reaction mechanism, a linear glucan chain binds to the substrate binding subsites of CGTase followed by bond cleavage to yield a covalent glycosyl-enzyme intermediate. The nature of the acceptor molecule in the second step of the reaction, to which the covalently bound oligosaccharide is transferred, determines the enzyme reaction specificity, schematic overview. The enzyme from strain BC251 also shows hydrolytic activity on potato starch. Substrate binding structure of the strain BC251 enzyme, overview
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additional information
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substrate is gelatinized soluble starch
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additional information
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substrate is soluble starch, formation of beta-cyclodextrins
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additional information
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substrates bind across the enzyme surface in a long groove formed by the domains A and B that can accommodate at least 7 glucose residues at the donor subsites and 3 at the acceptor subsites. Cyclodextrin glucanotransferases cleave the alpha-1,4-glycosidic bonds between the subsites -1 and +1 in alpha-glucans yielding a stable covalent glycosyl-intermediate bound at the donor subsites. The glycosyl-intermediate is then transferred to the 4-hydroxyl of its own non-reducing end forming a new alpha-1,4-glycosidic bond to yield a cyclic product
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additional information
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substrates bind across the enzyme's surface in a long groove formed by the domains A and B that can accommodate at least 7 glucose residues at the donor subsites and 3 at the acceptor subsites. Cyclodextrin glucanotransferases cleave the alpha-1,4-glycosidic bonds between the subsites -1 and +1 in alpha-glucans yielding a stable covalent glycosyl-intermediate bound at the donor subsites. The glycosyl-intermediate is then transferred to the 4-hydroxyl of its own non-reducing end forming a new alpha-1,4-glycosidic bond to yield a cyclic product
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additional information
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synthesis of 3-O-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl dopamine and 4-O-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl dopamine, and of 3-O-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl L-DOPA and 4-O-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl L-DOPA by reaction with cyclomaltohexaose catalyze by the CGTase using dopamine-HCl or imidazolium-HCl and glucose or maltose as substrates, maltodextrin chains attached to dopamine, overview. Determination of the reaction products by MALDI-TOF MS and NMR, molecular structure of the dopamine-glycosides, overview
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additional information
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the enzyme performs formation of alpha-, beta- and gamma-cyclodextrin. Lys47 is important for the alpha-cyclization reaction. Enhancement of beta-cyclodextrin specificity might be due to weakening or removal of hydrogen-bonding interactions between the side chain of residue 47 and the bent intermediate specific for alpha-cyclodextrin formation
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additional information
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the enzyme produces alpha-, beta-, and gamma-cyclodextrins from starch
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additional information
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the enzyme produces alpha-, beta-, and gamma-cyclodextrins from starch, product ratios depend on the duration of the process. The enzyme also shows coupling activity and is able to degrade high concentrations of beta-cyclodextrin and to transform different types of cyclodextrins one into another. Native corn starch and soluble potato starch as substrates, product determination by thin layer chromatography
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additional information
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the enzyme shows alpha-cyclodextrin forming activity with soluble starch
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additional information
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the immobilized enzyme, of both strains, as membrane biocatalysts forms mainly beta- and gamma-cyclodextrins after 6 h enzyme reaction at pH 9.0 of the reaction mixture, 35-37% of the reaction products formed are gamma-cyclodextrins
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additional information
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-, Q53I75
cyclization is the predominant activity, followed by hydrolysis and to a lesser extent coupling and disproportionation activities
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additional information
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cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from Bacillus strains produce beta-cyclodextrins, strain G-825-6 also produces alpha-cyclodextrins, cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from the Bacillus strain G-825-6 produces beta-cyclodextrins and alpha-cyclodextrins, cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from the Bacillus strain produces beta-cyclodextrins, substrates bind across the enzyme surface in a long groove formed by the domains A and B that can accommodate at least 7 glucose residues at the donor subsites and 3 at the acceptor subsites. Cyclodextrin glucanotransferases cleave the alpha-1,4-glycosidic bonds between the subsites -1 and +1 in alpha-glucans yielding a stable covalent glycosyl-intermediate bound at the donor subsites. The glycosyl-intermediate is then transferred to the 4-hydroxyl of its own non-reducing end forming a new alpha-1,4-glycosidic bond to yield a cyclic product, substrates bind across the enzyme's surface in a long groove formed by the domains A and B that can accommodate at least 7 glucose residues at the donor subsites and 3 at the acceptor subsites. Cyclodextrin glucanotransferases cleave the alpha-1,4-glycosidic bonds between the subsites -1 and +1 in alpha-glucans yielding a stable covalent glycosyl-intermediate bound at the donor subsites. The glycosyl-intermediate is then transferred to the 4-hydroxyl of its own non-reducing end forming a new alpha-1,4-glycosidic bond to yield a cyclic product
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additional information
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Bacillus licheniformis B-4025
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mannose, ribose, arabinose, mannitol or sorbitol are not acceptors
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additional information
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Paenibacillus pabuli US132
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cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from Paenibacillus pabuli produces beta-cyclodextrins, substrates bind across the enzyme surface in a long groove formed by the domains A and B that can accommodate at least 7 glucose residues at the donor subsites and 3 at the acceptor subsites. Cyclodextrin glucanotransferases cleave the alpha-1,4-glycosidic bonds between the subsites -1 and +1 in alpha-glucans yielding a stable covalent glycosyl-intermediate bound at the donor subsites. The glycosyl-intermediate is then transferred to the 4-hydroxyl of its own non-reducing end forming a new alpha-1,4-glycosidic bond to yield a cyclic product
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additional information
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Paenibacillus pabuli US132
B1VC16
production of beta-cyclodextrin from potato starch
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additional information
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Paenibacillus pabuli US132
B1VC16
the main amino acid residues of cyclization activity are Lys47, Tyr89, Asn94, Phe183, Asn193, Leu194, Tyr195, Asp196, Phe259, Phe283, and Asp371
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additional information
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cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from Bacillus strains produce beta-cyclodextrins, strain G-825-6 also produces alpha-cyclodextrins, cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from the Bacillus strain G-825-6 produces beta-cyclodextrins and alpha-cyclodextrins, cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from the Bacillus strain produces beta-cyclodextrins, substrates bind across the enzyme surface in a long groove formed by the domains A and B that can accommodate at least 7 glucose residues at the donor subsites and 3 at the acceptor subsites. Cyclodextrin glucanotransferases cleave the alpha-1,4-glycosidic bonds between the subsites -1 and +1 in alpha-glucans yielding a stable covalent glycosyl-intermediate bound at the donor subsites. The glycosyl-intermediate is then transferred to the 4-hydroxyl of its own non-reducing end forming a new alpha-1,4-glycosidic bond to yield a cyclic product, substrates bind across the enzyme's surface in a long groove formed by the domains A and B that can accommodate at least 7 glucose residues at the donor subsites and 3 at the acceptor subsites. Cyclodextrin glucanotransferases cleave the alpha-1,4-glycosidic bonds between the subsites -1 and +1 in alpha-glucans yielding a stable covalent glycosyl-intermediate bound at the donor subsites. The glycosyl-intermediate is then transferred to the 4-hydroxyl of its own non-reducing end forming a new alpha-1,4-glycosidic bond to yield a cyclic product
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additional information
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A3F9M7
the enzyme from strain BL-31 is highly specific for the intermolecular transglycosylation of bioflavonoids, with high specificities for glycosyl acceptor bioflavonoids, including naringin, rutin, and hesperidin, and especially naringin
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additional information
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Bacillus firmus 7b
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the enzyme shows cyclization activity on different raw and hydrolyzed starches, hydrolyzed cornstarch gives the highest activity. The enzyme from strain 7b mainly forms beta-cyclodextrin, but also alpha- and gamma-cyclodextrins, from maltodextrin, influence of substrate concentration on CGTase activity, overview
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additional information
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Bacillus sp. BL-12
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glycosyl donor specificity for intermolecular transglycosylation of stevioside, overview, cyclization reaction with soluble starch as substrate
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additional information
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Paenibacillus macerans BIO-2m
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mannose, ribose, arabinose, mannitol or sorbitol are not acceptors
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additional information
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cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from Bacillus strains produce beta-cyclodextrins, strain G-825-6 also produces alpha-cyclodextrins, cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from the Bacillus strain G-825-6 produces beta-cyclodextrins and alpha-cyclodextrins, cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from the Bacillus strain produces beta-cyclodextrins, substrates bind across the enzyme surface in a long groove formed by the domains A and B that can accommodate at least 7 glucose residues at the donor subsites and 3 at the acceptor subsites. Cyclodextrin glucanotransferases cleave the alpha-1,4-glycosidic bonds between the subsites -1 and +1 in alpha-glucans yielding a stable covalent glycosyl-intermediate bound at the donor subsites. The glycosyl-intermediate is then transferred to the 4-hydroxyl of its own non-reducing end forming a new alpha-1,4-glycosidic bond to yield a cyclic product, substrates bind across the enzyme's surface in a long groove formed by the domains A and B that can accommodate at least 7 glucose residues at the donor subsites and 3 at the acceptor subsites. Cyclodextrin glucanotransferases cleave the alpha-1,4-glycosidic bonds between the subsites -1 and +1 in alpha-glucans yielding a stable covalent glycosyl-intermediate bound at the donor subsites. The glycosyl-intermediate is then transferred to the 4-hydroxyl of its own non-reducing end forming a new alpha-1,4-glycosidic bond to yield a cyclic product
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additional information
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Bacillus alcalophilus B-3103
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mannose, ribose, arabinose, mannitol or sorbitol are not acceptors, D-glucuronate is ineffective as acceptor
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additional information
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Paenibacillus illinoisensis ST-12
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cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from Paenibacillus illinoisensis produces beta-cyclodextrins, substrates bind across the enzyme surface in a long groove formed by the domains A and B that can accommodate at least 7 glucose residues at the donor subsites and 3 at the acceptor subsites. Cyclodextrin glucanotransferases cleave the alpha-1,4-glycosidic bonds between the subsites -1 and +1 in alpha-glucans yielding a stable covalent glycosyl-intermediate bound at the donor subsites. The glycosyl-intermediate is then transferred to the 4-hydroxyl of its own non-reducing end forming a new alpha-1,4-glycosidic bond to yield a cyclic product
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additional information
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Bacillus firmus 5119
