Information on EC 1.2.1.3 - aldehyde dehydrogenase (NAD+)

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota, Bacteria, Archaea

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
1.2.1.3
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
aldehyde dehydrogenase (NAD+)
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
an aldehyde + NAD+ + H2O = a carboxylate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
oxidation
redox reaction
-
-
-
-
reduction
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
alanine metabolism
-
-
alkane oxidation
-
-
Arginine and proline metabolism
-
-
aromatic biogenic amine degradation (bacteria)
-
-
Ascorbate and aldarate metabolism
-
-
beta-Alanine metabolism
-
-
Biosynthesis of antibiotics
-
-
Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
-
-
Chloroalkane and chloroalkene degradation
-
-
dimethylsulfoniopropanoate biosynthesis I (Wollastonia)
-
-
dimethylsulfoniopropanoate biosynthesis II (Spartina)
-
-
dopamine degradation
-
-
Entner Doudoroff pathway
-
-
Entner-Doudoroff pathway III (semi-phosphorylative)
-
-
ethanol degradation II
-
-
ethanol degradation IV
-
-
fatty acid alpha-oxidation I
-
-
fatty acid alpha-oxidation II
-
-
fatty acid alpha-oxidation III
-
-
Fatty acid degradation
-
-
Glycerolipid metabolism
-
-
Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis
-
-
histamine degradation
-
-
histidine metabolism
-
-
Histidine metabolism
-
-
hypotaurine degradation
-
-
L-tryptophan degradation X (mammalian, via tryptamine)
-
-
Limonene and pinene degradation
-
-
Lysine degradation
-
-
Metabolic pathways
-
-
Microbial metabolism in diverse environments
-
-
NAD/NADP-NADH/NADPH mitochondrial interconversion (yeast)
-
-
non-pathway related
-
-
noradrenaline and adrenaline degradation
-
-
octane oxidation
oxidative ethanol degradation III
-
-
Pentose and glucuronate interconversions
-
-
phytol degradation
-
-
propanol degradation
-
-
putrescine degradation III
-
-
Pyruvate metabolism
-
-
serotonin degradation
-
-
Tryptophan metabolism
-
-
Valine, leucine and isoleucine degradation
-
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
aldehyde:NAD+ oxidoreductase
Wide specificity, including oxidation of D-glucuronolactone to D-glucarate.
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
9028-86-8
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
239
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
239
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Japanese medaka
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
IH 35342
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain ATCC 12633
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain UPV-1
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain UPV-1
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 14DN61
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 14DN61
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
malfunction
metabolism
physiological function
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
(2E)-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal + NAD+ + H2O
(2E)-4-hydroxy-2-nonenoic acid + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
(E)-2-nonenal + NAD+ + H2O
(E)-non-2-enoate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
(R)-trans-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal + NAD+ + H2O
(2E,4R)-4-hydroxynon-2-enoic acid + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
(S)-trans-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal + NAD+ + H2O
(2E,4S)-4-hydroxynon-2-enoic acid + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
1,3-dihydroxyacetone + NAD+ + H2O
? + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
53.93% activity compared to acetaldehyde
-
-
?
1-formyl-6-methylpyrene + NAD+
6-methylpyrene 1-carboxylate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
1-formyl-6-methylpyrene + NAD+ + H2O
6-methylpyrene-1-carboxylic acid + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
1-formyl-8-methylpyrene + NAD+ + H2O
8-methylpyrene-1-carboxylic acid + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
1-formyl-8-methylpyrene + NADP+
8-methylpyrene 1-carboxylate + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
1-formylpyrene + NAD+
pyrene 1-carboxylate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
1-formylpyrene + NAD+ + H2O
pyrene-1-carboxylic acid + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
1-naphthaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
1-naphthoic acid + NADH
show the reaction diagram
46.9% activity compared to p-tolualdehyde
-
-
?
1-naphthaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
1-naphthoic acid + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2,4-dinitrobenzaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
2,4-dinitrobenzoate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-chlorobenzaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
2-chlorobenzoate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
28.35% activity compared to formaldehyde
-
-
?
