Information on EC 2.1.1.37 - DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase

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The enzyme appears in viruses and cellular organisms

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
2.1.1.37
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA containing cytosine = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
random sequential mechanism
-
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA containing cytosine = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
sequential ordered bi-bi kinetic mechanism in which DNA binds to the enzyme first, followed by S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine and methylated DNA are released, formation of an enzyme-DNA-DNA ternary complex
-
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA containing cytosine = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
sequential mechanism
-
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA containing cytosine = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
catalytic reaction mechanism
-
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA containing cytosine = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
catalytic reaction mechanism of Dnmt1, overview
-
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA containing cytosine = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
catalytic reaction mechanism of Dnmt1, allosteric regulation with fast equilibrium, and substrate specificity. Base-flipping and base-stacking are the key mechanism in control of enzymatic activity, detailed overview
-
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA containing cytosine = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
the TSM biosensor method to study the interaction of M.SsoII with a 60 bp double-stranded DNA immobilized on the surface of a thickness shear mode (TSM) acoustic transducer. M.SsoII demonstrates a strong binding with any DNA duplex immobilized on the TSM transducer surface
-
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA containing cytosine = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
methyl group transfer
-
-
-
-
PATHWAY
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
Cysteine and methionine metabolism
-
Metabolic pathways
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
S-adenosyl-L-methionine:DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase
-
SYNONYMS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
5-cytosine DNA methyltransferase
-
-
C5 MTase
-
-
C5-MTase
-
-
-
-
C5-MTase
-
-
CG recognizing DNA methyltransferase SssI
-
-
CMT1
Q8H854
-
cytosine 5-methyltransferase
-
-
-
-
cytosine carbon 5 DNA methyltransferase
P26358
-
cytosine DNA methylase
-
-
-
-
cytosine DNA methyltransferase
-
-
-
-
cytosine DNA methyltransferase
P26358
-
cytosine DNA methyltransferase
B1Q3J6, B9FJ44, Q10C15, Q10SU5, Q8H854, Q8SBB4
-
cytosine DNA methyltransferase
-
-
cytosine DNA MTase
B1Q3J6, B9FJ44, Q10C15, Q10SU5, Q8H854, Q8SBB4
-
cytosine-5 methyltransferase
-
-
cytosine-specific DNA methyltransferase
-
-
-
-
DCMT
-
-
-
-
deoxyribonucleate methylase
-
-
-
-
deoxyribonucleate methyltransferase
-
-
-
-
deoxyribonucleic (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase
-
-
-
-
deoxyribonucleic acid (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase
-
-
-
-
deoxyribonucleic acid methylase
-
-
-
-
deoxyribonucleic acid methyltransferase
-
-
-
-
deoxyribonucleic acid modification methylase
-
-
-
-
deoxyribonucleic methylase
-
-
-
-
DMT1
-
-
DNA (cytosine-5) methyltransferase
-
-
DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 1
-
-
DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 1
-
-
DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 3A
-
-
DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 3B
-
-
DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase 3A
-
-
DNA (cytosine-C5) methyltransferase
-
-
DNA 5-cytosine methylase
-
-
-
-
DNA cytosine C(5)-methyltransferase
P13864
-
DNA cytosine c5 methylase
-
-
-
-
DNA cytosine methylase
-
-
-
-
DNA cytosine methyltransferase
Q8X8S5
-
DNA cytosine methyltransferase
-
-
DNA cytosine-5 methyltransferase 1
-
-
DNA cytosine-5-methyltransferase 1
-
-
DNA cytosine-5-methyltransferase 3A
-
-
DNA cytosine-5-methyltransferase 3B
-
-
DNA methylase
-
-
-
-
DNA methyltransferase
-
-
-
-
DNA methyltransferase
-
-
DNA methyltransferase
Adeno-associated virus AAV
-
-
-
DNA methyltransferase
-
-
DNA methyltransferase
-
-
DNA methyltransferase
Frog virus 3 FV3
-
-
-
DNA methyltransferase
-
-
DNA methyltransferase
P26358
-
DNA methyltransferase
Q9UBC3
-
DNA methyltransferase
Lymphocystis disease virus 1 FLDV
-
-
-
DNA methyltransferase
B1Q3J6, Q7Y1I7
-
DNA methyltransferase 1
-
-
DNA methyltransferase 1
P26358
-
DNA methyltransferase 1
-
-
DNA methyltransferase 3a
Q9UBC3
-
DNA methyltransferase-1
Q24K09
-
DNA MTase
B1Q3J6, Q7Y1I7
-
DNA transmethylase
-
-
-
-
DNA-cytosine 5-methylase
-
-
-
-
DNA-cytosine methyltransferase
-
-
-
-
DNA-methyltransferase
C4P086, C4P087
-
DNMT
Adeno-associated virus AAV
-
-
-
DNMT
-
-
DNMT
Frog virus 3 FV3
-
-
-
DNMT
-
-
DNMT
P26358, Q9UBC3
-
DNMT
Lymphocystis disease virus 1 FLDV
-
-
-
Dnmt1
Q24K09
-
Dnmt1
P26358
isoform
Dnmt1 DNA-(cytosine-C5)-methyltransferase
P13864
-
DNMT1 methyltransferase
-
-
Dnmt1o
-
-
Dnmt2
-
-
Dnmt2
O55055
-
Dnmt3a
Q9UBC3
-
Dnmt3a
Q9Y6K1
-
Dnmt3a
-
-
DNMT3B
Q9UBC3
-
DNMT3b2
Q9UBC3
isoform
DNMTB
-
-
DRM1/2
Q94F88
-
EcoRI methylase
-
-
-
-
EcoRII DNA-cytosine methylase
-
-
EcoRII DNA-cytosine methylase
Escherichia coli K12
-
-
-
hDNMT1
-
-
M.BsuRIa
-
-
M.BsuRIb
-
-
M.EcoHK31l
-
-
M.HhaIII
P20589
-
M.MspI
-
-
M.Ssp6803I
-
-
M.SssI
-
-
M.SssI
Spirulina sp. MW-1
-
-
-
MarII
Mycoplasma arthritidis 158-1
B3PM23
-
-
MET1
C4P086, C4P087
-
MET1B
B1Q3J6
-
methylphosphotriester-DNA methyltransferase
-
-
-
-
MspI DNA methyltransferase
-
-
P26358 {SwissProt}
P26358
-
SinI DNA methyltransferase
-
-
type II DNA methylase
-
-
-
-
Z2389
Q8X8S5
-
Zmt3
Q10SU5
-
methyltransferase, deoxyribonucleate
-
-
-
-
additional information
cellular organism
-
this is a large group of enzymes most of which, with enzymes of similar site specificity listed as EC 3.1.21.3, 4 or 5, form so-called 'restriction-modification systems'. A complete listing of all these enzymes has been produced by R.J. Roberts, this list is updated annually
additional information
-
the enzyme belongs to the DNA methyltransferase, DNMT, enzyme family
additional information
-
the enzyme belongs to the DNA methyltransferases, Dnmt, family of enzymes that methylates DNA at the C5 position of cytosine residues
additional information
B1Q3J6, B9FJ44, Q10C15, Q10SU5
in plants exist four main subfamilies of MTases
additional information
Q8H854
four main subfamilies of MTases exist in plants
additional information
Q8SBB4
in plants exist four main subfamilies of MTases
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY
9037-42-7
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SEQUENCE CODE
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
Adeno-associated virus AAV
AAV
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus subtilis phage PHI3T
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus subtilis phage rho11S
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
female cows
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cellular organism
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozymes Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain EDL933, a O157:H7 strain, gene z2389, which is located within the genome of prophage CP-933R
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain K12
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain W
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Escherichia coli K12
strain K12
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene FaDRMa
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Frog virus 3 FV3
FV3
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
enzyme M.BssHII expressed as two isoforms: isoform I and isoform II
Uniprot
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Geobacillus stearothermophilus H3
H3
Uniprot
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
enzyme M.HaeIII
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
enzyme M.HpaII
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozyme Dnmt1; isozyme Dnmt3b
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozymes DNMT1 and DNMT3a
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
recombinant
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Lymphocystis disease virus 1 FLDV
FLDV
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
enzyme M.BspRI
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
DNMT1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Dnmt3a
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Dnmt3b
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
enzyme Dnmt3b
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
female ICR mice
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
recombinant, enzyme Dnmt3A
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
recombinant, enzyme Dnmt3B
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Swiss albino male mice
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 158-1 contains MarII, an isoschizomer of the HhaI DNA methyltransferase, gene Marth_orf138
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mycoplasma arthritidis 158-1
strain 158-1 contains MarII, an isoschizomer of the HhaI DNA methyltransferase, gene Marth_orf138
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cv. Xanthi
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
CMT1; subsp. japonica, encodes a total of 10 genes that contain the highly conserved MTase catalytic domain
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
L. cv Roncarolo
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
MET1-1; gene MET1-1
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
MET1-2; genes MET1-2
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
MET1B or MET1-2; subsp. japonica, encodes a total of 10 genes that contain the highly conserved MTase catalytic domain
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
subsp. japonica, encodes a total of 10 genes that contain the highly conserved MTase catalytic domain
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Zmt3; subsp. japonica, encodes a total of 10 genes that contain the highly conserved MTase catalytic domain
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
serovar Infantis
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain MW-1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Spirulina sp. MW-1
strain MW-1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
enzyme M.Sau961
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain PCC 6803, gene slr021
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
malfunction
-
DNMT1 is crucial for cell survival, as in its absence cells undergo arrest in G1/S, a DNA damage response is triggered, and the cells undergo mitotic catastrophe
metabolism
-
both DNMT3A and DNMT3B are involved in de novo DNA methylation
physiological function
-
the DNA methylation by the enzyme has no regulatory function for gene expression in Drosophile melnogaster
physiological function
-
the enzyme activity is involved in the epigenetic pathway of gene regulation
physiological function
-
DNA methylation at cytosine residues in CpG dinucleotides is a component of epigenetic marks crucial to mammalian development, maintenance of genomic methylation patterns during preimplantation development requires the somatic form of DNA methyltransferase 1
physiological function
Q24K09
Dnmt1 is involved in DNA methylation pattern regulation during the late stage oocyte differentiation, maturation and early embryonic development, overview
physiological function
B1Q3J6, B9FJ44, Q10C15, Q10SU5, Q8H854, Q8SBB4
MTases play a role in the epigenetic process affecting genome activity during reproductive development and stress; MTases play a role in the epigenetic process affecting genome activity during reproductive development and stress; MTases play a role in the epigenetic process affecting genome activity during reproductive development and stress; MTases play a role in the epigenetic process affecting genome activity during reproductive development and stress; MTases play a role in the epigenetic process affecting genome activity during reproductive development and stress; MTases play a role in the epigenetic process affecting genome activity during reproductive development and stress
physiological function
-
DNMT1 is required to maintain global methylation after DNA replication has taken place
physiological function
Q8X8S5
epigenetic methylation is the most common DNA modification in prokaryotes and eukaryotes and is carried out by DNA methyltransferases
physiological function
-
neither adenine nor cytosine methylation of the plastid DNA leads to detectable effects on transcript abundance of any gene in the plastid genome suggesting that DNA methylation, if it occurs in plastids, is unlikely to play a role in transcriptional regulation
physiological function
-
DNMT2 controls retrotransposon silencing and telomere integrity in somatic cells, significant DNMT2-dependent DNA methylation occurs during early embryogenesis, overview
physiological function
-
DNA methylation may play a dynamic physiological role in the adult brain, possibly, the DNA methylation pattern is undergoing constant remodeling and requires the presence of DNA methyltransferases to allow adaptation at the level of the DNA methylation pattern in response to environmental cues
physiological function
-
while DNMT3a is mostly involved in de novo methylation, DNMT1 acts as a maintenance methyltransferase
physiological function
-
DNMT1 cytosine methyltransferase governs maintenance methylation in mammals, rearrangements of non-DMD, but not DMD methylation in preimplantation embryos
physiological function
-
BPDE recruits DNMT3A to methylate the RAR-beta2 gene promoter and thus silence its gene expression, which in turn, may contribute to the malignant transformation of esophageal epithelial cells
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                      
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
DNA + S-adenosyl-L-methionine
DNA containing 5-methylcytosine + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
DNA + S-adenosyl-L-methionine
DNA containing 5-methylcytosine + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
DNA + S-adenosyl-L-methionine
DNA containing 5-methylcytosine + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
DNA + S-adenosyl-L-methionine
DNA containing 5-methylcytosine + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
DNA + S-adenosyl-L-methionine
DNA containing 5-methylcytosine + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
DNA + S-adenosyl-L-methionine
DNA containing 5-methylcytosine + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
DNA + S-adenosyl-L-methionine
DNA containing 5-methylcytosine + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
DNA + S-adenosyl-L-methionine
DNA containing 5-methylcytosine + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
DNA + S-adenosyl-L-methionine
DNA containing 5-methylcytosine + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
DNA + S-adenosyl-L-methionine
DNA containing 5-methylcytosine + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
DNA + S-adenosyl-L-methionine
DNA containing 5-methylcytosine + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
DNA + S-adenosyl-L-methionine
DNA containing 5-methylcytosine + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
show the reaction diagram
C4P086, C4P087, -
-
-
-
?
DNA + S-adenosyl-L-methionine
DNA containing 5-methylcytosine + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
show the reaction diagram
Q94F88
-
-
-
?
DNA + S-adenosyl-L-methionine
DNA containing 5-methylcytosine + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
show the reaction diagram
B1Q3J6, Q7Y1I7
-
-
-
?
DNA + S-adenosyl-L-methionine
DNA containing 5-methylcytosine + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
show the reaction diagram
B1Q3J6, B9FJ44, Q10C15, Q10SU5, Q8H854, Q8SBB4
-
-
-
?
DNA + S-adenosyl-L-methionine
DNA containing 5-methylcytosine + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
DNA + S-adenosyl-L-methionine
DNA containing 5-methylcytosine + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
show the reaction diagram
Q24K09
-
-
-
?
DNA + S-adenosyl-L-methionine
DNA containing 5-methylcytosine + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
DNA + S-adenosyl-L-methionine
DNA containing 5-methylcytosine + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
show the reaction diagram
-
both DNMT3A and DNMT3B are involved in de novo DNA methylation. 5'-Cytosine methylation is a common epigenetic modification in eukaryotic genomes
-
-
?