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assay method optimization, the optimum ratio of stevioside to beta-cyclodextrin for optimum transglycosylation is 1:2, overview
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additional information
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Thermoactinomyces vulgaris Tac-3554
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mannose, ribose, arabinose, mannitol or sorbitol are not acceptors
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additional information
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Bacillus circulans 8
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glucose is no substrate
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additional information
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Bacillus circulans 8
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no reaction with p-nitrophenyl-glucose and p-nitrophenyl-alpha-1,4-glucopyranosyl-D-glucose, heptakis(2,6-di-O-methyl)-beta cyclodextrin is not transformed
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additional information
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Paenibacillus macerans JFB05-01
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CGTase is an extracellular enzyme capable of converting starch or starch derivatives into cyclodextrins through an intramolecular transglycosylation reaction. Cyclodextrins are cyclic, nonreducing oligoglucopyranose molecules linked via alpha(1,4)-glycosidic bonds
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additional information
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Paenibacillus macerans JFB05-01
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the enzyme shows alpha-cyclodextrin forming activity with soluble starch
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additional information
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Paenibacillus macerans JFB05-01
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the enzyme performs formation of alpha-, beta- and gamma-cyclodextrin. Lys47 is important for the alpha-cyclization reaction. Enhancement of beta-cyclodextrin specificity might be due to weakening or removal of hydrogen-bonding interactions between the side chain of residue 47 and the bent intermediate specific for alpha-cyclodextrin formation
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additional information
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cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from Bacillus strains produce beta-cyclodextrins, strain G-825-6 also produces alpha-cyclodextrins, cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from the Bacillus strain G-825-6 produces beta-cyclodextrins and alpha-cyclodextrins, cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from the Bacillus strain produces beta-cyclodextrins, substrates bind across the enzyme surface in a long groove formed by the domains A and B that can accommodate at least 7 glucose residues at the donor subsites and 3 at the acceptor subsites. Cyclodextrin glucanotransferases cleave the alpha-1,4-glycosidic bonds between the subsites -1 and +1 in alpha-glucans yielding a stable covalent glycosyl-intermediate bound at the donor subsites. The glycosyl-intermediate is then transferred to the 4-hydroxyl of its own non-reducing end forming a new alpha-1,4-glycosidic bond to yield a cyclic product, substrates bind across the enzyme's surface in a long groove formed by the domains A and B that can accommodate at least 7 glucose residues at the donor subsites and 3 at the acceptor subsites. Cyclodextrin glucanotransferases cleave the alpha-1,4-glycosidic bonds between the subsites -1 and +1 in alpha-glucans yielding a stable covalent glycosyl-intermediate bound at the donor subsites. The glycosyl-intermediate is then transferred to the 4-hydroxyl of its own non-reducing end forming a new alpha-1,4-glycosidic bond to yield a cyclic product
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additional information
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substrate is soluble starch, formation of beta-cyclodextrins
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additional information
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Bacillus coagulans BIO-13m
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mannose, ribose, arabinose, mannitol or sorbitol are not acceptors
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additional information
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Bacillus clausii E16
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cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from Bacillus clarkii produces beta-cyclodextrins, substrates bind across the enzyme surface in a long groove formed by the domains A and B that can accommodate at least 7 glucose residues at the donor subsites and 3 at the acceptor subsites. Cyclodextrin glucanotransferases cleave the alpha-1,4-glycosidic bonds between the subsites -1 and +1 in alpha-glucans yielding a stable covalent glycosyl-intermediate bound at the donor subsites. The glycosyl-intermediate is then transferred to the 4-hydroxyl of its own non-reducing end forming a new alpha-1,4-glycosidic bond to yield a cyclic product
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additional information
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Geobacillus stearothermophilus B-4006, Bacillus circulans BIO-3m
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mannose, ribose, arabinose, mannitol or sorbitol are not acceptors
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additional information
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Bacillus autolyticus 11149
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sorbitol, mannitol, xylulose, galactose, fructose, lactose, glycerol and arabinose are not acceptors
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additional information
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Paenibacillus graminis NC22.13
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cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from Paenibacillus graminis produces alpha- and beta-cyclodextrins, substrates bind across the enzyme surface in a long groove formed by the domains A and B that can accommodate at least 7 glucose residues at the donor subsites and 3 at the acceptor subsites. Cyclodextrin glucanotransferases cleave the alpha-1,4-glycosidic bonds between the subsites -1 and +1 in alpha-glucans yielding a stable covalent glycosyl-intermediate bound at the donor subsites. The glycosyl-intermediate is then transferred to the 4-hydroxyl of its own non-reducing end forming a new alpha-1,4-glycosidic bond to yield a cyclic product
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additional information
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Salimicrobium halophilum BIO-12H BIO-13H
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mannose, ribose, arabinose, mannitol or sorbitol are not acceptors, D-glucuronate is ineffective as acceptor
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additional information
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Bacillus clarkii 7384
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cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from Bacillus clarkii produces 80% gamma-cyclodextrins with an overall conversion of starch into cyclodextrins of 14%, substrates bind across the enzyme surface in a long groove formed by the domains A and B that can accommodate at least 7 glucose residues at the donor subsites and 3 at the acceptor subsites. Cyclodextrin glucanotransferases cleave the alpha-1,4-glycosidic bonds between the subsites -1 and +1 in alpha-glucans yielding a stable covalent glycosyl-intermediate bound at the donor subsites. The glycosyl-intermediate is then transferred to the 4-hydroxyl of its own non-reducing end forming a new alpha-1,4-glycosidic bond to yield a cyclic product
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additional information
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CGTases produce a mixture of cyclodextrins from starch consisting of 6 alpha, 7 beta, or 8 gamma glucose units, specificity, overview, reaction mechanism, a linear glucan chain binds to the substrate binding subsites of CGTase followed by bond cleavage to yield a covalent glycosyl-enzyme intermediate. The nature of the acceptor molecule in the second step of the reaction, to which the covalently bound oligosaccharide is transferred, determines the enzyme reaction specificity, schematic overview. The enzyme also shows hydrolytic activity on potato starch
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additional information
?
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Paenibacillus campinasensis H69-3
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CGTase can hydrolyze glucan chains, e.g. starch, in a manner similar to alpha-amylases, but differs in its ability to form cyclodextrins as reaction products. Cyclodextrins are formed from starch molecules through intramolecular transglycosylation, i.e. cyclization, and can be made up of 6 to 8 glucan residues, alpha-, beta-, and gamma-cyclodextrin, respectively. The enzyme is multifunctional, cyclization with maltodextrin as substrate
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additional information
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Paenibacillus campinasensis H69-3
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cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from Paenibacillus campinasensis produces beta-cyclodextrins, substrates bind across the enzyme surface in a long groove formed by the domains A and B that can accommodate at least 7 glucose residues at the donor subsites and 3 at the acceptor subsites. Cyclodextrin glucanotransferases cleave the alpha-1,4-glycosidic bonds between the subsites -1 and +1 in alpha-glucans yielding a stable covalent glycosyl-intermediate bound at the donor subsites. The glycosyl-intermediate is then transferred to the 4-hydroxyl of its own non-reducing end forming a new alpha-1,4-glycosidic bond to yield a cyclic product
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additional information
?
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cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from Bacillus strains produce beta-cyclodextrins, strain G-825-6 also produces alpha-cyclodextrins, cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from the Bacillus strain G-825-6 produces beta-cyclodextrins and alpha-cyclodextrins, cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from the Bacillus strain produces beta-cyclodextrins, substrates bind across the enzyme surface in a long groove formed by the domains A and B that can accommodate at least 7 glucose residues at the donor subsites and 3 at the acceptor subsites. Cyclodextrin glucanotransferases cleave the alpha-1,4-glycosidic bonds between the subsites -1 and +1 in alpha-glucans yielding a stable covalent glycosyl-intermediate bound at the donor subsites. The glycosyl-intermediate is then transferred to the 4-hydroxyl of its own non-reducing end forming a new alpha-1,4-glycosidic bond to yield a cyclic product, substrates bind across the enzyme's surface in a long groove formed by the domains A and B that can accommodate at least 7 glucose residues at the donor subsites and 3 at the acceptor subsites. Cyclodextrin glucanotransferases cleave the alpha-1,4-glycosidic bonds between the subsites -1 and +1 in alpha-glucans yielding a stable covalent glycosyl-intermediate bound at the donor subsites. The glycosyl-intermediate is then transferred to the 4-hydroxyl of its own non-reducing end forming a new alpha-1,4-glycosidic bond to yield a cyclic product
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additional information
?
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Thermoanaerobacterium thermosulfurigenes EM1
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the enzyme primarily catalyses the formation of cyclic alpha-1,4-linked cyclodextrins from starch. This enzyme also possesses unusually high hydrolytic activity as a side reaction, thought to be due to partial retention of ancestral enzyme function. Product formation, alpha-, beta-, and gamma-cyclodextrins, of wild-type and mutant enzymes, substrate-binding subsites of CGTase, and sugar binding structure, overview
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additional information
?
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Thermoanaerobacterium thermosulfurigenes EM1
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CGTases produce a mixture of cyclodextrins from starch consisting of 6 alpha, 7 beta, or 8 gamma glucose units, specificity, overview, reaction mechanism, a linear glucan chain binds to the substrate binding subsites of CGTase followed by bond cleavage to yield a covalent glycosyl-enzyme intermediate. The nature of the acceptor molecule in the second step of the reaction, to which the covalently bound oligosaccharide is transferred, determines the enzyme reaction specificity, schematic overview. The enzyme also shows high hydrolytic activity on potato starch
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additional information
?
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Thermoanaerobacterium thermosulfurigenes EM1
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cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from Thermoanaerobacterium thermosulfurigenes produces alpha- and beta-cyclodextrins, substrates bind across the enzyme surface in a long groove formed by the domains A and B that can accommodate at least 7 glucose residues at the donor subsites and 3 at the acceptor subsites. Cyclodextrin glucanotransferases cleave the alpha-1,4-glycosidic bonds between the subsites -1 and +1 in alpha-glucans yielding a stable covalent glycosyl-intermediate bound at the donor subsites. The glycosyl-intermediate is then transferred to the 4-hydroxyl of its own non-reducing end forming a new alpha-1,4-glycosidic bond to yield a cyclic product
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-
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additional information
?