2-formylpyrene + NAD+
pyrene 2-carboxylate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-formylpyrene + NAD+ + H2O
pyrene-2-carboxylic acid + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-furaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
2-furanoic acid + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
2-hydroxy-3-nitrobenzaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
2-hydroxy-3-nitrobenzoic acid + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-naphthaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
2-naphthalene carboxylate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-naphthaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
2-naphthoate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-naphthaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
2-naphthoic acid + NADH
show the reaction diagram
48.8% activity compared to p-tolualdehyde
-
-
?
2-naphthaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
2-naphthoic acid + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-nonenal + NAD+ + H2O
(E)-non-2-enoate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-phthalaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
phthalate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
10.81% activity compared to formaldehyde
-
-
?
2-quinolinone-4-carboxaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
2-quinolinone-4-carboxylate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3,4,5-trimethoxybenzaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3,4-dihydroxymandelic aldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
3,4-dihydroxymandelate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3,4-dihydroxyphenyl acetaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycolaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycolate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
3,4-dimethoxy-5-hydroxybenzaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
3,4-dimethoxy-5-hydroxybenzoic acid + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
3,4-dimethoxybenzoate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
3,4-dimethoxybenzoic acid + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzoate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3-hydroxypropaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
3-hydroxypropionate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3-hydroxypropanoate + NADH + 2 H+
3-hydroxypropionaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
3-hydroxypropionaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
3-hydroxypropanoate + NADH + 2 H+
show the reaction diagram
3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3-nitrobenzaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
3-nitrobenzoate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
32.98% activity compared to acetaldehyde
-
-
?
3-oxopropylphosphonate + NAD+ + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
3-pyridinecarboxaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
3-pyridinecarboxylate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-aminobutyraldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
4-aminobutyrate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-carboxybenzaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
4-carboxybenzoate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-chlorobenzaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
4-chlorobenzoate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-cyanobenzaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
4-cyanobenzoate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-dimethylamino-1-naphthaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
4-dimethylamino-1-naphthoic acid + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
4-dimethylaminobenzoate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-formylpyrene + NAD+
pyrene 4-carboxylate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-formylpyrene + NAD+ + H2O
pyrene-4-carboxylic acid + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-hydroxy-2-nonenal + NAD+ + H2O
4-hydroxy-2-nonenoate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
4-hydroxy-2-nonenal + NAD+ + H2O
4-hydroxynon-2-enoate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-hydroxy-2-nonenal + NAD+ + H2O
4-hydroxynon-2-enoic acid + NADH
show the reaction diagram
4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzoic acid + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-hydroxybenzaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
4-hydroxybenzoic acid + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-hydroxynon-2-enal + NAD+
4-hydroxynon-2-enoic acid + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-hydroxynonenal + NAD+ + H2O
4-hydroxynonanoate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-hydroxynonenal + NAD+ + H2O
4-hydroxynonaoate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-hydroxynonenal + NAD+ + H2O
? + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-hydroxyphenyl-3-methoxyglycolaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
4-hydroxyphenyl-3-methoxyglycolate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-hydroxyphenylglycolaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
4-hydroxyphenylglycolate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-methoxy-1-naphthaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
4-methoxy-1-naphthoate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-methoxy-1-naphthaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
4-methoxy-1-naphthoic acid + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-methoxybenzaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
4-methoxybenzoate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-nitro-1-naphthaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
4-nitro-1-naphthoate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-oxonon-2-enal + NAD+ + H2O
4-oxonon-2-enoic acid + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
5-bromo-1-naphthaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
5-bromo-1-naphthoate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
5-hydroxyindol acetaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
5-hydroxyindol acetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
5-methoxyindole-3-carboxaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
5-methoxyindole-3-carboxylate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
6,7-dimethoxycoumarin-4-carboxaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
6,7-dimethoxycoumarin-4-carboxylate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
6-(dimethylamino)-2-naphthaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
6-(dimethylamino)-2-naphthoate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
6-dimethylamino-2-naphthaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
6-dimethylamino-2-naphthalene carboxylate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
activity assay
-
-
?
