Information on EC 1.14.19.2 - acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] desaturase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota, Bacteria

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
1.14.19.2
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] desaturase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
a stearoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + reduced acceptor + O2 = an oleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + acceptor + 2 H2O
show the reaction diagram
enzyme acts on derivatives of a number of long-chain fatty acids, requires ferredoxin, formerly EC 1.14.99.6
-
a stearoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + reduced acceptor + O2 = an oleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + acceptor + 2 H2O
show the reaction diagram
specific for stearoyl-CoA
P22243
a stearoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + reduced acceptor + O2 = an oleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + acceptor + 2 H2O
show the reaction diagram
peroxodiferric intermediate is suggested
-
a stearoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + reduced acceptor + O2 = an oleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + acceptor + 2 H2O
show the reaction diagram
EPR and ENDOR studies, both major conformers of the diferric cluster have a mu-oxo bridge, structural alterations upon binding of substrate
-
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
oxidation
-
-
-
-
redox reaction
-
-
-
-
reduction
-
-
-
-
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
arachidonate biosynthesis
-
-
Biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids
-
-
Fatty acid biosynthesis
-
-
oleate biosynthesis I (plants)
-
-
palmitoleate biosynthesis II (plants and bacteria)
-
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
acyl-[acyl-carrier protein],hydrogen-donor:oxygen oxidoreductase
The enzyme from safflower is specific for stearoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]; that from Euglena acts on derivatives of a number of long-chain fatty acids. Requires ferredoxin.
SYNONYMS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
desaturase, acyl-[acyl carrier protein]
-
-
-
-
stearoyl-ACP desaturase
-
-
-
-
stearoyl-[acyl carrier protein] desaturase
-
-
-
-
stearyl acyl carrier protein desaturase
-
-
-
-
stearyl-ACP desaturase
-
-
-
-
stearyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase
-
-
-
-
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY
37256-86-3
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
seven isoforms
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
milkweed
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bignonia unguis-cati
cat's claw
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
safflower
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Chromochloris zofingiensis ATCC 30412
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
coriander
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
oil palm, clone 1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
oil palm, clone 2
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
soybean
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
mutant strain showing contents of up to 20% of unusual acyl chains, increase of enzyme activity in mutant
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
H37Rv, variants DesA1
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
H37Rv,variant DesA2
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
H37Rv, variants DesA1
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv,variant DesA2
H37Rv,variant DesA2
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
avocado
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
castor bean
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
black-eyed Susan vine
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
malfunction
-
Ophrys SAD coding sequences are heterologously expressed in Arabidopsis under the control of the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S RNA promoter. None of the transgenic plant lines complement the dwarf phenotype of homozygous ssi2 mutants. The presence of the OsSAD2 transgene is significantly associated with changes in unsaturated C18 and C16 FA levels in Arabidopsis leaf lipids, suggesting that OsSAD2 has enzymatic activity in Arabidopsis, Ophrys SAD coding sequences are heterologously expressed in Arabidopsis under the control of the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S RNA promoter. OeSAD2 does not complement the dwarf phenotype of homozygous ssi2 mutants, Ophrys SAD coding sequences are heterologously expressed in Arabidopsis under the control of the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S RNA promoter. OsSAD1 does not complement the dwarf phenotype of homozygous ssi2 mutants
malfunction
-
a stearoyl-acyl carrier protein fatty acid desaturase mutant has decreased lateral root growth due to a defect in the cell elongation
malfunction
-
seed homozygous for the SACPD-C deletion averages 10.4% stearic acid and 75.9% oleic acid
metabolism
A8IQB8
the enzyme catalyzes the conversion of stearic acid (18:0) to oleic acid (18:1) in fatty acid biosynthesis. Enzyme overexpression enhances the synthesis of oleic acid 2.4fold
physiological function
-
SAD2 is a florally expressed barrier gene of large phenotypic effect and, possibly, a genic target of pollinator-mediated selection
physiological function
-
the enzyme is involved in cell elongation in lateral roots via regulation of fatty acid content in rice
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                      
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
10-(heptyloxy)-decanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + reduced acceptor + O2
9-hydroxynonanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + n-octanal + acceptor + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
7-(decyloxy)-heptanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + reduced acceptor + O2
7-dec-1-enyloxyheptanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + acceptor + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
8-(nonyloxy)-octanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + reduced acceptor + O2
8-hydroxyoctanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + 1-nonanal + acceptor + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
9-(octyloxy)-nonanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + reduced acceptor + O2
9-hydroxynonanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + 1-octanal + acceptor + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
nonadecanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + reduced ferredoxin + O2
9-nonadecenoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + oxidized ferredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
low activity, vegetative ferredoxin from Anabaena
-
?
palmitoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + AH2 + O2
palmitoleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + A + H2O
show the reaction diagram
O22832, Q84VY3, Q9LF04, Q9LF05, Q9M879, Q9M880, Q9M881
preferred substrate for S-ACP-DES3, S-ACP-DES3 preferentially desaturates palmitoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] substrate at C9 position
-
-
?
palmitoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + AH2 + O2
palmitoleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + A + H2O
show the reaction diagram
O22832, Q84VY3, Q9LF04, Q9LF05, Q9M879, Q9M880, Q9M881
S-ACP-DES1 is poorly active on palmitoyl-[acyl-carrier protein], S-ACP-DES1 preferentially desaturates the substrate at C9 position
-
-
?
palmitoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + AH2 + O2
palmitoleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + A + H2O
show the reaction diagram
O22832, Q84VY3, Q9LF04, Q9LF05, Q9M879, Q9M880, Q9M881
S-ACP-DES4 is poorly active on palmitoyl-[acyl-carrier protein], S-ACP-DES4 preferentially desaturates the substrate at C9 position
-
-
?
palmitoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + AH2 + O2
palmitoleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + A + H2O
show the reaction diagram
O22832, Q84VY3, Q9LF04, Q9LF05, Q9M879, Q9M880, Q9M881
S-ACP-DES5 poorly active on palmitoyl-[acyl-carrier protein], S-ACP-DES5 preferentially desaturates palmitoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] substrate at C9 position
-
-
?
palmitoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + reduced acceptor + O2
9-hexadecenoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + acceptor + H2O
show the reaction diagram
O24498
-
-
-
?
palmitoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + reduced acceptor + O2
9-hexadecenoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + acceptor + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
palmitoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + reduced acceptor + O2
9-hexadecenoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + acceptor + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
palmitoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + reduced acceptor + O2
9-hexadecenoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + acceptor + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
palmitoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + reduced acceptor + O2
9-hexadecenoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + acceptor + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
8% of activity with stearoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein], 7fold higher activity than the enzyme from castor
-
?
palmitoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + reduced acceptor + O2
9-hexadecenoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + acceptor + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Bignonia unguis-cati
P92933
4fold lower activity with stearoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] and myristoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]
-
?
palmitoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + reduced acceptor + O2
9-hexadecenoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + acceptor + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
1% of activity with stearoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein]
-
?
palmitoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + reduced acceptor + O2
9-hexadecenoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + acceptor + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
stearoyl-substrate is about 100fold preferred over palmitoyl-substrate
-
-
?
palmitoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + reduced acceptor + O2
6-hexadecenoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + acceptor + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
pentadecanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + reduced ferredoxin + O2
9-pentadecenoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + oxidized ferredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
very low activity, vegetative ferredoxin from Anabaena
-
?
stearoyl-CoA + electron donor + O2
9-octadecenoyl-CoA + acceptor + H2O
show the reaction diagram
P22243
-
-
-
stearoyl-CoA + electron donor + O2
9-octadecenoyl-CoA + acceptor + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
stearoyl-CoA + electron donor + O2
9-octadecenoyl-CoA + acceptor + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
purified reconstituted enzyme shows same activity as with stearoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein], no activity in crude extracts
-
?
stearoyl-CoA + electron donor + O2
9-octadecenoyl-CoA + acceptor + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
5% of activity with stearoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein]
-
?
stearoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + electron donor + O2
oleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + acceptor + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
involved in oleic acid biosynthesis
-
-
stearoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + electron donor + O2
oleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + acceptor + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
involved in oleic acid biosynthesis
-
-
stearoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + electron donor + O2
oleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + acceptor + H2O
show the reaction diagram
P22243
enzyme catalyzes the principal conversion of saturated fatty acids to unsaturated fatty acids in synthesis of vegetable oils
-
?
stearoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + electron donor + O2
oleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + electron acceptor + H2O
show the reaction diagram
O22832, Q84VY3, Q9LF04, Q9LF05, Q9M879, Q9M880, Q9M881
preferred substrate for S-ACP-DES1, S-ACP-DES1 preferentially desaturates the substrate at C9 position
-
-
?
stearoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + electron donor + O2
oleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + electron acceptor + H2O
show the reaction diagram
O22832, Q84VY3, Q9LF04, Q9LF05, Q9M879, Q9M880, Q9M881
preferred substrate for S-ACP-DES5, S-ACP-DES5 preferentially desaturates the substrate at C9 position
-
-
?
stearoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + electron donor + O2
oleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + electron acceptor + H2O
show the reaction diagram
O22832, Q84VY3, Q9LF04, Q9LF05, Q9M879, Q9M880, Q9M881
S-ACP-DES3 preferentially desaturates the substrate at C9 position
-
-
?
stearoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + electron donor + O2
oleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + electron acceptor + H2O
show the reaction diagram
O22832, Q84VY3, Q9LF04, Q9LF05, Q9M879, Q9M880, Q9M881
very low activity of S-ACP-DES4, S-ACP-DES4 preferentially desaturates the substrate at C9 position
-
-
?
stearoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + ferredoxin + O2
oleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + oxidized ferredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Q4JIJ4
-
-
-
?
stearoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + reduced acceptor + O2
oleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + acceptor + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
stearoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + reduced acceptor + O2
oleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + acceptor + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
stearoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + reduced acceptor + O2
oleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + acceptor + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
stearoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + reduced acceptor + O2
oleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + acceptor + H2O
show the reaction diagram
D0V0B8
-
-
-
?
stearoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + reduced acceptor + O2
oleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + acceptor + H2O
show the reaction diagram
A8IQB8
-
-
-
?
stearoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + reduced acceptor + O2
oleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + acceptor + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
no activity with NADH
-
?
stearoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + reduced acceptor + O2
oleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + acceptor + H2O
show the reaction diagram
P22243
no activity with NADH
-
?
stearoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + reduced acceptor + O2
oleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + acceptor + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
electron donor NADPH
-
?
stearoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + reduced acceptor + O2
oleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + acceptor + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
electron donor NADPH
-
?
stearoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + reduced acceptor + O2
oleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + acceptor + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
electron donor NADPH
-
?
stearoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + reduced acceptor + O2
oleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + acceptor + H2O
show the reaction diagram
P22243
electron donor NADPH
-
?
stearoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + reduced acceptor + O2
oleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + acceptor + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
purified enzyme is not active with NADH
-
?
stearoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + reduced acceptor + O2
oleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + acceptor + H2O
show the reaction diagram
P22243
a system composed of ferredoxin, grana lamellae, ascorbic acid, dichlorophenolindophenol and light is the most effective reductant
-
?
stearoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + reduced acceptor + O2
oleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + acceptor + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme acts on derivatives of a number of long chain fatty acids
-
?
stearoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + reduced acceptor + O2
oleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + acceptor + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
electron donor NADPH-ferredoxin(II)
-
-
stearoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + reduced acceptor + O2
oleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + acceptor + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme is specific for stearoyl-CoA
-
-
stearoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + reduced acceptor + O2
oleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + acceptor + H2O
show the reaction diagram
P22243
enzyme is specific for stearoyl-CoA
-
?
stearoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + reduced acceptor + O2
oleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + acceptor + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Chromochloris zofingiensis ATCC 30412
D0V0B8
-
-
-
?
stearoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + reduced acceptor + O2
6-octadecenoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + 9-octadecenoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]acceptor + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
ratio of activity: 2/1
?
stearoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + reduced acceptor + O2
9-octadecenoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + acceptor + H2O
show the reaction diagram
O24498
-
-
-
?
stearoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + reduced acceptor + O2
9-octadecenoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + acceptor + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
stearoyl-substrate is about 100fold preferred over palmitoyl-substrate
-
-
?
stearoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] + reduced acceptor + O2
oleoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] + acceptor + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
stearoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] + reduced acceptor + O2
oleoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] + acceptor + H2O
show the reaction diagram
A8D2K7
-
-
-
?
tetradecanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + reduced acceptor + O2
9-tetradecenoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + acceptor + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
tetradecanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + reduced acceptor + O2
9-tetradecenoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + acceptor + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
3% of activity with stearoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein], 30fold higher activity than castor enzyme
-
?
tetradecanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + reduced acceptor + O2
9-tetradecenoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + acceptor + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
3fold more active as with palmitoyl-[acyl-carrier protein], very low activity with dodecanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] and stearoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]
-
?
heptadecanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + reduced ferredoxin + O2
9-heptadecenoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + oxidized ferredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
very low activity, vegetative ferredoxin from Anabaena
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
in vitro analysis of the enzyme does not show any product, lack of soluble OeSAD2 protein expression precludes its in vitro analysis, OsSAD2 is active both on 18:0-[acyl-carrier protein] DELTA9 and 16:0-[acyl-carrier protein] DELTA4 substrates producing 18:1 DELTA9 and 16:1 DELTA4 products
-
-
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
stearoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + electron donor + O2
oleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + acceptor + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
involved in oleic acid biosynthesis
-
-
stearoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + electron donor + O2
oleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + acceptor + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
involved in oleic acid biosynthesis
-
-
stearoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + electron donor + O2
oleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + acceptor + H2O
show the reaction diagram
P22243
enzyme catalyzes the principal conversion of saturated fatty acids to unsaturated fatty acids in synthesis of vegetable oils
-
?
stearoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + electron donor + O2
oleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + electron acceptor + H2O
show the reaction diagram
O22832, Q84VY3, Q9LF04, Q9LF05, Q9M879, Q9M880, Q9M881
preferred substrate for S-ACP-DES1, S-ACP-DES1 preferentially desaturates the substrate at C9 position
-
-
?
stearoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + electron donor + O2
oleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + electron acceptor + H2O
show the reaction diagram
O22832, Q84VY3, Q9LF04, Q9LF05, Q9M879, Q9M880, Q9M881
preferred substrate for S-ACP-DES5, S-ACP-DES5 preferentially desaturates the substrate at C9 position
-
-
?
stearoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + electron donor + O2
oleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + electron acceptor + H2O
show the reaction diagram
O22832, Q84VY3, Q9LF04, Q9LF05, Q9M879, Q9M880, Q9M881
S-ACP-DES3 preferentially desaturates the substrate at C9 position
-
-
?
stearoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + electron donor + O2
oleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + electron acceptor + H2O
show the reaction diagram
O22832, Q84VY3, Q9LF04, Q9LF05, Q9M879, Q9M880, Q9M881
very low activity of S-ACP-DES4, S-ACP-DES4 preferentially desaturates the substrate at C9 position
-
-
?
stearoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + ferredoxin + O2
oleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + oxidized ferredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Q4JIJ4
-
-
-
?
stearoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + reduced acceptor + O2
oleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + acceptor + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
stearoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + reduced acceptor + O2
oleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + acceptor + H2O
show the reaction diagram
A8IQB8
-
-
-
?
stearoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] + reduced acceptor + O2
oleoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] + acceptor + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
stearoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] + reduced acceptor + O2
oleoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] + acceptor + H2O
show the reaction diagram
A8D2K7
-
-
-
?
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
Ferredoxin
P22337
required for activity
-
Ferredoxin
-
required for activity
-
Ferredoxin
-
stearyl acyl carrier protein desaturase system consists of 3 components: a reduced NADPH-oxidoreductase, a desaturase and ferredoxin
-
Ferredoxin
-
-
-
Ferredoxin
-
-
-
Ferredoxin
-
-
-
Ferredoxin
Bignonia unguis-cati
P92933
-
-
Ferredoxin
Q9XFH1
;
-
Ferredoxin
-
highest activity with Anabaena ferredoxin
-
Ferredoxin
-
highest activity with Anabaena or impatiens ferredoxin
-
Ferredoxin
-
-
-
Ferredoxin
-
highest activity with Anabaena ferredoxin
-
Ferredoxin
-
-
-
Ferredoxin
Q4JIJ4
reduced spinach ferredoxin
-
Ferredoxin
A8IQB8
-
-
Ferredoxin
-
-
-
Ferredoxin
D0V0B8
-
-
NADPH
P22243
-
NADPH
-
-
Ferredoxin
-
-
-
additional information
P22243
NADH is ineffective as electron donor
-
additional information
-
NADH is ineffective as electron donor
-
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
Iron
-
3.85 mol of iron per mol of holoenzyme, dimeric enzyme may contain a pair of identical diiron-oxo clusters
Iron
-
di-iron center
additional information
P9WNZ5, P9WNZ7
absence of iron in both the native and selenomethionine-substituted crystals, X-ray fluorescence scan