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Bacillus licheniformis BIO-9m
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mannose, ribose, arabinose, mannitol or sorbitol are not acceptors
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additional information
?
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Klebsiella pneumoniae M5a1
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CGTases produce a mixture of cyclodextrins from starch consisting of 6 alpha, 7 beta, or 8 gamma glucose units, specificity, overview, reaction mechanism, a linear glucan chain binds to the substrate binding subsites of CGTase followed by bond cleavage to yield a covalent glycosyl-enzyme intermediate. The nature of the acceptor molecule in the second step of the reaction, to which the covalently bound oligosaccharide is transferred, determines the enzyme reaction specificity, schematic overview
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additional information
?
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Klebsiella pneumoniae M5a1
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from Klebsiella pneumoniae produces alpha-cyclodextrins, substrates bind across the enzyme surface in a long groove formed by the domains A and B that can accommodate at least 7 glucose residues at the donor subsites and 3 at the acceptor subsites. Cyclodextrin glucanotransferases cleave the alpha-1,4-glycosidic bonds between the subsites -1 and +1 in alpha-glucans yielding a stable covalent glycosyl-intermediate bound at the donor subsites. The glycosyl-intermediate is then transferred to the 4-hydroxyl of its own non-reducing end forming a new alpha-1,4-glycosidic bond to yield a cyclic product
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Bacillus alcalophilus BA-4229
-
mannose, ribose, arabinose, mannitol or sorbitol are not acceptors, D-glucuronate is ineffective as acceptor
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Paenibacillus macerans IAM1243
-
when the coupling reaction is measured utilizing beta-cyclodextrin as substrate, CGTase from Escherichia coli displays a 14fold greater catalytic activity as compared to CGTase from Bacillus macerans or CGTase from Bacillis subtilis. The coupling activity of CGTase from Escherichia coli is not significantly different from that of CGTase from Bacillus macerans or CGTase from Bacillus subtilis when alpha-cyclodextrin is used as the substrate
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Brevibacillus brevis CD162
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from Brevibacillus brevis produces beta-cyclodextrins, substrates bind across the enzyme surface in a long groove formed by the domains A and B that can accommodate at least 7 glucose residues at the donor subsites and 3 at the acceptor subsites. Cyclodextrin glucanotransferases cleave the alpha-1,4-glycosidic bonds between the subsites -1 and +1 in alpha-glucans yielding a stable covalent glycosyl-intermediate bound at the donor subsites. The glycosyl-intermediate is then transferred to the 4-hydroxyl of its own non-reducing end forming a new alpha-1,4-glycosidic bond to yield a cyclic product
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Bacillus circulans 251
-
-
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Bacillus circulans 251
P30920
beta-cyclodextrin-forming activity from partially hydrolyzed potato starch with an average degree of polymerization of 50. Disproportionation activity is determined using 4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-maltoheptaoside-4-6-O-ethylidene, i.e. pNPG7, as substrate
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Bacillus circulans DF
-
formation of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-cyclodextrins from starch and matotriose
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Bacillus circulans DF
C4MH58
CGTase catalyzes the formation of cyclomaltooligosaccharides, cyclic molecules formed by alpha-(1,4)-linked D-glucopyranosyl units with an apolar central cavity and a hydrophilic outer surface. alpha-, beta-Cyclizing and amylolytic activities withpotato starch as substrate, enzyme structure-function relationship, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Bacillus circulans E 192
-
glucose is no substrate
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Bacillus circulans E 192
-
no reaction with p-nitrophenyl-glucose and p-nitrophenyl-alpha-1,4-glucopyranosyl-D-glucose, heptakis(2,6-di-O-methyl)-beta cyclodextrin is not transformed
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Geobacillus stearothermophilus ET1
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from Bacillus clarkii produces alpha- and beta-cyclodextrins, cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from Geobacillus stearothermophilus produces beta-cyclodextrins, substrates bind across the enzyme surface in a long groove formed by the domains A and B that can accommodate at least 7 glucose residues at the donor subsites and 3 at the acceptor subsites. Cyclodextrin glucanotransferases cleave the alpha-1,4-glycosidic bonds between the subsites -1 and +1 in alpha-glucans yielding a stable covalent glycosyl-intermediate bound at the donor subsites. The glycosyl-intermediate is then transferred to the 4-hydroxyl of its own non-reducing end forming a new alpha-1,4-glycosidic bond to yield a cyclic product
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Bacillus agaradhaerens LS-3C
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from Bacillus agaradhaerens produces beta-cyclodextrins, substrates bind across the enzyme surface in a long groove formed by the domains A and B that can accommodate at least 7 glucose residues at the donor subsites and 3 at the acceptor subsites. Cyclodextrin glucanotransferases cleave the alpha-1,4-glycosidic bonds between the subsites -1 and +1 in alpha-glucans yielding a stable covalent glycosyl-intermediate bound at the donor subsites. The glycosyl-intermediate is then transferred to the 4-hydroxyl of its own non-reducing end forming a new alpha-1,4-glycosidic bond to yield a cyclic product
-
-
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
soluble starch + acceptor
Schardinger dextrins
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
additional information
?
-
-
CGTase can hydrolyze glucan chains, e.g. starch, in a manner similar to alpha-amylases, but differs in its ability to form cyclodextrins as reaction products. Cyclodextrins are formed from starch molecules through intramolecular transglycosylation, i.e. cyclization, and can be made up of 6 to 8 glucan residues, alpha-, beta-, and gamma-cyclodextrin, respectively. The enzyme is multifunctional
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
isolation of alkaliphilic Bacillus strains and determination of their phylogenetic and phenotypic characteristics, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
CGTase catalyzes the transfer of dextrin units from cyclodextrins or longer dextrins to polyols, such as glycerol, sugars, and flavonoids
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
CGTase is an extracellular enzyme capable of converting starch or starch derivatives into cyclodextrins through an intramolecular transglycosylation reaction. Cyclodextrins are cyclic, nonreducing oligoglucopyranose molecules linked via alpha(1,4)-glycosidic bonds
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
P31797
CGTases produce a mixture of cyclodextrins from starch consisting of 6 alpha, 7 beta, or 8 gamma glucose units, specificity, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
CGTases produce a mixture of cyclodextrins from starch consisting of 6 alpha, 7 beta, or 8 gamma glucose units, specificity, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
P05618
CGTases produce a mixture of cyclodextrins from starch consisting of 6 alpha, 7 beta, or 8 gamma glucose units, specificity, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
CGTases produce a mixture of cyclodextrins from starch consisting of 6 alpha, 7 beta, or 8 gamma glucose units, specificity, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from Anaerobranca gottschalkii produces alpha-cyclodextrins
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from Bacillus agaradhaerens produces beta-cyclodextrins
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from Bacillus clarkii produce beta-cyclodextrins, except for strain 290-3 that also produces gamma-cyclodextrins
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from Bacillus clarkii produces 80% gamma-cyclodextrins with an overall conversion of starch into cyclodextrins of 14%
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from Bacillus clarkii produces alpha- and beta-cyclodextrins
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from Bacillus clarkii produces beta-cyclodextrins
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from Bacillus lichenifoormis produces alpha- and beta-cyclodextrins
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from Bacillus macerans produces alpha-cyclodextrins