6-dimethylamino-2-naphthaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
6-dimethylamino-2-naphthoic acid + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
6-methoxy-2-naphthaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
6-methoxy-2-naphthalene carboxylate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
activity assay
-
-
?
6-methoxy-2-naphthaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
6-methoxy-2-naphthoate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
6-methoxy-2-naphthaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
6-methoxy-2-naphthoic acid + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
6-methoxy-2-quinolinone-4-carboxaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
6-methoxy-2-quinolinone-4-carboxylate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
7-(dimethylamino)-2-quinolinone-4-carboxaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
7-(dimethylamino)-2-quinolinone-4-carboxylate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
7-(dimethylamino)coumarin-4-carboxaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
7-(dimethylamino)coumarin-4-carboxylate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
7-acetoxycoumarin-4-carboxaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
7-acetoxycoumarin-4-carboxylate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
7-hydroxycoumarin-4-carboxaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
7-hydroxycoumarin-4-carboxylate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
7-methoxy-1-naphthaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
7-methoxy-1-naphthoic acid + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
7-methoxy-2-quinolinone-4-carboxaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
7-methoxy-2-quinolinone-4-carboxylate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
7-methoxycoumarin-4-carboxaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
7-methoxycoumarin-4-carboxylate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
9-cis retinal + NAD+ + H2O
9-cis retinoic acid + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
9-cis-retinal + NAD+ + H2O
9-cis-retinoic acid + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
acetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
acetaldehyde + NADP+ + H2O
acetate + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
low activity with NADP+
-
-
?
acrolein + NAD+ + H2O
? + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
aldophosphamide + NAD+ + H2O
? + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
all-trans retinal + NAD+ + H2O
all-trans retinoic acid + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
all-trans-retinal + NAD+ + H2O
all-trans-retinoic acid + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
alpha-aminoadipate semialdehyde + NAD+ + H2O
alpha-aminoadipic acid + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
alpha-phenylpropanal + NAD+ + H2O
alpha-phenylpropionate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
an aldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
an acid + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
anisaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
? + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
benzaldehyde + NAD(P)+ + H2O
benzoate + NAD(P)H + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
benzaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
benzoate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
benzaldehyde + NADP+
benzoate + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
benzaldehyde + NADP+ + H2O
benzoate + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
betaine aldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
betaine + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
betaine aldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
betaine + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
butanal + NAD+ + H2O
butyrate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
butyraldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
butanoate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
the activity on butyraldehyde is about 95% of that on valeraldehyde
-
-
?
butyraldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
butanoic acid + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
butyraldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
butyrate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
chloral + NAD+ + H2O
trichloroacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
2.67% activity compared to acetaldehyde
-
-
?
chloroacetaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
chloroacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
cinnamaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
cinnamate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
cinnamic aldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
cinnamic acid + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
citral + NAD+ + H2O
citrate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
crotonaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
crotonate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
cyclohexanaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
cyclohexanoate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
D-glucose + NAD+ + H2O
D-glucuronic acid + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
D-glyceraldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
D-glycerate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
50.25% activity compared to acetaldehyde
-
-
?
dansyl-aminoacetaldehyde + ?
dansylglycine + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
the fluorescent substrate is used to monitor aldehyde dehydrogenase activity in fluorescence-activated cell sorting
-
-
?
decanal + NAD+ + H2O
decanaote + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
decanal + NAD+ + H2O
decanoate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
decanaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
decanoate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
50.3% activity compared to formaldehyde
-
-
?