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
beta-mercaptoethanol
P22243
-
cytochrome c3
P22243
-
-
cytochrome c553
P22243
-
-
FAD
-
0.005 mM, 74% inhibition
FMN
-
0.006 mM, 73% inhibition
KCN
P22243
1 mM, strong inhibition
KCN
-
0.01 mM, 50% inhibition, 0.1 mM, 80% inhibition
additional information
P22243
not inhibited by CO
-
additional information
-
not inhibited by CO
-
additional information
Q84VY3, Q9LF04, Q9LF05, Q9M879, Q9M880, Q9M881
inhibition of activity of 27% for S-ACP-DES5 in the presence of 5fold excess of unlabeled product oleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]; inhibition of activity of 50% for S-ACP-DES4 in the presence of 5fold excess of unlabeled product oleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]; inhibition of activity of 67% for S-ACP-DES3 in the presence of 5fold excess of unlabeled product oleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] and 40% for S-ACP-DES3 in the presence of 5fold unlabeled product palmitoleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein], respectively; inhibition of activity of 73% for SSI2 in the presence of 5fold excess of unlabeled product oleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] and 37% for SSI2 in the presence of 5fold unlabeled product palmitoleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein], respectively; inhibition of activity of 7% for S-ACP-DES1 in the presence of 5fold excess of unlabeled product oleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]
-
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
catalase
-
5-10fold stimulation
-
catalase
-
3fold stimulation of purified enzyme, 4-5fold increase of activity in crude extracts
-
catalase
-
-
-
dithiothreitol
P22243
enhances activity
reduced glutathione
P22243
enhances activity
KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.0074
10-(heptyloxy)-decanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]
-
-
0.0066
7-(decyloxy)-heptanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]
-
-
0.0059
heptadecanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]
-
-
0.00055
hexadecanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]
-
T117R/G188L mutant enzyme
0.005
hexadecanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]
-
-
0.0083
hexadecanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]
-
-
0.002
NADPH
P22243
-
0.0013
nonadecanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]
-
-
0.00046
octadecanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]
-
-
0.00098
octadecanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]
-
T117R/G188L mutant enzyme
0.0033
octadecanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]
-
-
0.0039
octadecanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]
-
-
0.00051
palmitoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]
-
-
0.069
pentadecanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]
-
-
0.0083
stearoyl-CoA
-
-
0.00038
stearoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]
-
-
0.001
tetradecanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]
-
T117R/G188L mutant enzyme
0.0039
tetradecanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]
-
spinach acyl-carrier protein
0.00464
tetradecanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]
-
-
0.0058
tetradecanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]
-
-
TURNOVER NUMBER [1/s]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.5
10-(heptyloxy)-decanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]
-
-
0.2
7-(decyloxy)-heptanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]
-
-
0.04
8-(nonyloxy)-octanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]
-
-
0.02
9-(octyloxy)-nonanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]
-
-
0.233
heptadecanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]
-
-
0.0467
hexadecanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]
-
-
0.095
hexadecanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]
-
-
0.422
hexadecanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]
-
T117R/G188L mutant enzyme
0.2
nonadecanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]
-
-
0.0817
octadecanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]
-
T117R/G188L mutant enzyme
0.55
octadecanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]
-
-
0.705
octadecanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]
-
-
0.817
octadecanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]
-
-
0.0317
pentadecanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]
-
-
0.333 - 0.5
stearoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]
-
-
0.0065
tetradecanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]
-
-
0.00717
tetradecanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]
-
-
0.0273
tetradecanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]
-
T117R/G188L mutant enzyme
0.817
tetradecanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]
-
spinach acyl-carrier protein
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
0.0000016
A8D2K7
activity in extracts from Escherichia coli M15 transformed with pQESAD, uninduced, with reduced spinach ferredoxin
0.000002
A8D2K7
activity in extracts from Escherichia coli M15 transformed with pQESAD, uninduced, without reduced spinach ferredoxin
0.000003
Q4JIJ4
His-tag fusion protein overexpressed in Escherichia coli M15 without ferredoxin, without IPTG-induction
0.0000075
A8D2K7