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from Bacillus megaterium produces beta-cyclodextrins
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from Bacillus obhensis produces beta-cyclodextrins
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from Bacillus strains produce beta-cyclodextrins, strain G-825-6 also produces alpha-cyclodextrins
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from Brevibacillus brevis produces beta-cyclodextrins
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from Geobacillus stearothermophilus produces beta-cyclodextrins
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from Klebsiella pneumoniae produces alpha-cyclodextrins
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from Paenibacillus campinasensis produces beta-cyclodextrins
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from Paenibacillus graminis produces alpha- and beta-cyclodextrins
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from Paenibacillus illinoisensis produces beta-cyclodextrins
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from Paenibacillus pabuli produces beta-cyclodextrins
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from Paenibacillus sp. strains produce alpha- and beta-cyclodextrins
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from the Bacillus strain G-825-6 produces beta-cyclodextrins and alpha-cyclodextrins, cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from the Bacillus strain produces beta-cyclodextrins
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from Thermoanaerobacterium thermosulfurigenes produces alpha- and beta-cyclodextrins
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzymes from Bacillus circulans strans produce beta-cyclodextrins, except for strain DF 9R that also produces alpha-cyclodextrins
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzymes from Thermoanaerobacter sp. strains produce alpha- and beta-cyclodextrins
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the extracelluar enzyme converts starch into non-reducing, cyclic malto-oligosacchrarides called cyclodextrins
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from Bacillus strains produce beta-cyclodextrins, strain G-825-6 also produces alpha-cyclodextrins, cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from the Bacillus strain G-825-6 produces beta-cyclodextrins and alpha-cyclodextrins, cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from the Bacillus strain produces beta-cyclodextrins
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Paenibacillus pabuli US132
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from Paenibacillus pabuli produces beta-cyclodextrins
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from Bacillus strains produce beta-cyclodextrins, strain G-825-6 also produces alpha-cyclodextrins, cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from the Bacillus strain G-825-6 produces beta-cyclodextrins and alpha-cyclodextrins, cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from the Bacillus strain produces beta-cyclodextrins
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from Bacillus strains produce beta-cyclodextrins, strain G-825-6 also produces alpha-cyclodextrins, cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from the Bacillus strain G-825-6 produces beta-cyclodextrins and alpha-cyclodextrins, cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from the Bacillus strain produces beta-cyclodextrins
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Paenibacillus illinoisensis ST-12
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from Paenibacillus illinoisensis produces beta-cyclodextrins
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Paenibacillus macerans JFB05-01
-
CGTase is an extracellular enzyme capable of converting starch or starch derivatives into cyclodextrins through an intramolecular transglycosylation reaction. Cyclodextrins are cyclic, nonreducing oligoglucopyranose molecules linked via alpha(1,4)-glycosidic bonds
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from Bacillus strains produce beta-cyclodextrins, strain G-825-6 also produces alpha-cyclodextrins, cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from the Bacillus strain G-825-6 produces beta-cyclodextrins and alpha-cyclodextrins, cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from the Bacillus strain produces beta-cyclodextrins
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Bacillus clausii E16
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from Bacillus clarkii produces beta-cyclodextrins
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Paenibacillus graminis NC22.13
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from Paenibacillus graminis produces alpha- and beta-cyclodextrins
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Bacillus clarkii 7384
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from Bacillus clarkii produces 80% gamma-cyclodextrins with an overall conversion of starch into cyclodextrins of 14%
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
CGTases produce a mixture of cyclodextrins from starch consisting of 6 alpha, 7 beta, or 8 gamma glucose units, specificity, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Paenibacillus campinasensis H69-3
-
CGTase can hydrolyze glucan chains, e.g. starch, in a manner similar to alpha-amylases, but differs in its ability to form cyclodextrins as reaction products. Cyclodextrins are formed from starch molecules through intramolecular transglycosylation, i.e. cyclization, and can be made up of 6 to 8 glucan residues, alpha-, beta-, and gamma-cyclodextrin, respectively. The enzyme is multifunctional
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Paenibacillus campinasensis H69-3
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from Paenibacillus campinasensis produces beta-cyclodextrins
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from Bacillus strains produce beta-cyclodextrins, strain G-825-6 also produces alpha-cyclodextrins, cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from the Bacillus strain G-825-6 produces beta-cyclodextrins and alpha-cyclodextrins, cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from the Bacillus strain produces beta-cyclodextrins
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Thermoanaerobacterium thermosulfurigenes EM1
-
CGTases produce a mixture of cyclodextrins from starch consisting of 6 alpha, 7 beta, or 8 gamma glucose units, specificity, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Thermoanaerobacterium thermosulfurigenes EM1
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from Thermoanaerobacterium thermosulfurigenes produces alpha- and beta-cyclodextrins
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Klebsiella pneumoniae M5a1
-
CGTases produce a mixture of cyclodextrins from starch consisting of 6 alpha, 7 beta, or 8 gamma glucose units, specificity, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Klebsiella pneumoniae M5a1
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from Klebsiella pneumoniae produces alpha-cyclodextrins
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Brevibacillus brevis CD162
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from Brevibacillus brevis produces beta-cyclodextrins
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Geobacillus stearothermophilus ET1
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from Bacillus clarkii produces alpha- and beta-cyclodextrins, cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from Geobacillus stearothermophilus produces beta-cyclodextrins
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Bacillus agaradhaerens LS-3C
-
cyclodextrin glucanotransferases produce a mixture of cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, from starch. The enzyme from Bacillus agaradhaerens produces beta-cyclodextrins
-
-
-
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
(NH4)6Mo7O24
-
5 mM, 115% of initial activity
Ba2+
-
INMIA 3849, stabilizes enzyme
Ba2+
-
0.5 mM, 125% of initial activity
BaCl2
-
relative activity 102.4%
Ca2+
-
addition increases thermal stability
Ca2+
-
4 mM CaCl2, relative activity 106%
Ca2+
-
contains 2 mol Ca2+ per mol of enzyme, increases heat stability, denaturation temperature shifted from 70C to 88C
Ca2+
-
contains 1 mol Ca2+ per mol of enzyme
Ca2+
-
thermal stability is remarkably increased by addition of calcium ions
Ca2+
-
protects enzyme from activity loss
Ca2+
-
protects enzyme from activity loss
Ca2+
-
protects enzyme from activity loss
Ca2+
-
protects enzyme from activity loss
Ca2+
-
thermal stability is remarkably increased by addition of calcium ions
Ca2+
Q8X268, -
thermal stability is remarkably increased by addition of calcium ions
Ca2+
B1VC16
activates at 10 mM
Ca2+
-
activates
Ca2+
-
raise the unfolding temperature of CGTase
Ca2+
P05618
raise the unfolding temperature of CGTase
Ca2+
-
raise the unfolding temperature of CGTase
Ca2+
-
synergistic promoting effects of glycine and Ca2+ on the extracellular secretion of the recombinant protein in Escherichia coli, optimal at 150 mM and 20 mM, respectively, overview