DL-glyceraldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
DL-glycerate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
DL-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate + NAD+ + H2O
DL-glycerate 3-phosphate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
52.7% activity compared to acetaldehyde
-
-
?
dodecanal + NAD+ + H2O
dodecanoate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
n-dodecylaldehyde
-
-
?
dodecanal + NAD+ + H2O
dodecanoate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
dodecanaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
dodecanoate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
42.02% activity compared to formaldehyde
-
-
?
eicosanoic aldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
eicosanoate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
8.79% activity compared to formaldehyde
-
-
?
fluorene-2-carboxaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
fluorene-2-carboxylate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
formaldehyde + NAD+
formate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
formaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
formate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
formaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
formate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
glutaraldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
glutarate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
glutathione-4-oxonon-2-enal + NAD+ + H2O
glutathione-4-oxonon-2-enoic acid + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
glyceraldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
glycerate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
glyceraldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
glycerate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate + NAD+ + H2O
glycerate 3-phosphate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate + NAD+ + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glyceryl trinitrate + NADH + H+
1,2-glyceryl dinitrate + nitrite + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
glyceryl trinitrate + NADH + H+
1,3-glyceryl dinitrate + nitrite + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
glycolaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
glycolate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
glycolaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
glycolate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
75.43% activity compared to acetaldehyde
-
-
?
glyoxal + NAD+ + H2O
oxalate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
heptanal + NAD+ + H2O
heptanoate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
hexadecanal + NAD+ + H2O
hexadecanoate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
15.77% activity compared to formaldehyde
-
-
?
hexaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
hexanoate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
76.21% activity compared to formaldehyde
-
-
?
hexanal + NAD+ + H2O
hexanoate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
hydrocinnamaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
hydrocinnamate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
indole-3-acetaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
indole-3-acetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
indole-3-aldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
indole-3-carboxylate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
isobutanal + NAD+ + H2O
isobutyrate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
isovaleraldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
isovalerate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
m-chlorobenzaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
m-chlorobenzoic acid + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
44.7% activity compared to p-tolualdehyde
-
-
?
m-fluorobenzaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
m-fluorobenzoic acid + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
m-hydroxybenzaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
m-hydroxybenzoate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
m-hydroxybenzaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
m-hydroxybenzoic acid + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
23.6% activity compared to p-tolualdehyde
-
-
?
m-methoxybenzaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
m-methoxybenzoate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
m-methoxybenzaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
m-methoxybenzoic acid + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
88.5% activity compared to p-tolualdehyde
-
-
?
m-methylbenzaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
m-methylbenzoate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
m-nitrobenzaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
m-nitrobenzoate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
m-nitrobenzaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
m-nitrobenzoic acid + NADH
show the reaction diagram
46.8% activity compared to p-tolualdehyde
-
-
?
m-tolualdehyde + NAD+ + H2O
m-methylbenzoic acid + NADH
show the reaction diagram
70.8% activity compared to p-tolualdehyde
-
-
?
malondialdehyde + NAD+ + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
malondialdehyde + NAD+ + H2O
? + NADH
show the reaction diagram
malondialdehyde + NAD+ + H2O
? + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
methylglyoxal + NAD+ + H2O
methylglyoxalate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
monochloroacetaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
monochloroacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
N-acetyl-4-aminobutyraldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
N-acetyl-4-aminobutyrate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
n-nonanal + NAD+ + H2O
n-nonanoate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
nitroglycerin + NAD+ + H2O
1,2-glyceryl dinitrate + NO + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
nonanal + NAD+ + H2O
nonanoate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
o-chlorobenzaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
o-chlorobenzoic acid + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
3.4% activity compared to p-tolualdehyde
-
-
?
o-fluorobenzaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
o-fluorobenzoic acid + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
o-hydroxybenzaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
o-hydroxybenzoate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
o-hydroxybenzaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
o-hydroxybenzoic acid + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
65.2% activity compared to p-tolualdehyde
-
-
?
o-methoxybenzaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
o-methoxybenzoate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
o-methoxybenzaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
o-methoxybenzoic acid + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
2.6% activity compared to p-tolualdehyde
-
-
?
o-methylbenzaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
o-methylbenzoate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrobenzaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
o-nitrobenzoate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
o-nitrobenzaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
o-nitrobenzoic acid + NADH
show the reaction diagram
17.8% activity compared to p-tolualdehyde
-
-
?
o-tolualdehyde + NAD+ + H2O
o-methylbenzoic acid + NADH
show the reaction diagram
3.7% activity compared to p-tolualdehyde
-
-
?
octadecanal + NAD+ + H2O
octadecanoate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
12% activity compared to formaldehyde
-
-
?