DNA + S-adenosyl-L-methionine
DNA containing 5-methylcytosine + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
show the reaction diagram
-
DNA cytosine methylation is one of the major epigenetic gene silencing marks in the human genome facilitated by DNA methyltransferases
-
-
?
DNA + S-adenosyl-L-methionine
DNA containing 5-methylcytosine + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
show the reaction diagram
-
DNA GC content, CpG frequency and methylation status, overview
-
-
?
DNA + S-adenosyl-L-methionine
DNA containing 5-methylcytosine + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
show the reaction diagram
-
DNA GC content, CpG frequency and methylation status, overview
-
-
-
DNA + S-adenosyl-L-methionine
DNA containing 5-methylcytosine + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
show the reaction diagram
-
DNMT1 is crucial for cell survival
-
-
?
DNA + S-adenosyl-L-methionine
DNA containing 5-methylcytosine + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
show the reaction diagram
-
DNMT1 participates in epigenetic reprogramming through its ability to distinguish different categories of methylated sequences. Genomic imprinting is a mammalian epigenetic process that distinguishes maternal and paternal alleles to ensure parent-specific, monoallelic expression of imprinted genes. Preimplantation DNMT1-dependent maintenance mechanism specifically targets DMD sequences, e.g. of IAP, alpha-actin, Snurf/Snrpn, H19, Gnas, and Gtl2 DMD, overview
-
-
?
DNA + S-adenosyl-L-methionine
DNA containing 5-methylcytosine + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
show the reaction diagram
-
M.SssI is the only known prokaryotic C5-MTase, which recognizes the short sequence CG and thus has the same specificity as mammalian MTases
-
-
?
DNA + S-adenosyl-L-methionine
DNA containing 5-methylcytosine + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
show the reaction diagram
-
SinI DNA methyltransferase, a component of the SinI restriction-modification system, recognizes the sequence GG(A/T)CC and methylates the inner cytosine to produce 5-methylcytosine
-
-
?
DNA + S-adenosyl-L-methionine
DNA containing 5-methylcytosine + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme has distinct target sequences but no preferred methylation sites of promoters or other regulatory elements
-
-
?
DNA + S-adenosyl-L-methionine
DNA containing 5-methylcytosine + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
show the reaction diagram
Q8X8S5
the Z2389 DNAcytosine methyltransferase confers full protection to NotI sites by methylation of the first cytosine residue
-
-
?
DNA + S-adenosyl-L-methionine
DNA containing 5-methylcytosine + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
show the reaction diagram
-
cytosine DNA methyltransferase M.HhaI modifies the internal cytosine within its cognate recognition site 5'-GCGC-3'. Binding of either unmethylated or hemimethylated cognate DNA to the cofactor-bound binary complex leads to dramatic changes in the 1H-15N correlation spectrum, analysis of hemimethylated and methylated, cognate and noncognate substrate binding , detailed overview
-
-
?
DNA + S-adenosyl-L-methionine
DNA containing 5-methylcytosine + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
show the reaction diagram
-
DNA methyltransferase M.EcoHK31I methylates the inner cytosine of 5'-YGGCCR-3'
-
-
?
DNA + S-adenosyl-L-methionine
DNA containing 5-methylcytosine + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
show the reaction diagram
-
Dnmt1 methylates DNA at CG sites. Substrate binding and involved motifs in Dnmt1, overview
-
-
?
DNA + S-adenosyl-L-methionine
DNA containing 5-methylcytosine + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
show the reaction diagram
-
double-stranded DNA substrates with CpG site containing 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine, resulting in diminished enzymatic methylation of its 5' neighboring cytosine, or 8-oxoG or O6-methylguanine in the CpG site, overview
-
-
?
DNA + S-adenosyl-L-methionine
DNA containing 5-methylcytosine + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
show the reaction diagram
-
double-stranded DNA substrates with CpG site, overview
-
-
?
DNA + S-adenosyl-L-methionine
DNA containing 5-methylcytosine + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
show the reaction diagram
-
poly(dI-dC) substrate DNA. The enzyme contains the zinc-finger CXXC domain, a zinc-coordinating domain that selectively binds unmethylated DNA and is crucial for enzymatic activity
-
-
?
DNA + S-adenosyl-L-methionine
DNA containing 5-methylcytosine + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
show the reaction diagram
-
SinI DNA methyltransferase, a component of the SinI restriction-modification system, recognizes the sequence GG(A/T)CC and methylates the inner cytosine to produce 5-methylcytosine, molecular mechanism of substrate recognition, overview
-
-
?
DNA + S-adenosyl-L-methionine
DNA containing 5-methylcytosine + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
show the reaction diagram
-
structural basis for DNA recognition and base flipping, overview
-
-
?
DNA + S-adenosyl-L-methionine
DNA containing 5-methylcytosine + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
show the reaction diagram
B1Q3J6, Q7Y1I7
substrate is chloroplast DNA, no activity with mitochondrial DNA. Substrate sources are etiolated leaf-rice DNA, dry embryo-rice DNA, 10-day-old shoot-rice DNA, mature leaf-rice DNA. The purified protein prefers hemi-methylated DNA substrate, substrate specificity, the nezyme is specific for d(C-G) sites, overview
-
-
?
DNA + S-adenosyl-L-methionine
DNA containing 5-methylcytosine + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
show the reaction diagram
-
substrate is genomic DNA of Drosophila melanogaster
-
-
?
DNA + S-adenosyl-L-methionine
DNA containing 5-methylcytosine + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
show the reaction diagram
Q8X8S5
Z2389 methylates NotI site , i.e. GCGGCCGC, and EagI site, both at the first cytosine residue
-
-
?
DNA + S-adenosyl-L-methionine
DNA containing 5-methylcytosine + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
show the reaction diagram
-
a hemimethylated 5MeCpG target site is generated using Sau3AI restriction enzyme
-
-
?
DNA + S-adenosyl-L-methionine
DNA containing 5-methylcytosine + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
show the reaction diagram
Adeno-associated virus AAV
-
-, DNA GC content, CpG frequency and methylation status, overview
-
-
?
DNA + S-adenosyl-L-methionine
DNA containing 5-methylcytosine + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
show the reaction diagram
Lymphocystis disease virus 1 FLDV
-
-, DNA GC content, CpG frequency and methylation status, overview
-
-
?
DNA + S-adenosyl-L-methionine
DNA containing 5-methylcytosine + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
show the reaction diagram
Frog virus 3 FV3
-
-, DNA GC content, CpG frequency and methylation status, overview
-
-
?
poly(dG-mdC)-poly(dG-dC) + S-adenosyl-L-methionine
?
show the reaction diagram
B1Q3J6, Q7Y1I7
-
-
-
?
poly(dI-mdC)-poly(dI-dC) + S-adenosyl-L-methionine
?
show the reaction diagram
B1Q3J6, Q7Y1I7
-
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + CpA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + CpA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
O88508, O88509
-
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + CpG
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + CpG containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + CpG
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + CpG containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
O88508, O88509
-
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + CpT
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + CpT containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
O88508, O88509
-
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
ir
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
P26358
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
Q9Z330
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-, Q60171
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
Q60171
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
cellular organism
-
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus subtilis phage PHI3T, Bacillus subtilis phage rho11S
-
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
Q9UBC3
-
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
O88508, O88509
-
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
P05102
-
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
P20589
-
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
native and heat-denatured DNA from ethionine-treated synchronized Novikoff cells. The native DNA sample is about 3.5 fold better as a methyl acceptor than the heat-denatured sample
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
both native and denatured DNA are methylated, with calf thymus DNA the double stranded form is the better substrate but the enzyme preferentially methylates single stranded E. coli DNA even in the native preparation. Homologous ascites DNA can be methylated, but only to about 5% of the level of the best substrate, undermethylated mouse L929 cell DNA. DNA isolated from growing cells or tissues is a better substrate than DNA from normal liver or pancreas or from stationary cells
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme is able to methylate single stranded and double stranded DNA. Previously unmethylated double-stranded DNA from prokaryotes, Micrococcus luteus, as well as from eukaryotes, Ascaris suis, can serve as substrates. The synthetic copolymers (dG-dC)n*(dC-dG)n and (dG,dC)n are also methylated. SV40 DNA is almost not methylated. PM2 DNA is a good substrate even in the supercoiled form. The enzyme methylates 1 in 17 bases in heterologous Micrococcus luteus DNA, but only 1 in 590 in homologous rat liver DNA
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
transfer of methyl groups to heterologous DNA
-
ir
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme is able to methylate homologues HeLa DNA, altough to a lesser extent than heterologous DNA. The enzyme can methylate single-stranded DNA three times higher than that of the corresponding double-stranded DNA, the 5' neighbor can be either G or C while the 3' neighbor is always G, enzyme can methylate poly(dG,dC)
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
native plant DNA or hemimethylated poly(dI-MedC)*poly(dI-dC)
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
methylation of double-stranded Micrococcus luteus DNA. The enzyme transfers methyl groups to both double-stranded and single-stranded natural DNAs. The methyl-accepting activity of the DNA is correlated to their GC content, homologous DNAs are poor substrates. Very low rate of methylation with poly[(dA-dC)*(dG-dT)], highest methyl-accepting ability with poly[(dG-dC)*(dG-dC)]
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
about 60% of the total methylation occurs in the 5'd(C-G)3' doublet. Single-stranded and hemi-methylated DNAs are methylated at an elevated rate
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme methylates DNA from various sources in native and heat-denatured forms. The synthetic copolymer poly(dG-dC)*poly(dG-dC) is methylated in B-conformation and in Z-conformation to about the same extent, determination of maintenance DNA methylase activity with P815 DNA and determination of de novo DNA methylase activity with 5-methylcytosine-free procaryotic DNA
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
site-specificity
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme recognizes the sequence 5'-CCGG-3' and methylates the outer cytosine residue
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-, Q60171
methylation targets of M.BssHII: ACGCGT/CCGCGG MluI/SacII, PuGCGCPy HaeII, PuCCGGPy Cfr10I and GCGCGC BssHII
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
the purified enzyme has at least a 30fold higher catalytic efficiency with hemimethylated double-stranded oligodeoxyribonucleotide substrates than unmethylated substrates and is most active with small oligodeoxyribonucleotide substrates
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
methylation of cytosine residues in double-stranded DNAs isolated from wheat, maize, calf thymus or bacteria. Single-stranded DNAs from all sources are methylated to only about one-fourth to one-third the degree of double-stranded substrate DNA. Synthetic polydeoxyribonucleotides of alternating base sequence, poly[d(G-C)]*poly[d(G-C)], poly[d(I-C)]*poly[d(I-C)], poly[d(A-C)]*poly[d(G-T)], are methylated to low but clearly measurable extent. Preference for endogenous, double-stranded DNA
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
methylation of a series of snapback oligodeoxynucleotides of differing stem length, each containing a centrally located CG dinucleotide recognition site. The enzyme requires a minimum of 22 base pairs in the stem for maximum activity. Extrahelical cytosines in slipped duplexes that are 30 base pairs in length act as effective methyl acceptors and are more rapidly methylated than cytosines that are Watson-Crick paired. Duplexes containing hairpins of CCG repeats in cruciform structures in which the enzyme recognition sequence is disrupted by a C-C mispair are also more rapidly methylated than the control Watson-Crick-paired duplexes
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
poly(dIdC:dIdC) is efficiently methylated
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus subtilis phage PHI3T, Bacillus subtilis phage rho11S
-
enzyme methylates the cytosine of the DNA target sequence TCGA
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme is unable to make de novo methylation in double stranded DNA, methylation occurs at maximal rate on hemimethylated ds DNA
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
higher methylating activity with chemically synthesized hemimethylated oligodeoxynucleotide than with poly(dI*dC)*poly(dI*dC)
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
poly(dI*dC-dI*dC) of chain length 100, 500, 2000 or 5000 base pairs
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
poly(dI-dC)*poly(dI-dC) and unmethylated and hemimethylated 36-mer and 75-mer oligonucleotides. The preference of the enzyme for hemimethylated, over unmethylated DNA is 7-21fold. Poly(dI-dC)poly(dI-dC)
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
specificity is confined to the sequence 5'-CpG-3'. Any sequence-specific de novo methylation mediated by Dnmt1 is either under the control of regulatory factors that interact
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
P26358
DNA topology strongly influences the reaction rate, which increases with increasing negative superhelical tension
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
isoenzymes Dnmt3a, Dnmt3b1 and Dnmt3b2 show similar activity towards poly(dG-dC)-poly(dG-dC)
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
Q9Y6K1
DNMT1 interacts with hSNF2H chromatin remodeling enzyme and binds mononucleosomes with higher affinity in the presence of hSNF2H
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
Dnmt1 plays an essential role in the faithful and efficient maintenance of methylation patterns in the mammalian genome
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
DNMT3B interacts with several components of the condensin complex (hCAP-C,hCAP-E and hCAP-G) and KIF4A. Condensin mediates genome-wide chromosome condensation at the onset of mitosis and is critical for proper segregation of sister chromatids. KIF4A is proposed to be a motor protein carrying DNA as cargo. DNMT3B also interacts with histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1), the co-repressor SIN3A and the ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling enzyme hSNF2H. DNMT3B co-localizes with condensin and KIF4A on condensed chromosomes throughout mitosis, direct link between the machineries regulating DNA methylation and mitotic chromosome condensation. DNMT3B may have a previously unrecognized function during the mitotic phase of the cell cycle
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
hypermethylation of CpG islands in the promoter regions is an important mechanism to silence the expression of many important genes in cancer
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
major enzyme in maintenance of the pattern of DNA methylation after DNA replication
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-, Q76DK3
nonselective cytosine methylation activity. Chloroplast DNA methylation by DMT1 is one of the factors influencing maternal inheritance of chloroplast genes
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
NtDRM1 is a de novo cytosine methyltransferase which actively excludes CpG substrate
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
O88508, O88509
the enzyme is a de novo-type DNA methyltransferase
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
control of Dnmt1, the predominant maintainance methyltransferase, is significantly suppressed in aging cells and contributes to the reduced genomic methylation of these cells. The paradoxical sporadic gene hypermethylation in aging cells appears to be related to transcriptional up-regulation of the Dnmt3b gene. Changes in transcriptional control of the Dnmts are the likely cause for the known alterations in DNA methylation in aging cells and in cells undergoing tumorigenesis