Ca2+
-
5 mM, 120% of initial activity
Ca2+
-
0.5 mM, 116% of initial activity
CaCl2
-
relative activity 106.7%
CaCl2
-
5 mM, 20% activation of cross-linked enzyme crystals, 2% activation of soluble enzyme
CaCl2
P30920
activates at 1 mM
Co2+
-
10 mM, 28% inhibition
Co2+
-
activates
CoCl2
P30920
activates at 4 mM
Cu2+
-
INMIA 3849, stabilizes enzyme
Cu2+
-
10 mM, 20% inhibition
Cu2+
-
activates
Fe2+
-
INMIA 3849, stabilizes enzyme
Fe2+
-
10 mM, 58% inhibition
FeCl2
-
5 mM, 110% activation of cross-linked enzyme crystals, inhibition of soluble enzyme
FeCl2
-
1 mM, 89.3% activation
FeSO4
-
relative activity 107.6%
Hg2+
-
10 mM, complete inhibition
K+
-
80 mM KCl, relative activity 112%
K+
-
5 mM, 110% of initial activity
Li2SO4
-
relative activity 106%
Mg2+
-
10 mM, 75% inhibition
Mg2+
-
activates
MgSO4
-
relative activity 103.2%
Mn2+
-
activates
Na+
-
80 mM NaCl, relative activity 110%
Na+
-
5 mM, 120% of initial activity
Sr2+
-
activates
Zn2+
-
10 mM, 65% inhibition
Zn2+
-
0.5 mM, 118% of initial activity
Mn2+
A3F9M7
activates
additional information
-
enzyme activity is not affected by Ca2+, Na+, K+, Fe3+, ICH2COOH, and SDS at low concentration
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
(+)-1-deoxynojirimycin
-
-
(NH4)6Mo7O24
-
-
1-deoxynojirimycin
-
noncompetitive inhibitor , E 192
1-deoxynojirimycin
-
weak inhibitor
2-mercaptoethanol
-
1 mM, 87% of initial activity
3-O-Methylglucose
-
E 192, 25% inhibition
acarbose
-
E 192, uncompetitive inhibitor
acarbose
-
pseudotetrasaccharide, competitive inhibitor of the cyclization reaction
acarbose
P30920
the acceptor substrate binding site near the active site of the enzyme is involved in inhibition by acarbose, mutants K232E, F283L, and A230V show increased resistance, overview
Ag+
-
5 mM, 71% of initial activity
Ag+
-
6 mM, 62% residual activity
Al3+
-
strong
alpha-cyclodextrin
-
competitive inhibition
amygdalin
-
E 192, 75% inhibition
beta-cyclodextrin
-
inhibits cyclization
beta-cyclodextrin
-
complete inhibition
beta-cyclodextrin
-
strong product inhibition of CGTase
beta-cyclodextrin
-
competitive inhibition
beta-cyclodextrin
-
1 mM, 76% of initial activity
cellobiose
-
E 192, 85% inhibition
Co2+
-
ATCC 39612/Ha3-3-2
Co2+
-
strong
Co2+
-
1 mM, 21% of initial activity
CoCl2
-
1 mM, complete inhibition
Cu2+
-
strong
Cu2+
-
5 mM, 82% of initial activity
Cu2+
-
1 mM, 86% of initial activity
CuSO4
-
1 mM, complete inhibition
Cyclodextrins
-
the enzyme activity is strongly inhibited by the reaction products
-
D-glucose
-
E 192, competitive inhibitor, 35% inhibition
D-mannose
-
E 192, 20% inhibition
D-xylose
-
E 192, 3% inhibition
dithiothreitol
-
1 mM, 68% of initial activity
Dodecyl-beta-D-maltoside
-
E 192, 55% inhibition
EDTA
-
1 mM, 83% inhibition
EDTA
-
1 mM, 67% of initial activity
ethanol
-
BE 101
ethanol
-
the enzyme keeps very good levels of alpha-cyclodextrin activity using starch or maltodextrin as substrates even at 20% ethanol (around 55-60%). The degradation of the alpha-cyclodextrin is strongly inhibited by ethanol, even at very low concentrations
Fe2+
-
ATCC 39612/Ha3-3-2
-
Fe2+
-
FeSO4
-
Fe2+
-
-
-
Fe2+
-
strong
-
Fe2+
-
5 mM, 93% of initial activity
-
Fe2+
-
1 mM, no residual activity
-
Fe2+
-
6 mM, 80% residual activity
-
FeCl3
-
1 mM, 70% inhibition
FeSO4
-
1 mM, complete inhibition
gamma-cyclodextrin
-
competitive inhibition
helicin
-
E 192, 88% inhibition
heptyl-thio-glucoside
-
E 192, 81% inhibition
Hg2+
-
1 mM, 5% of initial activity
HgCl2
Bacillus autolyticus
-
-
HgCl2
-
5 mM, 68% inhibition of cross-linked enzyme crystals, 40% of soluble enzyme
K2SO4
-
1 mM, 54% inhibition
maltitol
-
E 192, 82% inhibition
maltose
-
E 192, competitive inhibitor, 87% inhibition
maltose
-
inhibits cyclization
maltose
-
uncompetitive inhibition
methyl-alpha-D-glucoside
-
E 192, 80% inhibition
methyl-beta-glucoside
-
E 192, 76% inhibition
Mg2+
-
ATCC 39612/Ha3-3-2
Mg2+
-
strong
Mg2+
-
6 mM, 57% residual activity
MgCl2
-
5 mM, 15% inhibition of cross-linked enzyme crystals, 22% of soluble enzyme
MgCl2
-
1 mM, 53% inhibition
MgSO4
-
1 mM, 65% inhibition
Mn2+
-
slight
NaCl
-
1 mM, 28% inhibition
NaNO3
-
1 mM, 54% inhibition
Ni2+
-
1 mM, 58% of initial activity
octyl-beta-D-glucoside
-
E 192, 46% inhibition
p-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-glucoside
-
E 192, 55% inhibition
p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucoside
-
E 192, 55% inhibition
palatinose
-
E 192, 68% inhibition
Salicin
-
E 192, competitive inhibition
SDS
-
1 mM, 55% inhibition
Sn2+
-
slight
starch
-
substrate inhibition at 0.01 and 0.0055 mg starch/ml for free and immobilized enzyme
starch
-
soluble potato starch or cassava starch
Sucrose
-
E 192, 12% inhibition
Tetranitromethane
-
E 192
Zn2+
-
ATCC 39612/Ha3-3-2
Zn2+
-
strong
Zn2+
-
5 mM, 84% of initial activity
Zn2+
-
1 mM, 29% of initial activity
ZnCl2
-
5 mM, 30% inhibition of cross-linked enzyme crystals, 80% of soluble enzyme
ZnCl2
-
1 mM, 73% inhibition
ZnSO4
-
1 mM, complete inhibition
additional information
-
no or poor inhibition by PMSF, sodium azide, sodium m-arsenite, and 2-mercaptoethanol
-
additional information
-
the enzyme shows substrate and product inhibition
-
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
(CH3COO)2Pb
Bacillus autolyticus
-
relative activity 103%
2-mercaptoethanol
Bacillus autolyticus
-
relative activity 101%
Benzene
-
relative activity 106%
Ca2+
-
4 mM, 22% activation
Cyclohexane
-
relative activity 102%
decane
-
increases the yield of cyclodextrin
Dextrin
-
favores CGTase synthesis
dithiothreitol
Bacillus autolyticus
-
relative activity 101%
DTT
-
slight activation
EDTA
-
80 mM, relative activity 117%
EDTA
-
10 mM, 105% of initial activity
ethanol
Bacillus autolyticus
-
enhances specificity and yield of beta-cyclodextrin production
ethanol
-
enhances the formaton of gamma-cyclodextrin
ethanol
-
increases cyclodextrin yield
ethanol
-
BE101 produces twice as much cyclodextrin
ethanol
-
increases yield of cyclodextrins, relative activity 104%
fructose
-
favores CGTase synthesis
galactose
-
favores CGTase synthesis
glucose
-
favores CGTase synthesis
Isopropanol
-
increases the yield of beta-cyclodextrin
lactose
-
favores CGTase synthesis
light
-
illumination of the enzyme with white, linearly polarized light and at constant 25C increases the enzyme activity producing a mixture of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-cyclodextrins. At a high enzyme concentration of 0.64 U/cm3, regardless the illumination time, formation of beta-cyclodextrin predominates. The highest yield of beta-cyclodextrin is afforded after 1 h illumination, but 2 h illumination leads to a significant increase in the yield of gamma-cyclodextrin
-
maltodextrin
-
favores CGTase synthesis
maltose
-
favores CGTase synthesis
NaCl
-, Q53I75
enzyme shows its maximum hydrolysis activity in a buffer with 1.5 M NaCl and retains up to 65% of its activity at 0.5 M NaCl
p-chloromercuribenzoic acid
-
80 mM, relative activity 118%
PEG 3000
-
10% w/v, increases cyclodextrin production
phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride
-
80 mM, relative activity 114%
Sorbitol
-
favores CGTase synthesis
Sorbitol
-
1 mM, increases cyclodextrin production
starch
-
favores CGTase synthesis
Sucrose
-
favores CGTase synthesis
tert-butanol
-
strain 251, increases the yield of cyclodextrin
Toluene
-
increases the yield of beta-cyclodextrin
Toluene
-
relative residual activity 102%, relative activity 104%
Trichloroethylene
-
increases the yield of beta-cyclodextrin
Triton X-100
Bacillus autolyticus
-
enhances specificity and yield of beta-cyclodextrin production
xylose
-
favores CGTase synthesis
mannitol
-
favores CGTase synthesis
additional information
-
synergistic promoting effects of glycine and Ca2+ on the extracellular secretion of the recombinant protein in Escherichia coli, optimal at 150 mM and 20 mM, respectively, overview
-
KM VALUE [mM]
KM VALUE [mM] Maximum
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.08
-
3-ketobutylidene-beta-2-chloro-4-nitrophenylmaltopentaoside
-
strain 1011, acceptor maltose, mutant F183L
0.12
-
3-ketobutylidene-beta-2-chloro-4-nitrophenylmaltopentaoside
-
strain 1011, acceptor maltose, mutant F283L
0.15
-
3-ketobutylidene-beta-2-chloro-4-nitrophenylmaltopentaoside
-
strain 1011, acceptor glucose, mutant F283L
0.16
-
3-ketobutylidene-beta-2-chloro-4-nitrophenylmaltopentaoside
-
strain 1011, acceptor maltose, wild-type
0.2
-
3-ketobutylidene-beta-2-chloro-4-nitrophenylmaltopentaoside
-
strain 1011, acceptor glucose, wild-type and mutant Y195F
0.22
-
3-ketobutylidene-beta-2-chloro-4-nitrophenylmaltopentaoside
-
strain 1011, acceptor maltose, mutant Y195F
0.23
-
3-ketobutylidene-beta-2-chloro-4-nitrophenylmaltopentaoside
-
strain 1011, acceptor glucose, mutant F183L
0.24
-
3-ketobutylidene-beta-2-chloro-4-nitrophenylmaltopentaoside
-
strain 1011, acceptor maltose, mutant F183L/F259L
0.31
-
3-ketobutylidene-beta-2-chloro-4-nitrophenylmaltopentaoside
-
strain 1011, acceptor maltose, mutant Y195L
0.34
-
3-ketobutylidene-beta-2-chloro-4-nitrophenylmaltopentaoside
-