octanal + NAD+ + H2O
octanoate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
octanal + NAD+ + H2O
octanoate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
octyl aldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
octanoate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
72.27% activity compared to formaldehyde
-
-
?
p-(dimethylamino)-benzaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
p-(dimethylamino)benzoate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p-(dimethylamino)cinnamaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
p-(dimethylamino)cinnamate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
p-carboxybenzaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
p-carboxybenzoate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p-chlorobenzaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
p-chlorobenzoic acid + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
79.6% activity compared to p-tolualdehyde
-
-
?
p-fluorobenzaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
p-fluorobenzoic acid + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
p-hydroxybenzaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
p-hydroxybenzoic acid + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
4.2% activity compared to p-tolualdehyde
-
-
?
p-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
p-hydroxyphenylacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
p-methoxybenzaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
p-methoxybenzoate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
p-methoxybenzaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
p-methoxybenzoic acid + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
6.2% activity compared to p-tolualdehyde
-
-
?
p-methylbenzaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
p-methylbenzoate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrobenzaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
p-nitrobenzoate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
p-nitrobenzaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
p-nitrobenzoic acid + NADH
show the reaction diagram
69% activity compared to p-tolualdehyde
-
-
?
p-nitrocinnamaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
p-nitrocinnamate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl acetate + H2O
p-nitrophenol + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
esterase activity of the various isoenzymes is less than 7% of the activity with propanal and NAD+
-
-
?
p-tolualdehyde + NAD+ + H2O
p-methylbenzoic acid + NADH
show the reaction diagram
highest activity
-
-
?
pentanal + NAD+ + H2O
pentanoate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
phenanthrene-9-carboxaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
phenanthrene-9-carboxylate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phenylacetaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
phenylacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
phosphonoacetaldehyde + NAD+
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphonoacetaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
phosphonoacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
pimelic semialdehyde + NAD+ + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
pivaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
pivalate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
propanal + 1,N6-ethenoadenine dinucleotide + H2O
propionate + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
isoenzyme E3
-
-
?
propanal + 2-acetylpyridine-NAD+ + H2O
propionate + 2-acetylpyridine-NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
propanal + 3-acetylpyridine-adenine dinucleotide + H2O
propionate + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
isoenzyme E3
-
-
?
propanal + 3-thionicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide + H2O
propionate + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
isoenzyme E3
-
-
?
propanal + deamino-NAD+ + H2O
propionate + deamino-NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
propanal + N-guanine dinucleotide + H2O
propionate + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
isoenzyme E3
-
-
?
propanal + N-hypoxanthine dinucleotide + H2O
propionate + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
isoenzyme E3
-
-
?
propanal + NAD+ + H2O
propanoate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
propanal + NAD+ + H2O
propanoic acid + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
activity assay
-
-
?
propanal + NAD+ + H2O
propionate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
propanal + NAD+ + H2O
propionate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
propanal + [5-(3-acetylpyridino)pentyl]diphosphoadenosine + H2O
propanoate + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
propionaldehyde + NAD+
propionate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
propionaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
propanoate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
propionaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
propanoic acid + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
propionaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
propionate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
propionaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
propionate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
protocatechaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
protocatechuic acid + NADH
show the reaction diagram
4.5% activity compared to p-tolualdehyde
-
-
?
pyridine 3-aldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
pyridine-3-carboxylate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
pyridine-3-aldehyde adenine dinucleotide + NAD+ + H2O
pyridine-3-carboxylate adenine dinucleotide + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
pyruvic aldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
pyruvate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
quinoline-3-carboxaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
quinoline-3-carboxylate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
quinoline-4-carboxaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
quinoline-4-carboxylate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
retinal + NAD+ + H2O
retinoic acid + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
retinol + NAD+ + H2O
retinoic acid + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
succinic semialdehyde + NAD+ + H2O
succinate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
syringaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
syringic acid + NADH
show the reaction diagram
65.1% activity compared to p-tolualdehyde
-
-
?
tetradecanal + NAD+ + H2O
tetradecanoate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
tetradecyl aldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
tetradecanoate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
11.71% activity compared to formaldehyde
-
-
?