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
Q9Y6K1
free DNA or assembled into a mononucleosome. The catalytic efficiency decreases on the mononucleosome 17fold, free DNA or assembled into a mononucleosome. The catalytic efficiency decreases on the mononucleosome 8fold
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
methylates DNA processively with high preference for hemimethylated target sites. Dnmt1 methylates a hemimethylated 958-mer substrate in a highly processive reaction. Fully methylated and unmethylated CG sites do not inhibit processive methylation of the DNA. Unmethylated sites embedded in a hemimethylated context are modified at an approximately 24fold reduced rate. Completely unmodified DNA is methylated even more slowly. Dnmt1 is not able to methylate hemimethylated CG sites on different strands of the DNA in a processive manner, indicating that Dnmt1 keeps its orientation with respect to the DNA while methylating the CG sites on one strand of the DNA
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
methylation is observed at CG sites in a loose ttnCGga(g/a) consensus sequence
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-, Q76DK3
nonselective cytosine methylation activity
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
O55055, O88508, O88509
P-19 cells possess catalytically active Dnmt1, Dnmt2, Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b. Dnmt1 and Dnmt3b have the greatest amount of methylation activity directed at the endogenous genome
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
O88508, O88509
poly(dGdC)-poly(dGdC) or poly(dIdC)-poly(dIdC)
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
poly(dI-dC) is a better substrate than poly(dG-dC), methylation activity toward unmethylated synthetic as well as native DNA. Activity with hemimethylated DNA is lower than that for unmethylated substrates. Methylation of about 70% of the cytosines in methylatable CpNpN and CpNpG sequences but only 10% in CpG. The enzyme non-selectively methylates any cytosines except in CpG, regardless of the adjacent nucleotide at both 5' and 3' ends
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
poly-(dI-dC)/poly(dI-dC), wild-type enzyme and N-terminal deletion mutants lacking 121, 501, 540, or 580 amino acids from the N-terminus methylate CG sequences, prefer hemimethylated to unmethylated DNA
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
P13864
preference for single stranded DNA substrates is increased up to 50fold by the presence of a proximal 5-methyl cytosine. This modulation is distance-dependent and is due to an enhanced binding affinity and minor changes in catalytic efficiency. No modulation of activity is observed with double stranded DNA
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
unmethylated DNA substrates: poly(dIdC)-poly(dIdC), poly(dGdC)-poly(dGdC) or a 520-bp DNA fragment from the p2HhaBsp. Full-length Dnmt1 methylates hemimethylated DNA with high processivity and a fidelity of over 95%, but unmethylated DNA with much less processivity. Dnmt1-(2911620), the truncated form of Dnmt1, shows identical properties to full-length Dnmt1 indicating that the N-terminal 290-amino acid residue region of Dnmt1 is not required for preferential activity toward hemimethylated sites or for processivity of the enzyme. Dnmt1 methylates hemimethylated CpG sites on one strand of double-stranded DNA during a single processive run
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosyl-L-methionine onto the 5'-position of the cytosine ring of the DNA, the enzyme catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosyl-L-methionine onto the 5 position of the cytosine ring of the DNA
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
Spirulina sp. MW-1
-
-
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
Escherichia coli K12
-
-, site-specificity
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + poly(dI-dC)/poly(dI-dC)
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + poly(dI-dC)/poly(dI-dC) containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
DNA fragment RPS + S-adenosyl-L-methionine
DNA fragment RPS containing 5-methylcytosine + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
show the reaction diagram
Q94F88
RPS is a repetitive hypermethylated DNA fragment from Petunia hybrida. CG methylation, CNG methylation, and CNN methylation. MET1 maintains CG methylation, and DRM1/2 and CMT3 act redundantly to enforce non-CG methylation, unusual cooperative activity of all three DNA methyltransferases is therefore required for maintenance of both CG and non-CG methylation in RPS. Arabidopsis thaliana does not contain any RPS homologues. Methylation at the CCmTGG site also requires DRM1/2, MET1, and, to a lesser extent, CMT3
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
intrinsic sequence-specificity of Dnmt1 on linear duplex DNA is unlikely to be important in the establishment of genomic methylation patterns
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme is capable of protecting plasmid DNA in vivo against action of the cognate restriction endonuclease
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme is essential for viable mammalian development and has a central function in the determination and maintenance of epigenetic methalation pattern
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
enzymatic DNA methylation of carbon 5 of cytosines is an epigenetic modification that plays a role in regulating gene expression, differentiation, and tumorigenesis. DNA (cytosine-C5)-methyltransferase-1 is the enzyme responsible for maintaining established methylation patterns during replication in mammalian cells
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
enzyme induces DNA bending, a mechanism to establish specific interface between proteins and DNA. Enzymes recognizing a cytosine 3' to the target cytosine tend to induce greater bends than enzymes with guanine in this position
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q9Z330
methylation of genomic DNA is involved in the basic mechanism of gene inactivation, chromatin organization, X-chromosome inactivation, and genomic imprinting
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme catalyzes the methylation of DNA during replication, in NGF-induced PC12 cell. The enzyme activity is sharply reduced 4 days after induction of differentiation
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
P26358
role of the enzyme in maintaining the methylation patterns throughout development, the enzyme may be involved in the etiology of fragile X, a syndrome characterized by de novo methylation of a greatly expanded CGG-CCG triplet repeat sequence
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
O88508, O88509
no activity with CpT and CpC
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
O88508, O88509
scarcely methylates CpC
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q94F88
DNA fragment RPS belongs to a group of middle repetitive, dispersed and hypermethylated homologues. Repetitiveness, however, is not a prerequisite for hypermethylation, as RPS transgenes are efficient methylation targets in Arabidopsis, which lacks any significant RPS homology
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
interactions between Dnmt3b and both Tdg and Mbd4, i.e. G/T mismatch-specific thymine-DNA glycosylase and methyl-CpG binding domain protein 4, two thymine glycosylases involved in reduction of the impact of 5mC deamination, that can both excise uracil or thymine at U-G and T-G mismatches to initiate base excision repair, overview. Interaction with Tdg via two separate Dnmt3b domains, but MTase motif I of the catalytic domain of Dnmt3b is sufficient for interaction with Tdg and Mbd4
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
B1Q3J6, B9FJ44, Q10C15, Q10SU5, Q8H854, Q8SBB4
MTase performs two basic kinds of methylation activities: maintenance methylation, i.e. addition of methyl groups to cytosines of a hemimethylated DNA after DNA replication, and de novo methylation, i.e. methylation of cytosines in nonmethylated DNA
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
upon activation of ER-target gene expression, CpG dinucleotides of promoters undergo cyclical demethylation and remethylation with a cycle time of roughly 2 h, cyclical recruitment of DNMT3A and DNMT3B DNA methyltransferases to the promoter regions of estrogen receptoralpha target genes. In cancer cells, DNMT3A and DNMT3B might posses deaminase activity and be involved in a dynamic demethylation-methylation pathway that operates during gene transcription, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
upon activation of ER? target gene expression, CpG dinucleotides of promoters undergo cyclical demethylation and remethylation with a cycle time of roughly 2 h, cyclical recruitment of DNMT3A and DNMT3B DNA methyltransferases to the promoter regions of estrogen receptoralpha target genes. In cancer cells, DNMT3A and DNMT3B might posses deaminase activity and be involved in a dynamic demethylation-methylation pathway that operates during gene transcription, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
homology docking and molecular dynamics, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
B3PM23, -
MarII is a GCGC site recognizing DNA methyltransferase analogous to M.HhaI, not M.MarI, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
no activity with single-stranded DNA with one Cm5 site, double-stranded fully methylated DNA, and poly(dA)-poly(T), pol(G), poly(dC)-poly(dG) or poly(dA-dT)
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
reorganization of an essential catalytic loop, residues 80-100, is regulated by sequence-specific protein-DNA interactions, DNA-dependent positioning of the catalytic loop
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
site-based methylation is dependent on the relative position of the zinc finger binding sites and the target methylation site, methylation specificity for the target site also depends on zinc finger binding
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
tRNA binding studies show that EhMeth interacts with a RNA substrate only containing 17 nucleotides of the tRNA anticodon stem-loop (including the substrate cytosine C38), but requires a full-length tRNA for stable complex formation
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
using a yeast two-hybrid screen enolase (EC 4.2.1.11) is identified as a Dnmt2-binding protein, acting as a Dnmt2 inhibitor
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Mycoplasma arthritidis 158-1
B3PM23
MarII is a GCGC site recognizing DNA methyltransferase analogous to M.HhaI, not M.MarI, overview
-
-
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
DNA + S-adenosyl-L-methionine
DNA containing 5-methylcytosine + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
DNA + S-adenosyl-L-methionine
DNA containing 5-methylcytosine + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
DNA + S-adenosyl-L-methionine
DNA containing 5-methylcytosine + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
DNA + S-adenosyl-L-methionine
DNA containing 5-methylcytosine + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
DNA + S-adenosyl-L-methionine
DNA containing 5-methylcytosine + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
DNA + S-adenosyl-L-methionine
DNA containing 5-methylcytosine + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
DNA + S-adenosyl-L-methionine
DNA containing 5-methylcytosine + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
DNA + S-adenosyl-L-methionine
DNA containing 5-methylcytosine + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
DNA + S-adenosyl-L-methionine
DNA containing 5-methylcytosine + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
DNA + S-adenosyl-L-methionine
DNA containing 5-methylcytosine + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
show the reaction diagram
C4P086, C4P087, -
-
-
-
?
DNA + S-adenosyl-L-methionine
DNA containing 5-methylcytosine + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
show the reaction diagram
Q94F88
-
-
-
?
DNA + S-adenosyl-L-methionine
DNA containing 5-methylcytosine + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
show the reaction diagram
B1Q3J6, Q7Y1I7
-
-
-
?
DNA + S-adenosyl-L-methionine
DNA containing 5-methylcytosine + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
show the reaction diagram
B1Q3J6, B9FJ44, Q10C15, Q10SU5, Q8H854, Q8SBB4
-
-
-
?
DNA + S-adenosyl-L-methionine
DNA containing 5-methylcytosine + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
show the reaction diagram
Q24K09
-
-
-
?
DNA + S-adenosyl-L-methionine
DNA containing 5-methylcytosine + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
show the reaction diagram
-
both DNMT3A and DNMT3B are involved in de novo DNA methylation. 5'-Cytosine methylation is a common epigenetic modification in eukaryotic genomes
-
-
?
DNA + S-adenosyl-L-methionine
DNA containing 5-methylcytosine + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
show the reaction diagram
-
DNA cytosine methylation is one of the major epigenetic gene silencing marks in the human genome facilitated by DNA methyltransferases
-
-
?
DNA + S-adenosyl-L-methionine
DNA containing 5-methylcytosine + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
show the reaction diagram
-
DNA GC content, CpG frequency and methylation status, overview
-
-
?
DNA + S-adenosyl-L-methionine
DNA containing 5-methylcytosine + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
show the reaction diagram
-
DNMT1 is crucial for cell survival
-
-
?
DNA + S-adenosyl-L-methionine
DNA containing 5-methylcytosine + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
show the reaction diagram
-
DNMT1 participates in epigenetic reprogramming through its ability to distinguish different categories of methylated sequences. Genomic imprinting is a mammalian epigenetic process that distinguishes maternal and paternal alleles to ensure parent-specific, monoallelic expression of imprinted genes. Preimplantation DNMT1-dependent maintenance mechanism specifically targets DMD sequences, e.g. of IAP, alpha-actin, Snurf/Snrpn, H19, Gnas, and Gtl2 DMD, overview
-
-
?
DNA + S-adenosyl-L-methionine
DNA containing 5-methylcytosine + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
show the reaction diagram
-
M.SssI is the only known prokaryotic C5-MTase, which recognizes the short sequence CG and thus has the same specificity as mammalian MTases
-
-
?
DNA + S-adenosyl-L-methionine
DNA containing 5-methylcytosine + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
show the reaction diagram
-
SinI DNA methyltransferase, a component of the SinI restriction-modification system, recognizes the sequence GG(A/T)CC and methylates the inner cytosine to produce 5-methylcytosine
-
-
?
DNA + S-adenosyl-L-methionine
DNA containing 5-methylcytosine + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme has distinct target sequences but no preferred methylation sites of promoters or other regulatory elements
-
-
?
DNA + S-adenosyl-L-methionine
DNA containing 5-methylcytosine + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
show the reaction diagram
Q8X8S5
the Z2389 DNAcytosine methyltransferase confers full protection to NotI sites by methylation of the first cytosine residue
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
Q9Y6K1
DNMT1 interacts with hSNF2H chromatin remodeling enzyme and binds mononucleosomes with higher affinity in the presence of hSNF2H
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
Dnmt1 plays an essential role in the faithful and efficient maintenance of methylation patterns in the mammalian genome
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
DNMT3B interacts with several components of the condensin complex (hCAP-C,hCAP-E and hCAP-G) and KIF4A. Condensin mediates genome-wide chromosome condensation at the onset of mitosis and is critical for proper segregation of sister chromatids. KIF4A is proposed to be a motor protein carrying DNA as cargo. DNMT3B also interacts with histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1), the co-repressor SIN3A and the ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling enzyme hSNF2H. DNMT3B co-localizes with condensin and KIF4A on condensed chromosomes throughout mitosis, direct link between the machineries regulating DNA methylation and mitotic chromosome condensation. DNMT3B may have a previously unrecognized function during the mitotic phase of the cell cycle
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
hypermethylation of CpG islands in the promoter regions is an important mechanism to silence the expression of many important genes in cancer
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
major enzyme in maintenance of the pattern of DNA methylation after DNA replication
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-, Q76DK3
nonselective cytosine methylation activity. Chloroplast DNA methylation by DMT1 is one of the factors influencing maternal inheritance of chloroplast genes
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
NtDRM1 is a de novo cytosine methyltransferase which actively excludes CpG substrate
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
O88508, O88509
the enzyme is a de novo-type DNA methyltransferase
-
-
?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosyl-L-methionine onto the 5'-position of the cytosine ring of the DNA, the enzyme catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosyl-L-methionine onto the 5 position of the cytosine ring of the DNA
-
-
?