strain 1011, acceptor glucose, mutant Y195L and F183L/F259L
0.48
-
3-ketobutylidene-beta-2-chloro-4-nitrophenylmaltopentaoside
-
strain 1011, acceptor maltose, mutant F259L
0.56
-
3-ketobutylidene-beta-2-chloro-4-nitrophenylmaltopentaoside
-
strain 1011, acceptor glucose, mutant F259L
0.15
-
4,6-O-ethylidene-4-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-maltoheptaoside
-
pH 6.0, 60C, wild-type enzyme
0.2
-
4,6-O-ethylidene-4-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-maltoheptaoside
-
pH 6.0, 60C, mutant W239R
0.24
-
4,6-O-ethylidene-4-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-maltoheptaoside
-
pH 6.0, 60C, mutant S77P
0.27
-
4,6-O-ethylidene-4-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-maltoheptaoside
-
pH 6.0, 60C, mutant W239L
15.54
-
4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucopyranose
-
pH 8.5, 50C
0.55
-
alpha-cyclodextrin
-
hydrolyzing activity, mutant Y195F
0.57
-
alpha-cyclodextrin
-
hydrolyzing activity, wild-type
0.59
-
alpha-cyclodextrin
-
coupling
0.73
-
alpha-cyclodextrin
-
cyclodextrin opening
0.94
-
alpha-cyclodextrin
-
hydrolyzing activity, mutant F283L
1.15
-
alpha-cyclodextrin
-
hydrolyzing activity, mutant F183L
1.25
-
alpha-cyclodextrin
-
hydrolyzing activity, mutant F259L
1.26
-
alpha-cyclodextrin
-
coupling
2.32
-
alpha-cyclodextrin
-
cyclodextrin opening
2.56
-
alpha-cyclodextrin
-
hydrolyzing activity, mutant Y195L
5.9
-
alpha-cyclodextrin
-
ATCC 21783, acid CGTase
10
-
alpha-cyclodextrin
-
ATCC 21783
16
-
alpha-cyclodextrin
-
-
0.08
-
beta-cyclodextrin
-
cyclodextrin opening
0.11
-
beta-cyclodextrin
-
hydrolyzing activity, wild-type
0.4
-
beta-cyclodextrin
-
ATCC 21783, acid CGTase
0.44
-
beta-cyclodextrin
-
hydrolyzing activity, mutant Y195L
0.51
-
beta-cyclodextrin
-
cyclodextrin opening
0.83
-
beta-cyclodextrin
-
ATCC 21783
0.85
-
beta-cyclodextrin
-
E 192
15.54
-
beta-cyclodextrin
-
pH 8.5, 50C
1.69
-
cassava starch
-
pH 6.4, 55C, formation of beta-cyclodextrin
-
0.1
-
gamma-cyclodextrin
-
coupling activity, mutant Y195F and F283L
0.12
-
gamma-cyclodextrin
-
coupling activity, mutant wild-type
0.21
-
gamma-cyclodextrin
-
coupling activity, mutant F183L
0.25
-
gamma-cyclodextrin
-
-
0.25
-
gamma-cyclodextrin
-
cyclodextrin opening
0.35
-
gamma-cyclodextrin
-
coupling activity, mutant F259L
0.51
-
gamma-cyclodextrin
-
coupling activity, mutant Y195L
0.88
-
gamma-cyclodextrin
-
cyclodextrin opening
7.3
-
glucose
-
strain 1011, acceptor glucose, disproportionation, F283L
9.8
-
glucose
-
strain 1011, acceptor glucose, disproportionation, Y195L
11.3
-
glucose
-
strain 1011, acceptor glucose, disproportionation, wild-type
12
-
glucose
-
strain 1011, acceptor glucose, disproportionation, F259L
15.9
-
glucose
-
strain 1011, acceptor glucose, disproportionation, Y195F
57.8
-
glucose
-
strain 1011, acceptor glucose, disproportionation, F183L
160
-
glucose
-
strain 1011, acceptor glucose, disproportionation, F183L/F259L
38.3
-
L-ascorbic acid
O52766
wild-type, pH 5.5, 37C, average molecular weight of 2150.68 Da for maltodextrin
44.7
-
L-ascorbic acid
O52766
mutant K47W, pH 5.5, 37C, average molecular weight of 2150.68 Da for maltodextrin
46.1
-
L-ascorbic acid
O52766
mutant K47F, pH 5.5, 37C, average molecular weight of 2150.68 Da for maltodextrin
46.9
-
L-ascorbic acid
O52766
mutant K47V, pH 5.5, 37C, average molecular weight of 2150.68 Da for maltodextrin
51.7
-
L-ascorbic acid
O52766
mutant K47L, pH 5.5, 37C, average molecular weight of 2150.68 Da for maltodextrin
0.48
-
maltodextrin
O52766
mutant K47V, pH 5.5, 37C, average molecular weight of 2150.68 Da for maltodextrin
0.49
-
maltodextrin
O52766
mutant K47L, pH 5.5, 37C, average molecular weight of 2150.68 Da for maltodextrin
0.52
-
maltodextrin
O52766
mutant K47F, pH 5.5, 37C, average molecular weight of 2150.68 Da for maltodextrin
0.55
-
maltodextrin
O52766
mutant K47W, pH 5.5, 37C, average molecular weight of 2150.68 Da for maltodextrin
0.64
-
maltodextrin
O52766
wild-type, pH 5.5, 37C, average molecular weight of 2150.68 Da for maltodextrin
0.8
-
maltodextrin
-
pH 6.0, 65C
1.65
-
maltodextrin
-
pH 6.5, 60C
0.17
-
maltose
-
strain 1011, acceptor maltose, disproportionation, F283L
0.38
-
maltose
-
strain 1011, acceptor maltose, disproportionation, Y195L
0.49
-
maltose
-
strain 1011, acceptor maltose, wild-type
0.59
-
maltose
-
strain 1011, acceptor maltose, disproportionation, Y195F
1.3
-
maltose
-
strain 1011, acceptor maltose, disproportionation, F259L
1.42
-
maltose
-
strain 1011, acceptor maltose, disproportionation, F183L
2.4
-
maltose
-
pH 6.0, 60C, mutant S77P
3.3
-
maltose
-
pH 6.0, 60C, wild-type enzyme
4.1
-
maltose
-
pH 6.0, 60C, mutant W239R
4.2
-
maltose
-
pH 6.0, 60C, mutant W239L
18.2
-
maltose
-
strain 1011, acceptor maltose, disproportionation, F183L/F259L
11.7
-
methyl-alpha-D-glucoside
-
coupling activity, mutant F259L
12
-
methyl-alpha-D-glucoside
-
coupling activity, mutant Y195L
16.9
-
methyl-alpha-D-glucoside
-
coupling activity, wild-type
17.4
-
methyl-alpha-D-glucoside
-
coupling activity, mutant Y195F
39.9
-
methyl-alpha-D-glucoside
-
coupling activity, mutant F283L
1.1
-
soluble potato starch
-
pH 6.4, 55C, formation of beta-cyclodextrin
-
0.043
-
soluble starch
-
-
-
15.54
-
soluble starch
-
pH 8.5, 50C
-
0.0556
-
starch
-
strain 1011, beta-cyclodextrin-forming activity, mutant Y195F
0.0574
-
starch
-
strain 1011, beta-cyclodextrin-forming activity, wild-type
0.0618
-
starch
-
strain 1011, beta-cyclodextrin-forming activity, mutant F259L
0.0635
-
starch
-
strain 1011, beta-cyclodextrin-forming activity, mutant Y195L
0.0724
-
starch
-
strain 1011, beta-cyclodextrin-forming activity, mutant F283L
0.0815
-
starch
-
strain 1011, beta-cyclodextrin-forming activity, mutant F183L
0.263
-
starch
-
strain 1011, beta-cyclodextrin-forming activity, mutant F183L/F259L
0.58
-
starch
-
wild-type
1.05
-
starch
-
mutant E344D
2.1
-
starch
-
authentic CGTase
44
-
methyl-alpha-D-glucoside
-
coupling activity, mutant F183L
additional information
-
additional information
-
Km-value for starch: 0.0025 mg/ml (soluble enzyme), 0.0045 mg/ml (enzyme immobilized on alginate)
-
additional information
-
additional information
Q5U9V9
-
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
-
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
-
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
-
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
kinetics
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
kinetics of the four reaction steps, overview
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
kinetics of hydrolyzing activity with different substrates, e.g. cyclodextrins, overview
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
kinetics
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
kinetics of His-tagged wild-type and mutant enzymes, overview
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
reaction kinetics
-
additional information
-
additional information
P05618
reaction kinetics
-
additional information
-
additional information
P31797
reaction kinetics
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
reaction kinetics
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
Michaelis-Menten kinetics, overview
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
-
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
dynamics of beta-cyclodextrin production, kinetics, overview
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
Km value is 0.69 mg/ml for wild-type, 0.57 mg/ml for mutant Q179G, 0.54 mg/ml for mutant Q179l, substrate soluble potato starch, pH 6.4, 56C
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
kinetic data fit to Hill equation and lead to coefficients of 1.485 and 1.257 for the recombinant and the native enzyme, respectively
-
additional information
-
additional information
-, Q53I75
Km value is 17.2 mg/ml for beta-cyclization activity using soluble starch, pH 7.0, 55C
-
TURNOVER NUMBER [1/s]
TURNOVER NUMBER MAXIMUM[1/s]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.122
-
3-ketobutylidene-beta-2-chloro-4-nitrophenylmaltopentaoside
-
mutant strain F283L, acceptor glucose, wild-type
0.137
-
3-ketobutylidene-beta-2-chloro-4-nitrophenylmaltopentaoside
-
strain 1011, acceptor maltose, mutant F283L
0.345
-
3-ketobutylidene-beta-2-chloro-4-nitrophenylmaltopentaoside
-
mutant strain F259L, acceptor glucose, wild-type
0.423
-
3-ketobutylidene-beta-2-chloro-4-nitrophenylmaltopentaoside
-
strain 1011, acceptor maltose, mutant F259L
1.97
-
3-ketobutylidene-beta-2-chloro-4-nitrophenylmaltopentaoside
-
mutant strain Y195L, acceptor glucose, wild-type
2.2
-
3-ketobutylidene-beta-2-chloro-4-nitrophenylmaltopentaoside
-
strain 1011, acceptor maltose, mutant Y195L
2.32
-
3-ketobutylidene-beta-2-chloro-4-nitrophenylmaltopentaoside
-
mutant strain Y195F, acceptor glucose, wild-type
2.63
-
3-ketobutylidene-beta-2-chloro-4-nitrophenylmaltopentaoside
-
strain 1011, acceptor maltose, mutant F183L/F259L
3.2
-
3-ketobutylidene-beta-2-chloro-4-nitrophenylmaltopentaoside
-
strain 1011, acceptor maltose, mutant Y195F
3.38
-
3-ketobutylidene-beta-2-chloro-4-nitrophenylmaltopentaoside
-
strain 1011, acceptor maltose, wild-type
3.8
-