trans-2-hexenal + NAD+ + H2O
(E)-hex-2-enoate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
trans-cinnamaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
trans-cinnamate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
valeraldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
valerate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
vanillin + NAD+ + H2O
vanillic acid + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
4-hydroxy-2-nonenal + NAD+ + H2O
4-hydroxynon-2-enoate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-hydroxy-2-nonenal + NAD+ + H2O
4-hydroxynon-2-enoic acid + NADH
show the reaction diagram
acetaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
acetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
an aldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
an acid + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
formaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
formate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
malondialdehyde + NAD+ + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
phosphonoacetaldehyde + NAD+
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphonoacetaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
phosphonoacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
Q92UV7
-
-
-
?
retinol + NAD+ + H2O
retinoic acid + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
NADPH
-
-
[5-(3-acetylpyridino)pentyl]diphosphoadenosine
-
-
-
additional information
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
Ba2+
-
the activity is elevated to 2-3fold in the presence of 2 mM Ba2+
BaCl2
-
0.1 mM, slight activation of microsomal enzyme
CaCl2
-
0.1 mM, slight activation of microsomal enzyme
CsCl
-
0.1 mM, slight activation of microsomal enzyme
Iron
-
enzyme contains 2 iron-sulfur centres
Li+
-
119% activity at 20 mM
Mn2+
-
140% activity at 1 mM
Molybdenum
-
enzyme contains a molybdopterin binding domain
Na+
-
122% activity at 20 mM
NaCl
-
0.1 mM, slight activation of microsomal enzyme
NiCl2
-
0.1 mM, slight activation of microsomal enzyme
Sr2+
-
the activity is elevated to 2-3fold in the presence of 2 mM Sr2+
additional information
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
1-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-(1-piperidinyl)-1-propanone
-
-
1-butanol
-
-
1-ethoxycyclopropanol
-
-
1-propanol
2,4-dinitrobenzaldehyde
-
substrate inhibition
2,6-Dichloro-4-nitrophenol
-
primarily inhibits isoform ALDH2 (non-competitive), but does not affect isoform ALDH3A1
2-naphthaldehyde
-
substrate inhibition
3-(1-azepanyl)-1-phenyl-1-propanone
-
-
3-(dimethylamino)-1-(3-fluoro-4-methoxyphenyl)-1-propanone
-
-
3-(dimethylamino)-1-(4-ethylphenyl)-1-propanone
-
-
3-hydroxyanthranilic acid
-
46% inhibition at 0.002 mM
3-hydroxykynurenine
-
55% inhibition at 0.002 mM
4-amino-4-methyl-pent-2-ynthioic acid S-methylester
-
i.e. ampal thiolester, inhibits ALDH1 activity in ALDH1-transfected L1210T cells resistant to hydroperoxycyclophosphamide
4-diethylaminobenzaldehyde
4-dimethylamino-4-methyl-pent-2-ynthioic acid S-methylester
-
competitive, 0.4 mM, 30 min, 80% inhibition
4-hydroxy-2-nonenal
-
4-hydroxy-2-nonenal completely inactivates ALDH2 activity in vitro at 100 mM
4-hydroxynon-2-enal
-
10% inhibition at 0.05 mM
4-methyl-4-morpholin-4-yl-pent-2-ynthioic acid S-methylester
-
0.6 mM, 60 min, 15% inhibition
4-oxonon-2-enal
-
90% inhibition at 0.05 mM
4-oxonon-2-enoic acid
-
90% inhibition at 0.05 mM
4-tetramethylammonium-4-methyl-pent-2-ynthioic acid S-methylester
-
0.6 mM, 60 min, 15% inhibition