DNA + S-adenosyl-L-methionine
DNA containing 5-methylcytosine + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
show the reaction diagram
Adeno-associated virus AAV, Lymphocystis disease virus 1 FLDV, Frog virus 3 FV3
-
DNA GC content, CpG frequency and methylation status, overview
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
intrinsic sequence-specificity of Dnmt1 on linear duplex DNA is unlikely to be important in the establishment of genomic methylation patterns
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme is capable of protecting plasmid DNA in vivo against action of the cognate restriction endonuclease
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme is essential for viable mammalian development and has a central function in the determination and maintenance of epigenetic methalation pattern
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
enzymatic DNA methylation of carbon 5 of cytosines is an epigenetic modification that plays a role in regulating gene expression, differentiation, and tumorigenesis. DNA (cytosine-C5)-methyltransferase-1 is the enzyme responsible for maintaining established methylation patterns during replication in mammalian cells
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
enzyme induces DNA bending, a mechanism to establish specific interface between proteins and DNA. Enzymes recognizing a cytosine 3' to the target cytosine tend to induce greater bends than enzymes with guanine in this position
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q9Z330
methylation of genomic DNA is involved in the basic mechanism of gene inactivation, chromatin organization, X-chromosome inactivation, and genomic imprinting
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme catalyzes the methylation of DNA during replication, in NGF-induced PC12 cell. The enzyme activity is sharply reduced 4 days after induction of differentiation
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
P26358
role of the enzyme in maintaining the methylation patterns throughout development, the enzyme may be involved in the etiology of fragile X, a syndrome characterized by de novo methylation of a greatly expanded CGG-CCG triplet repeat sequence
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q94F88
DNA fragment RPS belongs to a group of middle repetitive, dispersed and hypermethylated homologues. Repetitiveness, however, is not a prerequisite for hypermethylation, as RPS transgenes are efficient methylation targets in Arabidopsis, which lacks any significant RPS homology
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
interactions between Dnmt3b and both Tdg and Mbd4, i.e. G/T mismatch-specific thymine-DNA glycosylase and methyl-CpG binding domain protein 4, two thymine glycosylases involved in reduction of the impact of 5mC deamination, that can both excise uracil or thymine at U-G and T-G mismatches to initiate base excision repair, overview. Interaction with Tdg via two separate Dnmt3b domains, but MTase motif I of the catalytic domain of Dnmt3b is sufficient for interaction with Tdg and Mbd4
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
B1Q3J6, B9FJ44, Q10C15, Q10SU5, Q8H854, Q8SBB4
MTase performs two basic kinds of methylation activities: maintenance methylation, i.e. addition of methyl groups to cytosines of a hemimethylated DNA after DNA replication, and de novo methylation, i.e. methylation of cytosines in nonmethylated DNA
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
upon activation of ER-target gene expression, CpG dinucleotides of promoters undergo cyclical demethylation and remethylation with a cycle time of roughly 2 h, cyclical recruitment of DNMT3A and DNMT3B DNA methyltransferases to the promoter regions of estrogen receptoralpha target genes. In cancer cells, DNMT3A and DNMT3B might posses deaminase activity and be involved in a dynamic demethylation-methylation pathway that operates during gene transcription, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
upon activation of ER? target gene expression, CpG dinucleotides of promoters undergo cyclical demethylation and remethylation with a cycle time of roughly 2 h, cyclical recruitment of DNMT3A and DNMT3B DNA methyltransferases to the promoter regions of estrogen receptoralpha target genes. In cancer cells, DNMT3A and DNMT3B might posses deaminase activity and be involved in a dynamic demethylation-methylation pathway that operates during gene transcription, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
tRNA binding studies show that EhMeth interacts with a RNA substrate only containing 17 nucleotides of the tRNA anticodon stem-loop (including the substrate cytosine C38), but requires a full-length tRNA for stable complex formation
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
using a yeast two-hybrid screen enolase (EC 4.2.1.11) is identified as a Dnmt2-binding protein, acting as a Dnmt2 inhibitor
-
-
-
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
S-adenosyl-L-methionine
-
the ternary complexes between the enzyme, 2-(1H)-pyrimidinone inhibitor, and the cofactor S-adenosyl-L-methionine are maintained through the formation of a reversible covalent interaction
S-adenosyl-L-methionine
-
-
S-adenosyl-L-methionine
-
binding of either unmethylated or hemimethylated cognate DNA to the cofactor-bound binary complex leads to dramatic changes in the 1H-15N correlation spectrum
S-adenosyl-L-methionine
-
-
S-adenosyl-L-methionine
Q24K09
-
S-adenosyl-L-methionine
B1Q3J6, B9FJ44, Q10C15, Q10SU5, Q8H854, Q8SBB4
-
S-adenosyl-L-methionine
-
-
S-adenosyl-L-methionine
-
-
S-adenosyl-L-methionine
-
-
S-adenosyl-L-methionine
-
-
S-adenosyl-L-methionine
-
-
S-adenosyl-L-methionine
C4P086, C4P087, -
;
S-adenosyl-L-methionine
Q94F88
-
S-adenosyl-L-methionine
B1Q3J6, Q7Y1I7
;
S-adenosyl-L-methionine
-
-
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
NaCl
-
incubation of native calf thymus DNA in presence of 40 mM NaCl results in 50% inhibition, more than 90% inhibition at 200 mM. With denatured calf thymus DNA, low concentrations of NaCl, up to 90 mM stimulate, 50% inhibition at 175 mM
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
(-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate
-
competitive, the inhibitor can form hydrogen bonds with Pro1223, Glu1265, Cys1225, Ser1229 and Arg1309. Hypermethylation of CpG islands in the promoter regions is an important mechanism to silence the expression of many important genes in cancer. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate can inhibit DNMT activity and reactivate methylation-silenced genes in cancer cells
(N4-fluoroacetyl-5-azacytidine)
-
efficient inhibitor of DNA methylation in human tumor cell lines
2-(1H)-pyrimidinone riboside
-
i.e. zebularine, is a more stable, less cytotoxic inhibitor compared to 5-azacytidine probably due to differing stability and reversibility of the covalent bonds. The ternary complexes between the enzyme, 2-(1H)-pyrimidinone inhibitor, and the cofactor S-adenosyl-L-methionine are maintained through the formation of a reversible covalent interaction
2-amino-4-([[(2S,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-amino-2-chloro-9H-purin-9-yl)-3,4-dihydroxytetrahydrofuran-2-yl]methyl]sulfanyl)butanoic acid
-
;
2-amino-4-([[(2S,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-amino-2-fluoro-9H-purin-9-yl)-3,4-dihydroxytetrahydrofuran-2-yl]methyl]sulfanyl)butanoic acid
-
;
2-amino-4-([[(2S,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-amino-2-iodo-9H-purin-9-yl)-3,4-dihydroxytetrahydrofuran-2-yl]methyl]sulfanyl)butanoic acid
-
;
2-amino-4-([[(2S,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-amino-2-methoxy-9H-purin-9-yl)-3,4-dihydroxytetrahydrofuran-2-yl]methyl]sulfanyl)butanoic acid
-
-
2-amino-4-([[(2S,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-amino-2-methyl-9H-purin-9-yl)-3,4-dihydroxytetrahydrofuran-2-yl]methyl]sulfanyl)butanoic acid
-
;
2-amino-4-[([(2S,3S,4R,5R)-5-[6-amino-2-(methylsulfanyl)-9H-purin-9-yl]-3,4-dihydroxytetrahydrofuran-2-yl]methyl)sulfanyl]butanoic acid
-
;
2-pyrimidinone
-
forms a part of inhibitor 1,2-dihydropyrimidin-2-one-5-methylene-(methylsulfonium)-adenosyl, bindng structure and mechanism, overview
2-deoxycytidine
-
binding modelling, overview
5'-(3-aminopropylthio)-5'-deoxyadenosine
P20589
-
5'-(3-aminopropylthio)-5'-deoxyadenosine
P05102
-
5'-(3-carboxypropylthio)-5'-deoxyadenosine
P20589
-
5'-(3-carboxypropylthio)-5'-deoxyadenosine
P05102
-
5-aza-2-deoxycytidine
-
binding modelling, overview
5-aza-cytosine
-
-
5-azacytidine
-
zebularine is a more stable, less cytotoxic inhibitor compared to 5-azacytidine probably due to differing stability and reversibility of the covalent bonds
5-azacytidine
-
binding modelling, overview
5-Azacytosine
-
mechanism-based inhibitor
5-fluorocytosine
-
mechanism-based inhibitor
5-fluorocytosine
-
-
6-Thioguanine
-
incorporation of 6-thioguanine perturbs cytosine methylation at the CpG dinucleotide site by DNA methyltransferases in vitro and acts as a DNA demethylating agent in vivo. Presence of 6-thioguanine at the unmethylated CpG site abolished almost completely the methylation of its 5' adjacent cytosine by HpaII
6-Thioguanine
-
incorporation of 6-thioguanine perturbs cytosine methylation at the CpG dinucleotide site by DNA methyltransferases in vitro and acts as a DNA demethylating agent in vivo. Presence of 6-thioguanine at the unmethylated CpG site abolished almost completely the methylation of its 5' adjacent cytosine by DNMT1
Ca2+
-
above 1 mM
decitabine
-
binding modelling, overview
EDTA
-
above 10 mM
hydralazine
-
inhibition of Dnmt1
hydralazine
-
binding modelling, overview
iodoacetamide
-
-
K+
O88508, O88509
Dnmt3b
KCl
-
above 0.1 M, inhibition may be simply due to dissociation of the DNA-enzyme complex
KCl
-
above 100 mM
Mg2+
O88508, O88509
1 mM, slight inhibition, Dnmt3a; 1 mM, slight inhibition, Dnmt3b
NaCl
-
incubation of native calf thymus DNA in presence of 40 mM NaCl results in 50% inhibition, more than 90% inhibition at 200 mM. With denatured calf thymus DNA, low concentrations of NaCl, up to 90 mM stimulate, 50% inhibition at 175 mM
NaCl
-
above 0.1 M, inhibition may be simply due to dissociation of the DNA-enzyme complex
NaCl
-
above 100 mM
NaCl
O88508, O88509
Dnmt3a, inhibits activity around physiological ionic strength; Dnmt3b, inhibits activity around physiological ionic strength
native DNA
-
non-competitive inhibitor against S-adenosyl-L-methionine
-
Ni2+
O88508, O88509
strong inhibition, Dnmt3a; strong inhibition, Dnmt3b
Nicotine
-
decreases glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 promoter methylation by DMT1 in GABAergic interneurons
NSC 106084
-
inhibition of Dnmt1
NSC 137546
-
inhibition of Dnmt1
NSC 138419
-
inhibition of Dnmt1
NSC 14778
-
inhibition of Dnmt1; inhibition of Dnmt3b
NSC 158324
-
inhibition of Dnmt1
NSC 319745
-
inhibition of Dnmt1
NSC 348926
-
slight inhibition of Dnmt1
NSC 408488
-
inhibition of Dnmt1
NSC 54162
-
inhibition of Dnmt1
NSC 56071
-
inhibition of Dnmt1
NSC 57893
-
inhibition of Dnmt1
NSC 622444
-
inhibition of Dnmt1
oligodeoxyribonucleotides containing 2-(1H)-pyrimidinone
-
oligodeoxyribonucleotides containing 2-(1H)-pyrimidinone at the enzymatic target site are competitive inhibitors of both prokaryotic and mammalian DNA C5 methyltransferases, overview
-
oligodeoxyribonucleotides containing 2-(1H)-pyrimidinone
-
-
-
oligodeoxyribonucleotides containing 2-aminopurine
-
-
-
oligodeoxyribonucleotides containing 5-azacytidine
-
5-azacytosine oligodeoxyribonucleotides form complexes with C5 DNA methyltransferases that are irreversible when the 5-azacytosine ring is intact, overview
-
poly[d(G-5-azacytidine)]
-
-
-
procainamide
-
binding modelling, overview
procaine
-
binding modelling, overview
putrescine
-
1 mM, 42% inhibition
retinoblastoma gene product
-
a negative regulator of DNA methylation, binds to the allosteric site of hDNMT1 and inhibits methylation, it may regulate methylation spreading
-
RG108
-
slight inhibition of Dnmt1
S -(N6-benzoyladenosin-5'-yl)-L-homocysteine
P20589
-
S-(1-deazaadenosyl)-L-homocysteine
-
;
S-(2'-deoxy-b -D-ribofuranosyladenosin-5'-yl)-L-homocysteine
P20589
-
S-(2'-deoxy-beta-D-ribofuranosyladenosin-5'-yl)-L-homocysteine
P05102
-
S-(3-Deazaadenosyl)-L-homocysteine
-
;
S-(8-Azaadenosyl)-L-homocysteine
-
;
S-(N-(2-biphenyl-4-ylethyl)-2-chloroadenosyl)-L-homocysteine
-
;
S-(N-(2-biphenyl-4-ylethyl)adenosyl)-L-homocysteine
-
;
S-(N-(3,5-dimethoxybenzyl)adenosyl)-L-homocysteine
-
;
S-(N-(pyridin-4-ylmethyl)adenosyl)-L-homocysteine
-
;
S-(N-benzyladenosyl)-L-homocysteine
-
;
S-(N-phenyladenosyl)-L-homocysteine
-
;
S-(N-phenylethyladenosyl)-L-homocysteine
-
;
S-(N-phenylpropyladenosyl)-L-homocysteine
-
;
S-(N6 -benzoyladenosin-5'-yl)-L-homocysteine
P05102
-
S-adenosin-5'-yl-L-homocysteine methylamide
P20589
-
S-adenosin-5'-yl-L-homocysteine methylamide
P05102
-
S-adenosyl-L-ethionine
-
non-competitive inhibitor against DNA
S-adenosyl-L-ethionine
-
IC50: 0.05 mM
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
-
potent competitive inhibitor
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
-
-
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
-
half-inhibition at 0.02 mM
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
P20589
-
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
P05102
-
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
-
;
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
-
product inhibition of Dnmt1; product inhibition of Dnmt3b
S-cytid-5'-yl-L-homocysteine
P20589
-
S-cytid-5'-yl-L-homocysteine
P05102
-
S-inosin-5'-yl-L-homocysteine
P20589
-
S-inosin-5'-yl-L-homocysteine
P05102
-
S-inosinylhomocysteine
-
;
S-nebularinehomocysteine
-
;
S-Tubercidinylhomocysteine
-
;
spermidine
-
1 mM, 59% inhibition