3-ketobutylidene-beta-2-chloro-4-nitrophenylmaltopentaoside
-
mutant strain F183L/F259L, acceptor glucose, wild-type
4.07
-
3-ketobutylidene-beta-2-chloro-4-nitrophenylmaltopentaoside
-
strain 1011, acceptor glucose, wild-type
5.55
-
3-ketobutylidene-beta-2-chloro-4-nitrophenylmaltopentaoside
-
strain 1011, acceptor maltose, mutant F183L
15.5
-
3-ketobutylidene-beta-2-chloro-4-nitrophenylmaltopentaoside
-
mutant strain F183L, acceptor glucose, wild-type
558
-
4,6-O-ethylidene-4-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-maltoheptaoside
-
pH 6.0, 60C, mutant S77P
644
-
4,6-O-ethylidene-4-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-maltoheptaoside
-
pH 6.0, 60C, mutant W239R
1082
-
4,6-O-ethylidene-4-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-maltoheptaoside
-
pH 6.0, 60C, mutant W239L
1244
-
4,6-O-ethylidene-4-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-maltoheptaoside
-
pH 6.0, 60C, wild-type enzyme
0.00183
-
alpha-cyclodextrin
-
hydrolyzing activity, mutant Y195L
0.00383
-
alpha-cyclodextrin
-
hydrolyzing activity, mutant F283L
0.012
-
alpha-cyclodextrin
-
hydrolyzing activity, mutant F259L
0.0183
-
alpha-cyclodextrin
-
hydrolyzing activity, mutant F183L
0.0255
-
alpha-cyclodextrin
-
hydrolyzing activity, mutant Y195F
0.0442
-
alpha-cyclodextrin
-
hydrolyzing activity, wild-type
0.0095
-
beta-cyclodextrin
-
hydrolyzing activity, wild-type
0.014
-
beta-cyclodextrin
-
hydrolyzing activity, mutant Y195L
1612
-
cassava starch
-
pH 6.4, 55C, formation of beta-cyclodextrin
-
0.004
-
maltodextrin
O52766
mutant K47W, pH 5.5, 37C, average molecular weight of 2150.68 Da for maltodextrin; wild-type, pH 5.5, 37C, average molecular weight of 2150.68 Da for maltodextrin
0.005
-
maltodextrin
O52766
mutant K47F, pH 5.5, 37C, average molecular weight of 2150.68 Da for maltodextrin; mutant K47V, pH 5.5, 37C, average molecular weight of 2150.68 Da for maltodextrin
0.006
-
maltodextrin
O52766
mutant K47L, pH 5.5, 37C, average molecular weight of 2150.68 Da for maltodextrin
558
-
maltose
-
pH 6.0, 60C, mutant S77P
644
-
maltose
-
pH 6.0, 60C, mutant W239R
1082
-
maltose
-
pH 6.0, 60C, mutant W239L
1.66
-
p-nitrophenyl-(alpha-1,4-glucopyranosyl)2-D-glucose
-
E 192
-
0.833
-
p-nitrophenyl-(alpha-1,4-glucopyranosyl)3-D-glucose, p-nitrophenyl-(alpha-1,4-glucopyranosyl)4-D-glucose, p-nitrophenyl-(alpha-1,4-glucopyranosyl)5-D-glucose, p-nitrophenyl-(alpha-1,4-glucopyranosyl)6-D-glucose
-
E 192
-
0.25
-
p-nitrophenyl-(alpha-1,4-glucopyranosyl)7-D-glucose
-
E 192
-
127.5
-
soluble potato starch
-
mutant Q179L, pH 6.4, 56C, calculated as production of beta-cyclodextrin
-
246.2
-
soluble potato starch
-
wild-type, pH 6.4, 56C, calculated as production of beta-cyclodextrin
-
247.2
-
soluble potato starch
-
mutant Q179G, pH 6.4, 56C, calculated as production of beta-cyclodextrin
-
803
-
soluble potato starch
-
pH 6.4, 55C, formation of beta-cyclodextrin
-
2.6
-
soluble starch
-
mutant NS182G, pH 6.0, 60C, calculated as production of beta-cyclodextrin; mutant S182E, pH 6.0, 60C, calculated as production of beta-cyclodextrin
-
3.13
-
soluble starch
-
wild-type, pH 6.0, 60C, calculated as production of beta-cyclodextrin
-
3.5
-
soluble starch
-
mutant N28R, pH 6.0, 60C, calculated as production of beta-cyclodextrin
-
0.00267
-
starch
-
strain 1011, beta-cyclodextrin-forming activity, mutant F183L/F259L
0.035
-
starch
-
coupling activity, mutant F283L
0.122
-
starch
-
strain 1011, beta-cyclodextrin-forming activity, mutant F183L
0.137
-
starch
-
strain 1011, beta-cyclodextrin-forming activity, mutant Y195L
0.148
-
starch
-
strain 1011, beta-cyclodextrin-forming activity, mutant F259L
0.178
-
starch
-
coupling activity, mutant F259L
0.2
-
starch
-
strain 1011, beta-cyclodextrin-forming activity, mutant F283L
0.315
-
starch
-
coupling activity, mutant Y195L
0.442
-
starch
-
wild-type
0.482
-
starch
-
strain 1011, beta-cyclodextrin-forming activity, mutant Y195F
0.487
-
starch
-
coupling activity, mutant Y195F
0.508
-
starch
-
strain 1011, beta-cyclodextrin-forming activity, wild-type
0.818
-
starch
-
coupling activity, mutant F183L
1
-
starch
Q9UWN2
unheated CGTase
1.13
-
starch
-
coupling activity, wild-type
1.33
-
starch
Q9UWN2
heated CGTase
1.51
-
starch
-
mutant E344D
1.66
-
starch
-
authentic CGTase
2.42
-
starch
-
-
9
-
starch
P30920
pH 6.0, 60C, beta-cyclization activity, mutant A230V
26
-
starch
P30920
pH 6.0, 60C, beta-cyclization activity, mutant K232E
35
-
starch
P30920
pH 6.0, 60C, beta-cyclization activity, mutant F283L
48
-
starch
P30920
pH 6.0, 60C, beta-cyclization activity, mutant A230V/H140Q
79
-
starch
P30920
pH 6.0, 60C, beta-cyclization activity, mutant H140Q
329
-
starch
P30920
pH 6.0, 60C, beta-cyclization activity, wild-type enzyme
1244
-
maltose
-
pH 6.0, 60C, wild-type enzyme
additional information
-
additional information
-
-
-
kcat/KM VALUE [1/mMs-1]
kcat/KM VALUE [1/mMs-1] Maximum
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
730
-
soluble potato starch
-
pH 6.4, 55C, formation of beta-cyclodextrin
0
950
-
cassava starch
-
pH 6.4, 55C, formation of beta-cyclodextrin
0
additional information
-
additional information
-
kcat/Km value for wild-type is 1.82 mg/ml, pH 6.0, 60C
0
Ki VALUE [mM]
Ki VALUE [mM] Maximum
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
1.7
-
(+)-1-deoxynojirimycin
-
-
0.001
-
acarbose
-
-
65.4
-
D-glucose
-
-
3.4
-
Salicin
-
-
13.7
-
maltose
-
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
Ki-value for starch: 0.01 mg/ml (soluble enzyme), 0.0055 mg/ml (enzyme immobilized on alginate)
-
IC50 VALUE [mM]
IC50 VALUE [mM] Maximum
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.0011
-
acarbose
P30920
pH 6.0, 60C, wild-type enzyme
1.807
-
acarbose
P30920
pH 6.0, 60C, mutant H140Q
1.845
-
acarbose
P30920
pH 6.0, 60C, mutant A230V/H140Q
3.93
-
acarbose
P30920
pH 6.0, 60C, mutant K232E
4.197
-
acarbose
P30920
pH 6.0, 60C, mutant F283L
7.37
-
acarbose
P30920
pH 6.0, 60C, mutant A230V
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
0.01
-
-
gamma-cyclodextrin, opening
0.02
-
-
beta-cyclodextrin, opening
0.5
-
-
beta-cyclization
1.08
-
-
synthesis of alpha-cyclodextrin, 60C, pH 6.0
1.1
-
-
gamma-cyclization, wild-type enzyme
1.24
-
-
gamma-cyclodextrin, opening
1.42
-
-
alpha-cyclodextrin, opening
1.7
-
-
beta-cyclodextrin, opening
2.4
-
-
maltotriose, disproportionation
9.7
-
-
purified native enzyme
14.4
-
-
beta-cyclodextrin-forming activity, recombinant wild-type enzyme
14.83
-
-
alpha-cyclodextrin, opening
15.5
-
-
maltotriose, disproportionation
21.7
-
-
beta-cyclodextrin-forming activity, recombinant mutant K47R
23
-
-
beta-cyclization
23.3
-
-
purified native enzyme, substrate is gelatinized soluble starch
23.5
-
-
coupling activity, purified enzyme
28
-
-
beta-cyclization
32.2
-
-
beta-cyclization, wild-type enzyme
32.26
-
-
commercial preparation
35.9
-
-
beta-cyclodextrin-forming activity, recombinant mutant K47H
37.4
-
-
alpha-cyclodextrin, coupling
45.9
-
-
alpha-cyclodextrin-forming activity, recombinant mutant K47L
46.4
-
-
alpha-cyclodextrin-forming activity, recombinant mutant K47S
47.4
-
-
alpha-cyclodextrin-forming activity, recombinant mutant K47T
48
-
-, Q53I75
pH 7.5, 55C
51.4
-
-
beta-cyclodextrin-forming activity, recombinant mutant K47T
51.5
-
-
beta-cyclodextrin-forming activity, recombinant mutant K47S
52
-
-
beta-cyclization by strain BC8 enzyme
53.1
-
-
beta-cyclodextrin-forming activity, recombinant mutant K47L
60.39
-
-
purified enzyme
62.9
-
-
alpha-cyclodextrin-forming activity, recombinant mutant K47H
66.3
-
-
pH 9.0, 55C
75.8
-
-
cyclization activity, purified enzyme
77.3
-
-
alpha-cyclodextrin-forming activity, recombinant mutant K47R
79.8
-
-
maltodextrin, pH 8.0, 50C
85.1
-
-
alpha-cyclodextrin-forming activity, recombinant wild-type enzyme
88
-
-
E 192, dextrinizing-like activity
89.7
-
-
purified recombinant enzyme
90.3
-
-
hydrolyzed cassava starch, pH 8.0, 50C
90.9
-
-
hydrolyzed potato starch, pH 8.0, 50C
92.3
-
-
pH 8.0, 60C
94
-
P05618
beta-cyclization, commercial preparation
97.1
-
-
hydrolyzed corn starch, pH 8.0, 50C
127
-
-
beta-cyclization
142
-
-
mutant enzyme H59Q, cyclization activity
183.8
-
-
E 192, cyclodextrin synthesis
190.4
-
-
alpha-cyclization, wild-type enzyme
198.6
-
-
disproportionation activity, purified enzyme
203.1
-
-
alpha-cyclodextrin, coupling
205
-
-
purified enzyme
216
-
-
synthesis of beta-cyclodextrin, 60C, pH 6.0
226
-
-
wild-type enzym, cyclization activity
255
-
P31797
beta-cyclization
265
-
-
beta-cyclization by strain BC251 enzyme
281
-
-
ATCC 21783
332
-
-
mutant enzyme Y96M, cyclization activity
342
-
-
mutant enzyme DELTA154-160, cyclization activity
347.9
-
-
purified enzyme, substrate maltodextrin
877.9
-
-
strain Al-6
883
-
-
starch, cyclodextrin synthesis
1650
-
-
ATCC 21783
2268
-
-
glycosyltransferase gene fused with thioredoxin, hexa-histidine and S-protein at the N-terminus and a proline-rich peptide at the C-terminus, pH 6.0, 40C
4000
-
B1VC16
purified enzyme
5000
-
B1VC16, -
purified recombinant enzyme
6638
-
-
pH 6.0, 60C
additional information
-
-
No. 5 strain, 258 units, 1 unit is the amount of enzyme which gaves a linear increase of 1% transmission per min at 40C