5,5'-dithio-bis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
-
5-hydroxytryptophan
-
23% inhibition at 0.1 mM
6-[O-(CH2)5-COOH]-2-naphthaldehyde
-
substrate inhibition
acetaldehyde
acetate
-
-
acrolein
-
-
adenine
-
-
adenosine
-
-
adenosine 5'-monophosphate
-
competitive with NAD+ and noncompetitive with acetaldehyde
ADPribose
Alda-1
-
0.01 mM Alda-1 inhibits the apparent formaldehyde oxidation activity of the wild type enzyme by about 90%
arsenite
-
47% residual activity at 1 mM arsenite at pH 9.5, 28% residual activity at 2 mM arsenite at pH 7.4
BaCl2
-
0.1 mM, 10% inhibition of cytosolic enzyme
benzaldehyde
Butanal
-
substrate inhibition
c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase
-
incubation with catalytically active JNK leads to significant inhibition of ALDH2 activity. CCl4 exposure activates JNK which translocates to mitochondria and phosphorylates ALDH2 contributing to inhibition of ALDH2 activity
-
Ca2+
-
0.4 mM, 50% inhibition
Caffeine
-
-
Chloral hydrate
Chloroacetaldehyde
-
86% residual activity at 1 mM chloroacetaldehyde at pH 9.5
Chlorpropamide
-
this inhibition may play a role in cataract formation in patients maintained on systemic corticosteroids and in tablet-dependent diabetics
CsCl2
-
0.1 mM, 19% inhibition of cytosolic enzyme
cyanamide
cyclohexanal
-
substrate inhibition at elevated aldehyde concentration, increase of NAD+ concentration from 0.85 mM to 2.55 mM removes substrate inhibition
D-glyceraldehyde
-
substrate inhibition
daidzin
deoxycorticosterone
-
this inhibition may play a role in cataract formation in patients maintained on systemic corticosteroids and in tablet-dependent diabetics
diethyl disulfide
-
-
diethylaminobenzaldehyde
-
0.025 mM diethylaminobenzaldehyde inhibits about 80% of the enzymatic activity
-
dimethyl ampal thiolester
-
78% inhibition of isozyme ALDH1 at 0.0075 mM
Disulfiram
ethanol
Fe3+
-
complete inhibition at 1 mM
formaldehyde
-
substrate inhibition
glyceraldehyde
-
substrate inhibition
harman
-
18% inhibition at 0.1 mM
Hexanal
-
substrate inhibition
HgCl2
-
-
indol-3-ylpyruvic acid
Indole-3-acetaldehyde
-
substrate inhibition at elevated aldehyde concentration, increase of NAD+ concentration from 0.85 mM to 2.55 mM removes substrate inhibition
iodacetamide
10-20% inhibition at 1 mM
iodoacetamide
Iodosobenzoate
-
0.1 mM, 3 min, complete inhibition
Isobutanal
-
substrate inhibition
K+
-
95.3% residual activity at 1 mM
KCN
10-20% inhibition at 1 mM
Kynurenic acid
-
40% inhibition at 0.002 mM
kynurenine
-
24% inhibition at 0.1 mM
m-methylbenzaldehyde
-
substrate inhibition
methanol
methidathione
-
-
methyl ampal thiolester
-
32% inhibition of isozyme ALDH1 at 0.0075 mM
methylglyoxal
-
substrate inhibition
Metyrapone
-
-
Mn2+
-
84.8% residual activity at 1 mM
molinate
-
irreversible inhibition of ALDH2
molinate sulfoxide
-
i.e. S-ethyl-hexahydro-1H-azepine-1-carbothioate sulfoxide, irreversible inhibition of ALDH2
-
N'-methylnicotinamide
-
-
NEM
-
0.1 mM
NiCl2
-
0.1 mM, 24% inhibition of cytosolic enzyme
nitroglycerin
norharman
-
23% inhibition at 0.1 mM
o-nitrobenzaldehyde
-
substrate inhibition
p-hydroxyacetophenone
-
-
p-hydroxymercuribenzoate
p-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde
-
substrate inhibition at elevated aldehyde concentration, increase of NAD+ concentration from 0.85 mM to 2.55 mM removes substrate inhibition
p-methylbenzaldehyde
-
substrate inhibition
p-nitrobenzaldehyde
p-nitrocinnamaldehyde
-
substrate inhibition
p-nitrophenyl pivalate
-
inhibits dehydrogenase activity with propanal and D-glyceraldehyde
pentanal