spermidine
-
at millimolar concentrations
spermine
-
1 mM, 97% inhibition
spermine
-
at millimolar concentrations
[1,2-dihydropyrimidin-2-one]-5-methylene-(methylsulfonium)-adenosyl
-
with 2-pyrimidinone ring
Mn2+
O88508, O88509
strong inhibition, Dnmt3a; strong inhibition, Dnmt3b
additional information
-
stimulating proteins from murine P815 mastocytoma cells stimulate both de novo and maintenance activity of DNA methyltransferase about 3fold. They enhance the methylation of any natural DNA and of poly[(dI-dC)*(dI-dC)] but inhibit methylation of poly[(dG-dC)*(dG-dC)]
-
additional information
O88508, O88509
Dnmt3a is fully active at physiological potassium concentration of K+
-
additional information
-
inhibitor binding kinetics
-
additional information
-
not inhibited by 0.045 mM 2-amino-4-([[(2S,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-amino-2-methoxy-9H-purin-9-yl)-3,4-dihydroxytetrahydrofuran-2-yl]methyl]sulfanyl)butanoic acid
-
additional information
-
no inhibition of Dnmt3b by NSC 56071, NSC 348926, NSC 106084, NSC 622444, NSC 408488, NSC 137546, NSC 345763, NSC 54162, NSC 154957, NSC 158324, NSC 57893, and NSC 138419; virtual inhibitor screeening, molecular modeling with Dnmt1, overview. No inhibition of Dnmt1 by NSC 345763, NSC 154957, and NSC 158324
-
additional information
-
inhibitor screening by molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations
-
additional information
-
methylation specificity is affected by gene copy number and induction levels
-
additional information
B1Q3J6, Q7Y1I7
inhibitory effects by methyl donor analogs, base analogs, cations, and cationic amines on rice DNA MTase; inhibitory effects by methyl donor analogs, base analogs, cations, and cationic amines on rice DNA MTase
-
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
5-methyl cytosine
-
preference for single stranded DNA substrates is increased up to 50fold by the presence of a proximal 5-methyl cytosine. This modulation is distance-dependent and is due to an enhanced binding affinity and minor changes in catalytic efficiency. No modulation of activity is observed with double stranded DNA
dimethyl sulfoxide
-
stimulates
DNA(cytosine-S)-methyltransferase 3-like protein
O88508, O88509
i.e. Dnmt3L, UniProt Acc Q09CWR8. Dnmt3L stimulates activity of Dnmt3B by directly binding to the catalytic domain via its own C-terminal domain. The catalytic activity is stimulated about 15fold. Dnmt3L directly binds to DNA but not to S-adenosyl-L-methionine. Dnmt3L acts as a substrate exchange factor that accelerates DNA and AdoMet binding; i.e. Dnmt3L, UniProt Acc Q09CWR8. Dnmt3L stimulates activity of the Dnmt3A by directly binding to the catalytic domain via its own C-terminal domain. The catalytic activity is stimulated about 15fold. Dnmt3L directly binds to DNA but not to S-adenosyl-L-methionine. Complex formation between Dnmt3A and Dnmt3L accelerates DNA binding by Dnmt3A 20fold and lowers its Km for DNA. Interaction of Dnmt3L with Dnmt3A increases the binding of AdoMet to Dnmt3A, and lowers the Km-value of Dnmt3A for AdoMet. Interaction of Dnmt3A and Dnmt3L is transient, and after DNA binding to Dnmt3A, Dnmt3L dissociates from the complex. Following dissociation of Dnmt3L, Dnmt3A adopts a closed conformation leading to slow rates of DNA release. Therefore, Dnmt3L acts as a substrate exchange factor that accelerates DNA and AdoMet binding
-
NSC 319745
-
activation of Dnmt3b
NSC 345763
-
slight activation of Dnmt1
stimulating proteins
-
the proteins from murine P815 mastocytoma cells stimulate both de novo and maintenance activity of DNA methyltransferase about 3fold. They enhance the methylation of any natural DNA and of poly[(dI-dC)*(dI-dC)] but inhibit methylation of poly[(dG-dC)*(dG-dC)]
-
methylated DNA
-
stimulated methylation spreading on unmethylated CpG sequences for full-length and the mutant lacking 121 N-terminal amino acids equally well. No stimulation of N-terminal deletion mutants lacking 501, 540, or 580 amino acids from the N-terminus
-
additional information
-
no modulation of catalytic activity in response to 5-methyl cytosine
-
KM VALUE [mM]
KM VALUE [mM] Maximum
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.0008
-
(CGG*CCG)12
-
-
-
0.0001
-
(CGG*CCG)73
-
-
-
0.0000783
-
CpNpG
-
pH 7.0
-
0.0000459
-
CpNpN
-
pH 7.0
-
0.0005
-
dGdC
O88508, O88509
pH 7.4, 37C, Dnmt3b
0.0016
-
dGdC
O88508, O88509
pH 7.4, 37C, Dnmt3b
0.0004
-
dIdC
O88508, O88509
pH 7.4, 37C, Dnmt3b
0.0012
-
dIdC
O88508, O88509
pH 7.4, 37C, Dnmt3b
0.00025
-
DNA
O88508, O88509
enzyme Dnmt3A, in presence of Dnmt3L
0.00076
-
DNA
O88508, O88509
enzyme Dnmt3A, in absence of Dnmt3L
0.041
-
DNA
-
-
0.092
-
DNA
-
-
0.000037
-
hemimethylated CpG
-
pH 7.0
-
0.086
-
Micrococcus luteus DNA
-
-
-
0.52
-
mononucleosomal DNA
-
-
-
0.0077
-
native Micrococcus lysodeikticus DNA
-
-
-
0.015
-
P815 DNA
-
-
-
0.00636
-
poly(dG-dC)
-
pH 7.0
0.0009
-
poly(dG-dC)-poly(dG-dC)
-
isoenzyme Dnmt3b2
-
0.001
-
poly(dG-dC)-poly(dG-dC)
-
isoenzyme Dnmt3b1
-
0.0027
-
poly(dG-dC)-poly(dG-dC)
-
isoenzyme Dnmt3a
-
0.0035
-
poly(dG-dC)-poly(dG-dC)
-
isoenzyme Dnmt3a
-
0.00189
-
poly(dI*dC-dI*dC) of chain length 100
-
-
-
0.000125
-
poly(dI*dC-dI*dC) of chain length 2000
-
-
-
0.0003
-
poly(dI*dC-dI*dC) of chain length 500
-
-
-
0.00014
-
poly(dI*dC-dI*dC) of chain length 5000
-
-
-
0.00258
-
poly(dI-dC)
-
pH 7.0
0.0005
-
poly(dI-dC)*poly(dI-dC)
-
-
-
0.0007
-
poly(dI-dC)*poly(dI-dC)
-
-
-
0.0003
-
poly(dI-dC)-poly(dI-dC)
-
isoenzyme Dnmt3a
-
0.0013
-
poly(dI-dC)-poly(dI-dC)
-
isoenzyme Dnmt3b1
-
0.0015
-
poly(dI-dC)-poly(dI-dC)
-
isoenzyme Dnmt3b2
-
0.000973
-
poly(dIdC:dIdC)
-
-
-
0.0005
-
poly-(dI-dC)/poly(dI-dC)
-
mutant enzyme K284A/K285A
-
0.00056
-
poly-(dI-dC)/poly(dI-dC)
-
wild-type enzyme
-
0.00082
-
poly-(dI-dC)/poly(dI-dC)
-
mutant enzyme H286A/R287A
-
0.02
-
pRW3602, linear
-
-
-
0.003
-
pRW3602, relaxed circular
-
-
-
0.023
-
pRW3602, supercoiled
-
-
-
0.00011
-
S-adenosyl-L-methionine
P05102
pH 7.5, 37C
0.00025
-
S-adenosyl-L-methionine
-
in presence of Micrococcus luteus DNA
0.00028
-
S-adenosyl-L-methionine
P20589
pH 8.5, 37C
0.0003
-
S-adenosyl-L-methionine
-
isoenzyme Dnmt3a, reaction with poly(dG-dC)-poly(dG-dC)
0.0003
-
S-adenosyl-L-methionine
O88508, O88509
pH 7.4, 37C, Dnmt3a
0.0004
-
S-adenosyl-L-methionine
-
isoenzyme Dnmt3a, reaction with poly(dI-dC)-poly(dI-dC)
0.0007
-
S-adenosyl-L-methionine
O88508, O88509
pH 7.4, 37C, Dnmt3b
0.0008
-
S-adenosyl-L-methionine
-
isoenzyme Dnmt3b2, reaction with poly(dG-dC)-poly(dG-dC)
0.0009
-
S-adenosyl-L-methionine
-
isoenzyme Dnmt3b2, reaction with poly(dI-dC)-poly(dI-dC)
0.00096
-
S-adenosyl-L-methionine
O88508, O88509
enzyme Dnmt3A, in presence of Dnmt3L
0.0012
-
S-adenosyl-L-methionine
-
isoenzyme Dnmt3b1, reaction with poly(dI-dC)-poly(dI-dC) por poly(dG-dC)*poly(dG-dC)
0.00255
-
S-adenosyl-L-methionine
O88508, O88509
enzyme Dnmt3A, in absence of Dnmt3L
0.0026
-
S-adenosyl-L-methionine
-
-
0.00263
-
S-adenosyl-L-methionine
B1Q3J6, Q7Y1I7
pH 7.6, 25C; pH 7.6, 25C
0.00325
-
S-adenosyl-L-methionine
-
-
0.0034
-
S-adenosyl-L-methionine
-
mutant enzyme H286A/R287A
0.004
-
S-adenosyl-L-methionine
-
-
0.004
-
S-adenosyl-L-methionine
-
reaction with (CGGCCG)12
0.005
0.006
S-adenosyl-L-methionine
-
-
0.006
-
S-adenosyl-L-methionine
-
reaction with relaxed circular pRW3602
0.007
-
S-adenosyl-L-methionine
-
reaction with linear pRW3602
0.0072
-
S-adenosyl-L-methionine
-
-
0.0072
-
S-adenosyl-L-methionine
-
wild-type enzyme
0.009
-
S-adenosyl-L-methionine
-
reaction with poly(dI-dC)*poly(dI-dC)
0.0092
-
S-adenosyl-L-methionine
-
mutant enzyme K284A/K285A
0.011
-
S-adenosyl-L-methionine
-
reaction with pRW3602, supercoiled
0.013
-
S-adenosyl-L-methionine
-
-
0.014
-
S-adenosyl-L-methionine
-
reaction with (CGG*CCG)73
0.021
-
S-adenosyl-L-methionine
-
-
0.0000037
-
unmethylated 30-mer DNA
P20589
pH 8.5, 37C
-
0.000004
-
unmethylated 30-mer DNA
P05102
pH 7.5, 37C
-
0.0000273
-
unmethylated CpG
-
pH 7.0
1.4
-
mononucleosomal DNA
-
-
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
Km-value for poly(dI-MedC)*poly(dI-dC): 0.017 mg/ml
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
-
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
Km-values for hybrid enzymes
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
-
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
recombinant kinetics of wild-type and mutant enzymes, overview
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
Michaelis-Menten kinetics, Dnmt1 allosteric regulation mechanism, modelling, overview
-
additional information
-
additional information
B1Q3J6, Q7Y1I7
kinetics; kinetics
-
TURNOVER NUMBER [1/s]
TURNOVER NUMBER MAXIMUM[1/s]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.00055
-
(CGG*CCG)73
-
-
-
0.00305
-
(CGG*CGG)12
-
-
-
0.01
-
DNA
O88508, O88509
enzyme Dnmt3A, in absence of Dnmt3L
0.00597
-
poly(dI*dC-dI*dC) of chain length 100
-
-
-
0.00692
-
poly(dI*dC-dI*dC) of chain length 2000
-
-
-
0.00633
-
poly(dI*dC-dI*dC) of chain length 500
-
-
-
0.00867
-
poly(dI*dC-dI*dC) of chain length 5000
-
-
-
0.145
-
poly(dI-dC)*poly(dI-dC)
-
-
-
0.0511
-
poly(dI-dC)poly(dI-dC)
-
-
-
0.0061
-
poly(dIdC:dIdC)
-
-
-
0.013
-
poly-(dI-dC)/poly(dI-dC)
-
mutant enzyme H286A/R287A
-
0.03
-
poly-(dI-dC)/poly(dI-dC)
-
mutant enzyme K284A/K285A
-
0.058
-
poly-(dI-dC)/poly(dI-dC)
-
wild-type enzyme
-
0.00167
-
pRW3602, linear
-
-
-
0.00055
-
pRW3602, relaxed circular
-
-
-
0.00278
-
pRW3602, supercoiled
-
-
-
0.0068
-
S-adenosyl-L-methionine
P20589
pH 8.5, 37C
0.01
-
S-adenosyl-L-methionine
O88508, O88509
enzyme Dnmt3A, in absence of Dnmt3L
0.013
-
S-adenosyl-L-methionine
-
mutant enzyme H286A/R287A
0.013
-
S-adenosyl-L-methionine
O88508, O88509
enzyme Dnmt3A, in absence of Dnmt3L
0.02
-
S-adenosyl-L-methionine
-
mutant enzyme R106A, mutant enzyme N173A
0.03
-
S-adenosyl-L-methionine
-
mutant enzyme K284A/K285A
0.03
-
S-adenosyl-L-methionine
-
mutant enzyme D73A, mutant enzyme M168A, mutant enzyme Q301A
0.04
-
S-adenosyl-L-methionine
-
mutant enzyme K111A, mutant enzyme V306A
0.05
-
S-adenosyl-L-methionine
-
wild-type enzyme, mutant enzyme D71A
0.058
-
S-adenosyl-L-methionine
-
wild-type enzyme
0.08
-
S-adenosyl-L-methionine
-
mutant enzyme N39A
0.0068
-
unmethylated 30-mer DNA
P20589
pH 8.5, 37C
-
0.013
-
DNA
O88508, O88509
enzyme Dnmt3A, in presence of Dnmt3L
additional information
-
additional information
-
-
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
turnover-numbers for hybrid enzymes
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
-
-
Ki VALUE [mM]
Ki VALUE [mM] Maximum
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.00689
-
(-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate
-
substrate: poly(dI-dC)/poly(dI-dC)
0.016
-
5'-(3-aminopropylthio)-5'-deoxyadenosine
P05102
-
0.037
-
5'-(3-aminopropylthio)-5'-deoxyadenosine
P20589
pH 8.5, 37C
0.013
-
5'-(3-carboxypropylthio)-5'-deoxyadenosine
P05102
-
0.044
-
S-(2'-deoxy-b -D-ribofuranosyladenosin-5'-yl)-L-homocysteine
P05102
-
0.069
-
S-(2'-deoxy-b -D-ribofuranosyladenosin-5'-yl)-L-homocysteine
P20589
pH 8.5, 37C
0.0081
-
S-(N6 -benzoyladenosin-5'-yl)-L-homocysteine
P05102
-
0.032
-
S-(N6 -benzoyladenosin-5'-yl)-L-homocysteine
P20589
pH 8.5, 37C
0.059
-
S-adenosin-5'-yl-L-homocysteine methylamide
P05102
-
0.29
-
S-adenosin-5'-yl-L-homocysteine methylamide
P20589
pH 8.5, 37C
0.000015
-
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
P05102
-
0.000069
-
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
P20589
pH 8.5, 37C
0.00033
-
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
-
-
0.027
-
S-cytid-5'-yl-L-homocysteine
P05102
-
0.23
-
5'-(3-carboxypropylthio)-5'-deoxyadenosine
P20589
pH 8.5, 37C
additional information
-
additional information
-
inhibition by mechanism-based inhibitors and kinetics, detailed overview
-
IC50 VALUE [mM]
IC50 VALUE [mM] Maximum
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.045
-
1-deaza-S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
-
isoform DNMT1, in 50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.6, 5% (v/v) glycerol, 1 mM EDTA, 0.1 mg/ml bovine serum albumin, 1 mM dithiothreitol, at 37C
0.0029
-
2-amino-4-([[(2S,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-amino-2-chloro-9H-purin-9-yl)-3,4-dihydroxytetrahydrofuran-2-yl]methyl]sulfanyl)butanoic acid
-
isoform DNMT1, in 50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.6, 5% (v/v) glycerol, 1 mM EDTA, 0.1 mg/ml bovine serum albumin, 1 mM dithiothreitol, at 37C
0.0572
-
2-amino-4-([[(2S,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-amino-2-chloro-9H-purin-9-yl)-3,4-dihydroxytetrahydrofuran-2-yl]methyl]sulfanyl)butanoic acid
-
isoform DNMT3b2, in 50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.6, 5% (v/v) glycerol, 1 mM EDTA, 0.1 mg/ml bovine serum albumin, 1 mM dithiothreitol, at 37C
0.0025
-
2-amino-4-([[(2S,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-amino-2-fluoro-9H-purin-9-yl)-3,4-dihydroxytetrahydrofuran-2-yl]methyl]sulfanyl)butanoic acid
-
isoform DNMT1, in 50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.6, 5% (v/v) glycerol, 1 mM EDTA, 0.1 mg/ml bovine serum albumin, 1 mM dithiothreitol, at 37C
0.0068
-
2-amino-4-([[(2S,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-amino-2-fluoro-9H-purin-9-yl)-3,4-dihydroxytetrahydrofuran-2-yl]methyl]sulfanyl)butanoic acid
-
isoform DNMT3b2, in 50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.6, 5% (v/v) glycerol, 1 mM EDTA, 0.1 mg/ml bovine serum albumin, 1 mM dithiothreitol, at 37C
0.021
-
2-amino-4-([[(2S,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-amino-2-iodo-9H-purin-9-yl)-3,4-dihydroxytetrahydrofuran-2-yl]methyl]sulfanyl)butanoic acid
-
isoform DNMT1, in 50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.6, 5% (v/v) glycerol, 1 mM EDTA, 0.1 mg/ml bovine serum albumin, 1 mM dithiothreitol, at 37C