additional information
-
-
-
additional information
-
-
specific activity after dissolution and dialysis 28 units/mg protein, 1 unit is the amount of enzyme which gives a linear increase of 1% transmission per minute at 40C, immobilized enzyme 230-450 units/g solid
additional information
-
-
Ha3-3-2/ATCC 39612, 45.000, 1 unit is the activity producing a 10% reduction in the intensity of the blue colour (700 nm) from a 10 min reaction at 50C and pH 8.5
additional information
-
-
strain C31, 6.623.4 units, 1 unit is the amount of enzyme which causes 10% reduction in the intensity of the blue colour of the starch-iodine complex
additional information
-
-
-
additional information
-
Bacillus autolyticus
-
332.5 units/mg, 1 unit is the amount of enzyme which decreases 10% of the absorbance at 700 nm per min
additional information
-
-
strain DF9, R-variation, 353 units, 1 unit is the amount which produces a difference of absorbance of 1.0 per minute; strain DF9, S-variation, 388 units, 1 unit is the amount which produces a difference of absorbance of 1.0 per minute
additional information
-
-
-
additional information
-
-
-
additional information
-
-
comparison of alpha-, beta-and gamma-cyclization activity of wild-type and mutant enzymes, overview
additional information
-
-
activities of free and immobilized enzymes, overview
additional information
-
-
fed-batch fermentation results in production of a CGTase activity up to 56 unit/ml with 65 g dry cells/l
additional information
-
-
enzyme activities in U/ml with different fermentation methods, overview
pH OPTIMUM
pH MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
4
-
-
INMIA 3849
4
-
-
starch degrading activity, wild-type enzyme
4.5
4.7
-
var. alkalophilus ATCC 21783, second pH optimum at 7.5-8.5
4.5
5
-
ATCC 21783, crude enzyme, second pH optimum at 8.0-9.0
4.6
-
-
ATCC 21783 contains 3 isozymes, neutral, alkalic and acidic, possessing markedly different pH optima, 4.6, 7.0 and 9.5
5
5.7
-
No. 5 strain
5
5.7
-
-
5
5.7
-
IFO 3490
5
6
Bacillus autolyticus
-
-
5
6
-
strain BIO-9m
5
6.5
-
strain B-4025
5
-
-
ATCC 39612/Ha3-3-2, starch dextrinizing activity, second pH optimum at 9.0
5
-
-
optimum pH for L-ascorbic acid-2-O-alpha-D-glucoside formation
5
-
-, Q3HUR2
purified enzyme
5.2
-
-
strain M5 a1
5.5
5.8
-
strain E 192
5.5
5.8
-
strain BIO-3m
5.5
7
-
strain B-4018
5.5
8.5
-
-
5.5
-
-
immobilized enzyme
5.5
-
-
strain 1011, wild-type
5.5
-
-
and a second optimum at pH 9.0
5.5
-
-
enzyme immobilized on glyoxyl-agarose and free enzyme present similar pH/activities profiles, with two peaks at pH values of 5.5 and 7 and a minimum at pH 6.0-6.5 in both amylolytic and CGTase activities
5.5
-
P05618
assay at
5.5
-
-, C4MH58
amylolytic activity assay at
5.7
-
P04830, -
recombinant enzyme, cgtM gene product
5.9
6.5
-
the optimum pH for dextrinizing and cyclization activities of purified CGTases from both sources are similar around pH 6.5 and pH 5.9 respectively
6
6.5
-
strain BIO-13m
6
7
-
strain BIO-12H
6
8
-
native enzyme
6
-
-, P31797
cgt-1 gene product
6
-
-
INMIA A7/1
6
-
Q5U9V9
-
6
-
-
native enzyme
6
-
P30920
two maxima at pH 6.0 and pH 8.6
6
-
-
immobilized enzyme
6
-
P30920
assay at
6
-
-
strain BC251 enzyme
6
-
-
cyclization activity
6
-
-
assay at
6
-
-
assay at
6.1
6.2
-
ATCC 8514
6.4
-
-
assay at
6.5
7
-
strain BIO-13H
6.5
8
-
ATCC 39612/Ha3-3-2, cyclodextrin forming activity
6.5
8.5
-
-
6.5
-
-
INMIA T6, INMIA T 42
6.5
-
-
strain BIO-2m
6.5
-
-
wild-type enzyme
6.5
-
B1VC16
-
6.8
-
-
strain BC8 enzyme
7
10
-
strain AL-6
7
-
-
ATCC 21783, purified enzyme, crude enzyme has 3 pH optima, 4.5-5.0, 7.0 and 8.0-9.0
7
-
-
ATCC 21783 contains 3 isozymes, neutral, alkalic and acidic, possessing markedly different pH optima, 4.6, 7.0 and 9.5
7
-
-
ATCC 8514, IFO3490
7
-
-
starch degrading activity, mutant enzyme F283L
7
-
-
enzyme immobilized on glyoxyl-agarose and free enzyme present similar pH/activities profiles, with two peaks at pH values of 5.5 and 7 and a minimum at pH 6.0-6.5 in both amylolytic and CGTase activities
7
-
-
assay at
7
-
-, C4MH58
alpha- and beta-cyclizing activity assay at
7
-
-
assay at
7
-
-, Q53I75
presence of 1.5 M NaCl
7.5
10.5
-
strain AL-6, cyclodextrin forming
7.5
8.5
-
var. alkalophilus ATCC 21783, second pH optimum at 4.5-4.7
7.5
-
-
assay at
8
10
-
gamma-cyclodextrin production, reaction with 10% starch
8
9
-
ATCC 21783, crude enzyme, second pH optimum at 4.5-5.0
8
9
-
strain BA-4229
8
-
-
strain AL-6, starch dextrinizing
8
-
-
beta-cyclodextrin production shows increment up to pH 8.0 but decreases at pH values higher than 9
8.5
-
-
strain B-3103
8.5
-
-
strain B4006
8.5
-
-
-
8.5
-
A3F9M7
assay at
8.6
-
P30920
two maxima at pH 6.0 and pH 8.6
9
11
-
strain dependent
9
-
-
ATCC 21783, immobilized enzyme, acid enzyme activity disappeared
9
-
-
ATCC 39612/Ha3-3-2, starch dextrinizing activity, second pH optimum at 5.0
9
-
-
gamma-cyclodextrin production, reaction with 1% starch
9
-
-
and a second optimum at pH 5.5
9.5
-
-
ATCC 21783 contains 3 isozymes, neutral, alkalic and acidic, possessing markedly different pH optima, 4.6, 7.0 and 9.5
10
-
-
AL-6
10
-
-
around, wild-type enzyme and mutant enzymes A223H, A223R and A223K, gamma-cyclodextrin-forming activity
10.3
-
-
var. alkalophilus, ATCC 21783
additional information
-
-
the enzymes are more active in glycine/NaOH buffer compared with Na2HPO4/NaH2PO4 buffer at the same pH
pH RANGE
pH RANGE MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
3.5
9.5
-
ATCC 39612/Ha3-3-2
3.5
9.5
-
C31
3.5
9.5
-
-
4
10
-
ATCC 21783
4
11
-
activity range, about 60% of maximal activity at pH 4.5-9.0
4
8.5
-
IFO 3490
4
8.5
-
pH 4.0: about 65% of maximal activity, pH 8.5: about 65% of maximal activity, wild-type enzyme
4
9
-
enzyme immobilized on glyoxyl-agarose and free enzyme present similar pH/activities profiles, with two peaks at pH values of 5.5 and 7 and a minimum at pH 6.0-6.5 in both amylolytic and CGTase activities. Activities decrease after these two maximum values. The glyoxyl CGTase retains 30% of amylase activity at pH 4 and 50% at pH 9. The soluble enzyme retains 10% and 30%, respectively. In synthetic activities differences are not significant
4
9.5
-
loss of cyclization activity above and below
4.5
10
-
activity range, about 20% of maximal activity at pH 4.5, and 40% at pH 10.0
4.5
6.7
-
more than 80% activity in the range 5.0-6.7
4.5
9.5
-
No. 5 strain
5
10
-
ATCC 21783
5
10
-
pH 5.0: about 70% of maximal activity, pH 10.0: about 50% of maximal activity
5
10
-
-
5
11
-
-
5
11
-
more than 80% of maximum activity
5
7
-
pH 5.0: about 25% of maximal activity, pH 7.0: about 60% of maximal activity, the enzyme does not show any activity at pH 4.0 and at pH 10.0
5
7
-
pH 5.0: about 70% of maximal activity, pH 9.0: about 70% of maximal activity, native enzyme
5
8
-
AL-6, quite stable at 40C for 3 h
5
8
-
AL-6, quite stable at 40C for 3 h
5
8
-
pH 5: soluble enzyme shows about 50% of maximal activity, soluble enzyme shows about 60% of maximal activity, pH 8: soluble enzyme shows 40% of maximal activity, immobilized enzyme shows about 50% of maximal activity
5
8
Q5U9V9
pH 5.0: about 40% of maximal activity, pH 8.0: about 50% of maximal activity
5
8
-, Q53I75
loss of more than 60% of activity above or below
5
9
-
pH 5.0: about 50% of maximal activity, pH 9.0: about 55% of maximal activity, native enzyme
5
9.5
-
INMIA 3849
5.5
9
B1VC16
-
6
9
-
strain 1011, wild-type and mutant enzymes retain 80% activity
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
23
-
-
assay at
30
37
-
strain BIO-3m
30
37
-
strain BIO-9m
30
-
-
strain BC8 enzyme
30
-
P05618
assay at
36
-
O52766
optimum both for wild-type and mutant strains
37
-
-
var. alkalophilus, ATCC 21783
37
-
-
strain IFO3490
37
-
-
assay at
38
-
-
strain AL-6
40
50
-
native enzyme
40
60
-
immobilized enzyme
40
60
-
assay at, dependent on assay method
40
-
-
strain ATCC 8514
40
-
A3F9M7
assay at
40
-
-, C4MH58
amylolytic and alpha-cyclizing activity assay at
45
-
-
-
45
-
-
ATCC 21783
45
-
-
-
45
-
-
assay at
45
-
-
recombinant enzyme
50
55
-
strain B-4018
50
55
-
strain B-4025
50
55
-
-
50
-
-
ATCC 21783
50
-
-
-
50
-
-
ATCC 21783
50
-
-
-
50
-
-
INMIA A7/1, INMIA 1919
50
-
-
-
50
-
-
strain BC251 enzyme
50
-
-
native enzyme
55
-
-
No. 5 strain
55
-
-
ATCC 21783, immobilized enzyme
55
-
-
strain AL-6, starch dextrinizing
55
-
-
NO2, mutant enzymes
55
-
P04830, -
recombinant enzyme, cgtM gene product
55
-
-
INMIA T6, INMIA T 42
55
-
-
IFO 3490
55
-
-
strain BIO-3
55
-
-
assay at
55
-
-, C4MH58
beta-cyclizing activity assay at
55
-
-
assay at
55
-
-, Q53I75
presence of 1.5 M NaCl
60
62
-
INMIA 3849
60
65
-
strain B-4018
60
70
-
cross-linked enzyme crystals
60
-
-
ATCC 39612/Ha3-3-2, cyclodextrin forming activity
60
-
-
strain AL-6, cyclodextrin forming
60
-
-
E 192
60
-
-
strain AL-6, cyclodextrin forming
60
-
-
ATCC 8514
60
-
-
mutant strain F191G
60
-
-
-
60
-
-
soluble enzyme
60
-
-
-
60
-
-
cyclization activity
60
-
-
soluble enzyme
60
-
-
enzyme immobilized on alginate beads and soluble enzyme
60
-
Q5U9V9
and a second lower optimum at 80C
60
-
-
native enzyme
60
-
-
immobilized enzyme
60
-
-
assay at
60
-
B1VC16
in absence of Ca2+