0.256
-
2-amino-4-([[(2S,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-amino-2-iodo-9H-purin-9-yl)-3,4-dihydroxytetrahydrofuran-2-yl]methyl]sulfanyl)butanoic acid
-
isoform DNMT3b2, in 50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.6, 5% (v/v) glycerol, 1 mM EDTA, 0.1 mg/ml bovine serum albumin, 1 mM dithiothreitol, at 37C
0.075
-
2-amino-4-([[(2S,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-amino-2-methoxy-9H-purin-9-yl)-3,4-dihydroxytetrahydrofuran-2-yl]methyl]sulfanyl)butanoic acid
-
isoform DNMT1, in 50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.6, 5% (v/v) glycerol, 1 mM EDTA, 0.1 mg/ml bovine serum albumin, 1 mM dithiothreitol, at 37C
0.001
-
2-amino-4-([[(2S,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-amino-2-methyl-9H-purin-9-yl)-3,4-dihydroxytetrahydrofuran-2-yl]methyl]sulfanyl)butanoic acid
-
isoform DNMT3b2, in 50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.6, 5% (v/v) glycerol, 1 mM EDTA, 0.1 mg/ml bovine serum albumin, 1 mM dithiothreitol, at 37C
0.006
-
2-amino-4-([[(2S,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-amino-2-methyl-9H-purin-9-yl)-3,4-dihydroxytetrahydrofuran-2-yl]methyl]sulfanyl)butanoic acid
-
isoform DNMT1, in 50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.6, 5% (v/v) glycerol, 1 mM EDTA, 0.1 mg/ml bovine serum albumin, 1 mM dithiothreitol, at 37C
0.216
-
2-amino-4-[([(2S,3S,4R,5R)-5-[6-amino-2-(methylsulfanyl)-9H-purin-9-yl]-3,4-dihydroxytetrahydrofuran-2-yl]methyl)sulfanyl]butanoic acid
-
isoform DNMT1, in 50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.6, 5% (v/v) glycerol, 1 mM EDTA, 0.1 mg/ml bovine serum albumin, 1 mM dithiothreitol, at 37C
0.5
-
2-amino-4-[([(2S,3S,4R,5R)-5-[6-amino-2-(methylsulfanyl)-9H-purin-9-yl]-3,4-dihydroxytetrahydrofuran-2-yl]methyl)sulfanyl]butanoic acid
-
isoform DNMT3b2, in 50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.6, 5% (v/v) glycerol, 1 mM EDTA, 0.1 mg/ml bovine serum albumin, 1 mM dithiothreitol, at 37C
0.045
-
3-deaza-S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
-
isoform DNMT1, in 50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.6, 5% (v/v) glycerol, 1 mM EDTA, 0.1 mg/ml bovine serum albumin, 1 mM dithiothreitol, at 37C
0.008
-
8-aza-S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
-
isoform DNMT1, in 50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.6, 5% (v/v) glycerol, 1 mM EDTA, 0.1 mg/ml bovine serum albumin, 1 mM dithiothreitol, at 37C
0.017
-
NSC 14778
-
isozyme Dnmt3b
0.092
-
NSC 14778
-
isozyme Dnmt1
0.045
-
S-(1-deazaadenosyl)-L-homocysteine
-
isoform DNMT3b2, in 50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.6, 5% (v/v) glycerol, 1 mM EDTA, 0.1 mg/ml bovine serum albumin, 1 mM dithiothreitol, at 37C
0.0068
-
S-(3-Deazaadenosyl)-L-homocysteine
-
isoform DNMT3b2, in 50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.6, 5% (v/v) glycerol, 1 mM EDTA, 0.1 mg/ml bovine serum albumin, 1 mM dithiothreitol, at 37C
0.003
-
S-(8-Azaadenosyl)-L-homocysteine
-
isoform DNMT3b2, in 50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.6, 5% (v/v) glycerol, 1 mM EDTA, 0.1 mg/ml bovine serum albumin, 1 mM dithiothreitol, at 37C
0.0067
-
S-(N-(2-biphenyl-4-ylethyl)-2-chloroadenosyl)-L-homocysteine
-
isoform DNMT1, in 50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.6, 5% (v/v) glycerol, 1 mM EDTA, 0.1 mg/ml bovine serum albumin, 1 mM dithiothreitol, at 37C
0.029
-
S-(N-(2-biphenyl-4-ylethyl)-2-chloroadenosyl)-L-homocysteine
-
isoform DNMT3b2, in 50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.6, 5% (v/v) glycerol, 1 mM EDTA, 0.1 mg/ml bovine serum albumin, 1 mM dithiothreitol, at 37C
0.0006
-
S-(N-(2-biphenyl-4-ylethyl)adenosyl)-L-homocysteine
-
isoform DNMT3b2, in 50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.6, 5% (v/v) glycerol, 1 mM EDTA, 0.1 mg/ml bovine serum albumin, 1 mM dithiothreitol, at 37C
0.0054
-
S-(N-(2-biphenyl-4-ylethyl)adenosyl)-L-homocysteine
-
isoform DNMT1, in 50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.6, 5% (v/v) glycerol, 1 mM EDTA, 0.1 mg/ml bovine serum albumin, 1 mM dithiothreitol, at 37C
0.0009
-
S-(N-(3,5-dimethoxybenzyl)adenosyl)-L-homocysteine
-
isoform DNMT3b2, in 50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.6, 5% (v/v) glycerol, 1 mM EDTA, 0.1 mg/ml bovine serum albumin, 1 mM dithiothreitol, at 37C
0.018
-
S-(N-(3,5-dimethoxybenzyl)adenosyl)-L-homocysteine
-
isoform DNMT1, in 50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.6, 5% (v/v) glycerol, 1 mM EDTA, 0.1 mg/ml bovine serum albumin, 1 mM dithiothreitol, at 37C
0.0036
-
S-(N-(pyridin-4-ylmethyl)adenosyl)-L-homocysteine
-
isoform DNMT3b2, in 50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.6, 5% (v/v) glycerol, 1 mM EDTA, 0.1 mg/ml bovine serum albumin, 1 mM dithiothreitol, at 37C
0.022
-
S-(N-(pyridin-4-ylmethyl)adenosyl)-L-homocysteine
-
isoform DNMT1, in 50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.6, 5% (v/v) glycerol, 1 mM EDTA, 0.1 mg/ml bovine serum albumin, 1 mM dithiothreitol, at 37C
0.001
-
S-(N-benzyladenosyl)-L-homocysteine
-
isoform DNMT3b2, in 50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.6, 5% (v/v) glycerol, 1 mM EDTA, 0.1 mg/ml bovine serum albumin, 1 mM dithiothreitol, at 37C
0.061
-
S-(N-benzyladenosyl)-L-homocysteine
-
isoform DNMT1, in 50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.6, 5% (v/v) glycerol, 1 mM EDTA, 0.1 mg/ml bovine serum albumin, 1 mM dithiothreitol, at 37C
0.002
-
S-(N-phenyladenosyl)-L-homocysteine
-
isoform DNMT3b2, in 50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.6, 5% (v/v) glycerol, 1 mM EDTA, 0.1 mg/ml bovine serum albumin, 1 mM dithiothreitol, at 37C
0.154
-
S-(N-phenyladenosyl)-L-homocysteine
-
isoform DNMT1, in 50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.6, 5% (v/v) glycerol, 1 mM EDTA, 0.1 mg/ml bovine serum albumin, 1 mM dithiothreitol, at 37C
0.002
-
S-(N-phenylethyladenosyl)-L-homocysteine
-
isoform DNMT3b2, in 50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.6, 5% (v/v) glycerol, 1 mM EDTA, 0.1 mg/ml bovine serum albumin, 1 mM dithiothreitol, at 37C
0.027
-
S-(N-phenylethyladenosyl)-L-homocysteine
-
isoform DNMT1, in 50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.6, 5% (v/v) glycerol, 1 mM EDTA, 0.1 mg/ml bovine serum albumin, 1 mM dithiothreitol, at 37C
0.0006
-
S-(N-phenylpropyladenosyl)-L-homocysteine
-
isoform DNMT3b2, in 50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.6, 5% (v/v) glycerol, 1 mM EDTA, 0.1 mg/ml bovine serum albumin, 1 mM dithiothreitol, at 37C
0.0074
-
S-(N-phenylpropyladenosyl)-L-homocysteine
-
isoform DNMT1, in 50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.6, 5% (v/v) glycerol, 1 mM EDTA, 0.1 mg/ml bovine serum albumin, 1 mM dithiothreitol, at 37C
0.05
-
S-adenosyl-L-ethionine
-
IC50: 0.05 mM
0.0003
-
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
-
isoform DNMT3b2, in 50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.6, 5% (v/v) glycerol, 1 mM EDTA, 0.1 mg/ml bovine serum albumin, 1 mM dithiothreitol, at 37C
0.002
-
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
-
isoform DNMT1, in 50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.6, 5% (v/v) glycerol, 1 mM EDTA, 0.1 mg/ml bovine serum albumin, 1 mM dithiothreitol, at 37C
1
-
S-inosinylhomocysteine
-
IC50 above 1 mM, isoform DNMT1, in 50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.6, 5% (v/v) glycerol, 1 mM EDTA, 0.1 mg/ml bovine serum albumin, 1 mM dithiothreitol, at 37C; IC50 above 1 mM, isoform DNMT3b2, in 50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.6, 5% (v/v) glycerol, 1 mM EDTA, 0.1 mg/ml bovine serum albumin, 1 mM dithiothreitol, at 37C
0.028
-
S-nebularinehomocysteine
-
isoform DNMT3b2, in 50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.6, 5% (v/v) glycerol, 1 mM EDTA, 0.1 mg/ml bovine serum albumin, 1 mM dithiothreitol, at 37C
0.3
-
S-nebularinehomocysteine
-
isoform DNMT1, in 50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.6, 5% (v/v) glycerol, 1 mM EDTA, 0.1 mg/ml bovine serum albumin, 1 mM dithiothreitol, at 37C
0.0003
-
S-Tubercidinylhomocysteine
-
isoform DNMT3b2, in 50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.6, 5% (v/v) glycerol, 1 mM EDTA, 0.1 mg/ml bovine serum albumin, 1 mM dithiothreitol, at 37C
0.0015
-
S-Tubercidinylhomocysteine
-
isoform DNMT1, in 50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.6, 5% (v/v) glycerol, 1 mM EDTA, 0.1 mg/ml bovine serum albumin, 1 mM dithiothreitol, at 37C
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
0.000013
-
-
-
0.0000166
-
-
-
0.000107
-
-
-
0.0011
-
-
-
0.00115
-
-
-
0.0013
-
B1Q3J6, Q7Y1I7
purified enzyme with substrate hemi-methylated DNA substrate poly(dI-mdC)poly(dI-dC); purified enzyme with substrate hemi-methylated DNA substrate poly(dI-mdC)poly(dI-dC)
additional information
-
-
-
additional information
-
-
-
additional information
-
-
-
additional information
-
-
-
additional information
-
O88508, O88509
;
additional information
-
Q94F88
CG methylation, CNG methylation, and CNN methylation rates, overview
pH OPTIMUM
pH MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
6.5
7.8
O88508, O88509
Dnmt3b
6.5
-
-
-
7
7.5
-
-
7
7.8
O88508, O88509
Dnmt3a
7.5
-
-
assay at
7.5
-
Q8X8S5
assay at
7.6
8
B1Q3J6, Q7Y1I7
;
7.8
-
-
assay at
8
-
-
assay at
pH RANGE
pH RANGE MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
6
9
-
about 50% of maximal activity at pH 6 and pH 9
7.6
8.7
-
50% of maximal activity at pH 7.6 and at pH 8.7
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
25
-
B1Q3J6, Q7Y1I7
;
37
-
-
assay at
37
-
-
assay at
37
-
B3PM23, -
assay at
37
-
Q8X8S5
assay at
additional information
-
-
assay carried out at room temperature
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SOURCE
B1Q3J6, Q7Y1I7
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
germinating embryo
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
Dnmt1 is removed from embryonic cells before gastrulation to be synthesized again at different levels in different cell types
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
early embryogenesis
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
an asynchronously proliferating population of carcinoma cells
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
different levels of global methylation in the adult rat dentate gyrus and CA1 region in comparison with the CA2 and CA3 regions. mRNA levels of DNA methyltransferases exhibit similar regional specificity and are correlated with global DNA methylation levels
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
colon cancer
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
esophageal cancer
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
B1Q3J6, Q7Y1I7
only the OsMET1-1 mRNAis slightly accumulated in young leaves, in which virtually no OsMET1-2 transcripts is detectable
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
neoplastically-transformed; neoplastically-transformed; neoplastically-transformed
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
cortical, hippocampal, and striatal GABAergic neurons
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
the somatic form of Dnmt1 is present in association with chromatin in MII-stage oocytes as well as in the nucleus throughout preimplantation development. At the early one-cell stage, somatic Dnmt1 is asymmetrically localized in the maternal pronuclei. Thereafter, somatic Dnmt1 is recruited to the paternal genome during pronuclear maturation. During the first two cell cycles after fertilization, Dnmt1s is exported from the nucleus in the G2 phase in a CRM1/exportin-dependent manner
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q24K09
during differentiation, Dnmt1 is retained in the cytoplasm in metaphase II stage oocytes and zygotes but enters the nuclei of 8-16 cell stage embryos
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
O55055, O88508
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
prostate cancer
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
soft tissue of
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q9Z330
the enzyme is highly expressed in placenta during mid-to late-pregnancy
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q9Z330
the enzyme is regulated at the posttranscriptional level in terminally differentiating Rcho-1 cell
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
a human colorectal carcinoma cell line
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
B1Q3J6, Q7Y1I7
young
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
immunohistochemical analysis
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
pleomorphic adenoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma and polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma of lower lip, buccal mucosa, mandible, tongue, floor, or palate. Positive nuclear and cytoplasmic labeling for DNMT1 occurs in all samples, positive nuclear labeling for DNMT3a occurs only in few neoplasms: 1 pleomorphic adenoma, 2 adenoid cystic carcinoma and 1 mucoepidermoid cases, immunohistochemical
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
B1Q3J6, Q7Y1I7
DNA MTase activity is remarkably increased during imbibing dry seeds; DNA MTase activity is remarkably increased during imbibing dry seeds
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
B1Q3J6, Q7Y1I7
;
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
B1Q3J6, Q7Y1I7
;
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
cell lines TE-3 and TE-12
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
CD4+, ranscript levels of DNA methyltransferases DNMT1, DNMT3A and DNMT3B in CD4+ T cells from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, an autoimmune disease with CD4+ T cells with hypomethylated DNA. It is possible that patients are reacting indirectly to an underlying DNA hypomethylation status by increasing the mRNA levels of DNA methyltransferases when the disease is definitely active, overview
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
O88508, O88509
;
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
B lymphoblast cell line containing wild-type p53. The interaction between p53 and DNMT1 controls DNA methylation of the p16ink4A promoter that consequently reduces the level of the p16ink4A
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
B lymphoblast cell line with mutant p53. Mutant p53 loses its ability to suppress DNMT1 expression, and thus enhances methylation levels of the p16ink4A promoter and subsequently down-regulates p16ink4A protein
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
Dnmt1 is removed from embryonic cells before gastrulation to be synthesized again at different levels in different cell types
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
expression is confined mostly to the rapidly dividing tissues of the plant
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
Q24K09
immunohistochemic analysis
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
B1Q3J6, B9FJ44, Q10C15, Q10SU5, Q8H854, Q8SBB4
microarray-based gene expression profile of all 10 MTases during 22 stages and tissues that include 14 stages of reproductive development and five vegetative tissues together with three stresses, cold, salt and dehydration stress, revealing specific windows of MTase activity during panicle and seed development, overview; microarray-based gene expression profile of all 10 MTases during 22 stages and tissues that include 14 stages of reproductive development and five vegetative tissues together with three stresses, cold, salt and dehydration stress, revealing specific windows of MTase activity during panicle and seed development, overview; microarray-based gene expression profile of all 10 MTases during 22 stages and tissues that include 14 stages of reproductive development and five vegetative tissues together with three stresses, cold, salt and dehydration stress, revealing specific windows of MTase activity during panicle and seed development, overview; microarray-based gene expression profile of all 10 MTases during 22 stages and tissues that include 14 stages of reproductive development and five vegetative tissues together with three stresses, cold, salt and dehydration stress, revealing specific windows of MTase activity during panicle and seed development, overview; microarray-based gene expression profile of all 10 MTases during 22 stages and tissues that include 14 stages of reproductive development and five vegetative tissues together with three stresses, cold, salt and dehydration stress, revealing specific windows of MTase activity during panicle and seed development, overview; microarray-based gene expression profile of all 10 MTases during 22 stages and tissues that include 14 stages of reproductive development and five vegetative tissues together with three stresses, cold, salt and dehydration stress, revealing specific windows of MTase activity during panicle and seed development, overview
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
DNMT1 is constitutively expressed
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
DNMTs are overexpressed in tumorigenic cell lines and in a few types of human neoplasms
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
B1Q3J6, Q7Y1I7
only the OsMET1-1 mRNAis slightly accumulated in young leaves, in which virtually no OsMET1-2 transcripts is detectable
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
the somatic form of Dnmt1 is present in association with chromatin in MII-stage oocytes as well as in the nucleus throughout preimplantation development. At the early one-cell stage, somatic Dnmt1 is asymmetrically localized in the maternal pronuclei. Thereafter, somatic Dnmt1 is recruited to the paternal genome during pronuclear maturation. During the first two cell cycles after fertilization, Dnmt1s is exported from the nucleus in the G2 phase in a CRM1/exportin-dependent manner
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
subcellular localization of DNMT1 can be altered by the addition of IL-6, increasing the rate of nuclear translocation of the enzyme from the cytosolic compartment. The mechanism of nuclear translocation of DNMT1 is greatly enhanced by phosphorylation of the DNMT1 nuclear localization signal (NLS) by PKB/AKT kinase
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q24K09
during differentiation, Dnmt1 is retained in the cytoplasm in metaphase II stage oocytes and zygotes but enters the nuclei of 8-16 cell stage embryos
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
subcellular localization of DNMT1 can be altered by the addition of IL-6, increasing the rate of nuclear translocation of the enzyme from the cytosolic compartment. The mechanism of nuclear translocation of DNMT1 is greatly enhanced by phosphorylation of the DNMT1 nuclear localization signal (NLS) by PKB/AKT kinase
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
the somatic form of Dnmt1 is present in association with chromatin in MII-stage oocytes as well as in the nucleus throughout preimplantation development. At the early one-cell stage, somatic Dnmt1 is asymmetrically localized in the maternal pronuclei. Thereafter, somatic Dnmt1 is recruited to the paternal genome during pronuclear maturation. During the first two cell cycles after fertilization, Dnmt1s is exported from the nucleus in the G2 phase in a CRM1/exportin-dependent manner
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q24K09
during differentiation, Dnmt1 is retained in the cytoplasm in metaphase II stage oocytes and zygotes but enters the nuclei of 8-16 cell stage embryos
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
DNMT1 and DNMT3a
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
B1Q3J6, Q7Y1I7
DNA MTase is enriched in nuclei; DNA MTase is enriched in nuclei
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
the somatic form of Dnmt1 is present in association with chromatin in MII-stage oocytes as well as in the nucleus throughout preimplantation development. At the early one-cell stage, somatic Dnmt1 is asymmetrically localized in the maternal pronuclei. Thereafter, somatic Dnmt1 is recruited to the paternal genome during pronuclear maturation. During the first two cell cycles after fertilization, Dnmt1s is exported from the nucleus in the G2 phase in a CRM1/exportin-dependent manner
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
both Tdg and Dnmt3b are colocalized to heterochromatin
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
if DNA methylation occurs in plastids, is unlikely to play a role in transcriptional regulation
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
PDB
SCOP
CATH
ORGANISM
Mycoplasma penetrans (strain HF-2)
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
MOLECULAR WEIGHT MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
48000
54000
-
gel filtration
50000
55000
-
gel filtration, sucrose density gradient centrifugation
54000
-
-
sucrose density gradient centrifugation
115000
-
-
glycerol gradient centrifugation
120000
-
-
glycerol density gradient sedimentation
130000
-
-
glycerol density gradient centrifugation
135000
-
-
glycerol gradient centrifugation
150000
200000
-
gel filtration
160000
170000
B1Q3J6, Q7Y1I7
gel filtration; gel filtration
170000
-
-
hybrid enzymes Dnmt1-HhaI and Dnmt1-HpaII
175000
-
-
somatic Dnmt1
180000
205000
-
gel filtration
190000
-
-
oocyte Dnmt1
240000
-
-
gel filtration
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
?
-
x * 80000, SDS-PAGE
?
-
x * 190000, SDS-PAGE
?
Q60171
x * 59000, isoform II, SDS-PAGE; x * 66000, isoform I, SDS-PAGE
?
-, Q76DK3
x * 150000, SDS-PAGE
heterodimer
-
DNA methyltransferase M.EcoHK31I is a natural heterodimer
monomer
-
1 * 49000, at low concentrations, less than 0.4 mg/ml, the enzyme is a monomer in solution but at higher concentrations, greater than 3.0 mg/ml it exists predominantly as a dimer, SDS-PAGE
monomer
-
1 * 200000, SDS-PAGE
additional information
-
the apparent molecular weights of the GST-fused Dnmt3a, Dnmt3b1 and Dnmt3b2 are 130000 Da, 120000 Da and 115000 Da, as determined by SDS-PAGE
additional information
-
the conserved CXXC domain encompassing the amino terminus region of DNMT1 cooperates with the catalytic domain for DNA methyltransferase activity, and binds to unmethylated CpG
additional information
-
Dnmt1 molecular modeling, overview
additional information
-
homology model for DNMT1 based on the template structures of the available comparable protein crystal structures, molecular dynamics, overview
additional information
-
Dnmt1 has a small catalytid C-terminal domain and a large regulatory domain at the N-terminal, the two domains are linked by 12 Gly-Lys repeats, structure, overview
additional information
B1Q3J6, B9FJ44, Q10C15, Q10SU5, Q8H854, Q8SBB4
domain structures of isozymes, overview; domain structures of isozymes, overview; domain structures of isozymes, overview; domain structures of isozymes, overview; domain structures of isozymes, overview; domain structures of isozymes, overview
additional information
-
Dnmt3b is composed of multiple domains. The C-terminus contains the catalytic domain which harbors conserved C-5 DNA methyltransferase motif that are necessary for catalyzing methyl transfer from the cofactor S-adenosyl-L-methionine to the target cytosine. The N-terminus contains a PWWP domain and an ATRX-like domain, so called because it shares homology with the alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome, X-linked, i.e. ATRX, protein
POSTTRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
phosphoprotein
-
IL-6 enhances the nuclear translocation of DNA cytosine-5-methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) via phosphorylation of the nuclear localization sequence by the AKT kinase
proteolytic modification
-
at blastula stage a proteolytic mechanism hydrolyses the enzyme present in all embryonic cells by removing a peptide of about 45000 Da from the amino terminal region of the 190000 Da enzyme initially synthesized on maternal transcripts. The resulting 145000 Da enzyme shows modified catalytic properties, different antibody reactivity and is rapidly destroyed in the few hours before gastrulation
Crystallization/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
crystal structure of the cytosine-5-methyltransferase EhMeth at a resolution of 2.15 A is presented in complex with its reaction product S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine. In contrast to the human DNMT2 structure, the active site loop (residues 80-100) of EhMeth is well defined and clearly forms an alpha-helix
-
crystal structures of HhaI methyltransferase complexed with cognate unmethylated or methylated DNA together with S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
-
TEMPERATURE STABILITY
TEMPERATURE STABILITY MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
4
-
-
stable for 5 days
30
-
-
15 min, stable
37
-
-
rather unstable
42
-
-
half-life: 48 s
65
-
-
20 min, inactivation
GENERAL STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
glycerol stabilizes
-
STORAGE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
-20C, 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.4, 1 mM dithioerythritol, 0.005% Brij 58, 50% glycerol, M.BsuRIa loses 10% of its activity and M.BsuRIb loses about 30% of its activity after 3 months
-
-20C, enzyme loses activity within several weeks
-
-70C, stable for at least several weeks
-
-80C, 30% glycerol, activity decays at a rate of about 15% in 2 weeks
-
-80C, little loss of activity after 4 weeks, significant loss of activity after 6 weeks
-
-80C, stable for at least 3 weeks
-
-20C, hexahistidine-tagged enzyme is stable for several months
-
-20C, hybrid enzymes Dnmt1-HhaI and Dnmt1-HpaII are stable for several weeks
-
-80C, stable for at least 3 weeks
-
-20C, stable for more than 2 months
-
4C, stable for 5 days
-
-70C, the purified enzyme preparation is stable for at least 6 months
-
4C, the purified enzyme preparation is rather unstable
-
Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
M.BsuRIa and M.BsuRIb
-
partial
-
recombinant His6-tagged enzyme from Escherichia coli strain BW25113 by nickel affinity chromatography
Q8X8S5
expressed as N-terminal fusion at ATC149-151 or ATG344-345 to histidine taggs
Q60171
DNMT3B copurifies with several components of the condensin complex and KIF4A
-
Hitrap SP-Sepharose column chromatography; Q-Sepharose column chromatography and Hitrap heparin column chromatography
-
;
O88508, O88509
Dnmt1-HhaI and Dnmt1-HpaII hybrid enzymes
-
Dnmt3a copurifies with a histone H3 methyltransferase and Hdac1; Dnmt3b copurifies with Dnmt1
O88508, O88509
recombinant Dnmt3a, Dnmt3b1 and Dnmt3b2, GST-fused Dnmt3
-
recombinant enzyme
-
recombinant forms of full-length Dnmt1 and a truncated form of Dnmt1-(2911620) lacking the binding sites for PCNA and DNA
-
native enzyme from nuclear extracts from shoots of 10-day-old rice seedlings, 800fold by anion exchange and heparin affinity chromatography, and gel filtration; native enzyme from nuclear extracts from shoots of 10-day-old rice seedlings, 800fold by anion exchange and heparin affinity chromatography, and gel filtration
B1Q3J6, Q7Y1I7
recombinant His6-tagged SssI from Escherichia coli strain ER1821 by cobalt affinity chromatography
-
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
-
Bacillus subtilis phage PHI3T
-
expression analysis by RT-PCR
Q24K09
expression in Sf9 cells
-, Q76DK3
DNMT2 controls retrotransposon silencing and 2R and 3R telomere integrity in somatic cells, overview
-
overexpression of Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b
-
expressed in Escherichia coli
-
construction of pDIM-N7 and pAR for expression of M.EcoHK31I fragments, construction of pDIM-N7 Tyr123-alpha and pAR beta-Tyr456 plasmids for combinatorial library, the recombinantly expressed M.EcoHK31I enzyme is functional in vivo when the two fragments are encoded as separate genes, overview
-
gene z2389, located within the genome of prophage CP-933R, sequence comparisonsn, expression of His6-tagged enzyme under the control of an arabinose-inducible promoter in Escherichia coli strain BW25113
Q8X8S5
enzyme MET1 is encoded by DRM, i.e domain-rearranged methyltransferase, genes FaDRMa, FaDRMb and FaDRMc, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, DRMa expression analysis and phylogenetic analysis, overview; enzyme MET1 is encoded by DRM, i.e domain-rearranged methyltransferase, genes FaDRMa, FaDRMb and FaDRMc, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, DRMb expression analysis and phylogenetic analysis, overview
C4P086, C4P087, -
expression in Escherichia coli and Bacillus stearothermophilus, expressed as N-terminal fusion at ATC149-151 or ATG344-345 to histidine taggs
Q60171
expression in Escherichia coli
-
M.HhaI overexpression in Escherichia coli strain ER1727
-
DNMT1 and DNMT3a, expression analysis of the isozymes in salivary gland neoplasmata
-
DNMT1, overexpression of HA-tagged CXXC deletion DNMT1 mutant, expression of wild-type and deletion mutant enzymes in COS-7 cells and Escherichia coli, CXXC deleted DNMT1, mutant DNMT1DELTACXXC, is localized on replication foci
-
expressed in High Five insect cells; expressed in High Five insect cells
-
expression in Sf9 cells
-
expression of the enzyme by using a protein splicing fusion partner in a baculovirus expression vector
-
transcript levels of DNA methyltransferases DNMT1, DNMT3A and DNMT3B in CD4+ T cells from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, phenotype, overview
-
co-expression of Dnmt3b with Tdg or Mbd4 in HEK293T cells
-
construction of three hybrid methyltransferases, containing the intact N-terminus of the murine Dnmt1 and most of the coding sequences from M.HhaI (GCGC), M.HpaII (CCGG) or M.SssI (CG). The hybrids are biologically active when expressed in a baculovirus system and show the specificity of the parental C-terminal domain
-
DNA (cytosine C5) methyltransferase-1, fused to an amino-terminal hexahistidine tag, is expressed by infecting Spodoptera frugiperda cells for 46 h with a recombinant baculovirus carrying the DNA (cytosine-C5)methyltransferase-1 cDNA
-
DNMT1, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, expression of wild-type and mutants in Escherichia coli
-
expression in a baculovirus/Sf9 cell system
-
expression in Escherichia coli
-
expression in Sf9 cell; expression in Sf9 cell
O88508, O88509
somatic Dnmt1 from liver, expression analysis of somatic and oocyte Dnmt1, recombinant expression in NIH3T3 cells
-
gene Marth_orf138, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, expression in Escherichia coli
B3PM23, -
expression in Sf9 cells
-
gene MET1-1, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis; gene MET1-2, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis
B1Q3J6, Q7Y1I7
gene MET1B or MET1-2, phylogenetic analysis, microarray-based gene expression profile of all 10 MTases during 22 stages and tissues that include 14 stages of reproductive development and five vegetative tissues together with three stresses, cold, salt and dehydration stress, revealing specific windows of MTase activity during panicle and seed development, overview; gene OsCMT1, phylogenetic analysis, microarray-based gene expression profile of all 10 MTases during 22 stages and tissues that include 14 stages of reproductive development and five vegetative tissues together with three stresses, cold, salt and dehydration stress, revealing specific windows of MTase activity during panicle and seed development, overview; gene Zmt3, phylogenetic analysis, microarray-based gene expression profile of all 10 MTases during 22 stages and tissues that include 14 stages of reproductive development and five vegetative tissues together with three stresses, cold, salt and dehydration stress, revealing specific windows of MTase activity during panicle and seed development, overview; phylogenetic analysis, microarray-based gene expression profile of all 10 MTases during 22 stages and tissues that include 14 stages of reproductive development and five vegetative tissues together with three stresses, cold, salt and dehydration stress, revealing specific windows of MTase activity during panicle and seed development, overview; phylogenetic analysis, microarray-based gene expression profile of all 10 MTases during 22 stages and tissues that include 14 stages of reproductive development and five vegetative tissues together with three stresses, cold, salt and dehydration stress, revealing specific windows of MTase activity during panicle and seed development, overview; phylogenetic analysis, microarray-based gene expression profile of all 10 MTases during 22 stages and tissues that include 14 stages of reproductive development and five vegetative tissues together with three stresses, cold, salt and dehydration stress, revealing specific windows of MTase activity during panicle and seed development, overview
B1Q3J6, B9FJ44, Q10C15, Q10SU5, Q8H854, Q8SBB4
expression of wild-type and mutant enzymes in Escherichia coli
-
expression of His6-tagged SssI in Escherichia coli strain ER1821
-
gene slr021, expression in Nicotiana tabacum cv. Petit Havana young leaves, analysis of DNA methylation in the plastid genome of transgeneic plants, overview
-
EXPRESSION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
nicotine decreases DNA methyltransferase 1 expression in in cortical and hippocampal but not in striatal GABAergic interneurons, while DNMT1 mRNA content in the liver fails to change after nicotine treatment, overview. Mecamylamine but not hexamethonium blocks nicotine-induced downregulation of DNMT1 expression. The downregulation proceeds via selective stimulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, nAChR, overview
-
ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
D73A
-
25fold improvement in affinity to S-adenosyl-L-methionine
M168A
-
4fold enhancement in the ratio of turnover number/Km-value(DNA, mainly caused be change in Km)
N39A
-
4fold enhancement in the ratio of turnover number/Km-value(DNA)
Q301A
-
40fold decreased Km-ratio of turnover number/Km-value(DNA) and an 80fold increased Kd(DNA)-value
V282A
-
4fold improvement in catalytic turnover
C667G
-
zinc-finger-domain point mutation in the CXXC motif abolishes unmethylated DNA binding activity
C667G/C670G
-
zinc-finger-domain point mutation in the CXXC motif abolishes unmethylated DNA binding activity
C670G
-
zinc-finger-domain point mutation in the CXXC motif abolishes unmethylated DNA binding activity
DELAT1-501
-
to accelerate the rate of DNMT1 with the hemimethylated substrate, the 501 amino acids at the N terminus are deleted. Truncated DNMT1 exhibits a 4fold increased kcat/Km as compared with the full-length enzyme and does not require allosteric activation by hemimethylated DNA
DELTA1-501
-
no stimulation by methylated DNA
DELTA1-540
-
no stimulation by methylated DNA
DELTA1-580
-
no stimulation by methylated DNA
H286A/R287A
-
allosteric activation by methylated DNA is reduced, 6.5 fold decrease in the ratio turnover number/Km-value compared to wild-type enzyme
S277P
-
naturally occuring mutation causing recessive genetic disorder, ICF syndrome, the mutation does not affect the association of Dnmt3b with Mbd4 or Tdg
V612A
-
naturally occuring mutation causing recessive genetic disorder, ICF syndrome, the mutation does not affect the association of Dnmt3b with Mbd4 or Tdg
A34V/K44Q/M66T/L214S/Y229H
-
isolation of a relaxed-specificity mutant of the enzyme also methylates, at a lower rate, GG(G/C)CC sites
L214S/Y229H
-
isolation of a relaxed-specificity mutant of the enzyme also methylates, at a lower rate, GG(G/C)CC sites
N172S
-
isolation of a relaxed-specificity mutant of the enzyme also methylates, at a lower rate, GG(G/C)CC sites, the mutant enzyme displays enhanced protection of the cell DNA against the Sau96I endonuclease. The protection is not sufficient to support long-term survival in the presence of the inducer, which is consistent with incomplete methylation of GG(G/C)CC sites in plasmid DNA purified from the mutant
V173L
-
isolation of a relaxed-specificity mutant of the enzyme also methylates, at a lower rate, GG(G/C)CC sites, the mutant enzyme displays enhanced protection of the cell DNA against the Sau96I endonuclease. The protection is not sufficient to support long-term survival in the presence of the inducer, which is consistent with incomplete methylation of GG(G/C)CC sites in plasmid DNA purified from the mutant
C141S
-
site-directed mutagenesis in motif IV
C368A
-
the mutation does not affect the enzyme activity
E186A
-
site-directed mutagenesis in motif VI, almost inactive mutant
K297A
-
site-directed mutagenesis in motif TRD, the mutant is resistant to Hin6I digestion
N299A
-
site-directed mutagenesis in motif TRD, the mutant is resistant to Hin6I digestion
Q147L
-
site-directed mutagenesis in motif IV, the mutant shows less than 10% of wild-type activity
R230A
-
site-directed mutagenesis in motif VIII, almost inactive mutant
R232A
-
site-directed mutagenesis in motif VIII, the mutant shows less than 10% of wild-type activity
S145A
-
site-directed mutagenesis in motif IV, the mutant shows less than 10% of wild-type activity
S2C/C141S/C368A
-
replacement of the active site Cys141 reduces the enzyme activity, while the substitutions Ser2Cys and Cys368Ala as well as a C-terminal Ser-His6 tag do not affect the enzyme activity
S317A
-
site-directed mutagenesis in motif TRD, the mutant shows about 50% of wild-type activity
T313A
-
site-directed mutagenesis in motif TRD, the mutant is resistant to Hin6I digestion
T313D
-
site-directed mutagenesis in motif TRD, almost inactive mutant
T313H
-
site-directed mutagenesis in motif TRD, almost inactive mutant
V188X
-
replacement of the conserved Val188 from the ENV motif VI results in a 5fold increased DNA binding affinity and a 2fold decreased catalytic activity
additional information
Q94F88
CG methylation is lost in a drm1/2/cmt3 mutant, and non-CG methylation is almost completely eliminated in a met1 mutant. Exceptional maintenance of methylation at a CCmTGG site in some epigenetic mutants, overview
additional information
-
enzyme overexpression does not cause an altered phenotype
additional information
-
generation of a series of null mutations by remobilization of the EP(2)GE15695 element inserted 108 bp upstream of the Dnmt2 gene. EP(2)GE15695 does not affect the Dnmt2 gene. Dnmt2 null strains show stable loss of the subtelomeric clusters of defective Invader4 elements, phenotype, overview
additional information
Q8X8S5
construction of a z2389 null mutant
additional information
-
removal of 50 amino acids from the N-terminus of the beta fragment of M.EcoHK31I severely reduces but does not eliminate methylation activity in vivo. Design of the methylation target site and fusion of the a and betaDELTA42 fragments to zinc fingers
K284A/K285A
-
allosteric activation by methylated DNA is reduced, 1.7fold decrease in the ratio turnover number/Km-value compared to wild-type enzyme
additional information
-
construction of zinc-finger-domain point mutant and deletion mutant DNMT1 clones, CXXC deleted DNMT1, i.e. mutant DNMT1DELTACXXC and DNMT1 lacking the first 580 amino acids, i.e. DNMT1DELTA580. The latter prefers binding to unmethylated DNA instead of hemimethylated or fully methylated DNA like the wild-type enzyme. Deletion of CXXC domain in DNMT1 does not affect replication foci occupancy during DNA replication. A permanent cell line with DNMT1DELTACXXC displays partial loss of genomic methylation on rDNA loci, despite the presence of endogenous wild-type enzyme
A609T
-
naturally occuring mutation causing recessive genetic disorder, ICF syndrome, the mutation does not affect the association of Dnmt3b with Mbd4 or Tdg
additional information
-
even modest increases or decreases in levels of m5C cause severe abnormalities or death in mutant mice
additional information
-
construction of several Xpress-tagged Dnmt3b C-terminal truncation mutants, Dnmt3b mutants possessing the conserved MTase motifs VI, IV or I are all capable of binding Tdg, while removal of the entire catalytic domain of Dnmt3b disrupts its interaction with Tdg. Deletion of both putative interaction regions, PWWP and I, from Dnmt3b eliminates the binding ability. Reduction of TG mismatch repair efficiency upon loss of DNA methyltransferase expression
additional information
-
construction of Dnmt1 mutants, two alleles of the endogenous Dnmt1 locus of R1 embryonic stem cells are sequentially modified using two similar targeting vectors to generate the DOX-OFF Dnmt1tet/tet cell line. The isolated 5' portion of the mouse Dnmt1 gene is used for targeted mutagenesis. Transient absence of DNMT1 expression leads to loss of imprinted methylation. In an embryonic stem cell line endogenous DNMT1s expression is extinguished by the addition of doxycycline, phenotypes, overview
APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
biotechnology
-
using a truncated and highly active form of human DNMT1 and a designed hemimethylated DNA substrate, a robust, efficient, and economical fluorescence assay is developped suitable for in vitro high-throughput screening of DNMT1
drug development
-
Dnmt inhibition is a promising strategy for the treatment of various developmental and proliferative diseases, particularly cancers