activity in extracts from Escherichia coli M15 transformed with pQESAD, induced, with reduced spinach ferredoxin
0.000079
A8D2K7
activity in extracts from Escherichia coli M15 transformed with pQESAD, induced, without reduced spinach ferredoxin
0.000082
Q4JIJ4
His-tag fusion protein overexpressed in Escherichia coli M15 without ferredoxin, IPTG-induced
0.00157
Q4JIJ4
His-tag fusion protein overexpressed in Escherichia coli M15 with exogenous spinach ferredoxin, without IPTG-induction
0.00795
Q4JIJ4
His-tag fusion protein overexpressed in Escherichia coli M15 with exogenous spinach ferredoxin, without IPTG-induced
0.1
-
substrate palmitoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]
additional information
-
assay procedure
additional information
Q84VY3, Q9LF04, Q9LF05, Q9M879, Q9M880, Q9M881
S-ACP-DES1 shows no activity on the substrates myristoyl-[acyl-carrier protein], palmitoleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] or oleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]; S-ACP-DES3 shows no activity on the substrates myristoyl-[acyl-carrier protein], palmitoleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] or oleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]; S-ACP-DES4 shows no activity on the substrates myristoyl-[acyl-carrier protein], palmitoleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] or oleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]; S-ACP-DES5 shows no activity on the substrates myristoyl-[acyl-carrier protein], palmitoleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] or oleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]
pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
6
A8D2K7
activity assay
pH RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
5.5 - 7.7
-
pH 5.5: about 50% activity, pH 7.7: about 50% activity
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
22
-
assay at
23
A8D2K7
activity assay
pI VALUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
5.73
A8D2K7
theoretical
6.4
D0V0B8
calculated from amino acid sequence
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
RT-PCR, gene-specific primers for the isoform
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q4JIJ4
highly expressed in developing fruits
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q4JIJ4
young
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q4JIJ4
young and mature
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
49000 Da isoform
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
Northern blot, RT-PCR, gene-specific primers for the isoform
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
Northern blot, RT-PCR, gene-specific primers for the seven isoforms
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
flax ovary, RT-PCR
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q4JIJ4
young
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
RT-PCR, gene-specific primers for the isoform
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
expressed at the lateral root tip, but not detected in the elongation zone of the crown roots
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bignonia unguis-cati
P92933
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q4JIJ4
young
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
found in developing seeds, 15-50 days after flowering, not in germinated seeds
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
2 isoforms
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
RT-PCR, gene-specific primers for the isoform
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q4JIJ4
young
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
RT-PCR, gene-specific primers for the isoform
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
bolls at different developmental stages, RT-PCR
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
Chromochloris zofingiensis ATCC 30412
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q84VY3, Q9LF04, Q9LF05, Q9M879, Q9M880, Q9M881
predicted
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Chromochloris zofingiensis ATCC 30412
-
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
41800
A8D2K7
theoretical
700765
43000
Q4JIJ4
SDS-PAGE, overexpressed His-tag fusion protein
672746
43500
A8D2K7
recombinant 6 x His-SAD, determined by SDS-PAGE
700765
44180
Q84VY3, Q9LF04, Q9LF05, Q9M879, Q9M880, Q9M881
calculated from amino acid sequence
676555
45020
Q84VY3, Q9LF04, Q9LF05, Q9M879, Q9M880, Q9M881
calculated from amino acid sequence
676555
45290
Q84VY3, Q9LF04, Q9LF05, Q9M879, Q9M880, Q9M881
calculated from amino acid sequence
676555
45480
Q84VY3, Q9LF04, Q9LF05, Q9M879, Q9M880, Q9M881
calculated from amino acid sequence
676555
45510
Q4JIJ4
precursor
672746
45690
Q84VY3, Q9LF04, Q9LF05, Q9M879, Q9M880, Q9M881
calculated from amino acid sequence
676555
45860
Q84VY3, Q9LF04, Q9LF05, Q9M879, Q9M880, Q9M881
calculated from amino acid sequence
676555
46950
Q84VY3, Q9LF04, Q9LF05, Q9M879, Q9M880, Q9M881
calculated from amino acid sequence
676555
50500
-
determined by SDS-PAGE
701075
68000
-
gel filtration
438429
75000
-
recombinant enzyme lacking a putative transit peptide
438434
additional information
P9WNZ5, P9WNZ7
unlabeled, purified DesA2 protein, MALDI-TOF, 31138 and 31345 m/z
677002
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
?
-
x * 39000, recombinant enzyme, SDS-PAGE, predicted from nucleotide sequence
?
-
x * 45000, isoform 1, SDS-PAGE, x * 49000, isoform 2, SDS-PAGE
?
O24498
x * 45000, SDS-PAGE, recombinant enzyme with His-tag
?
D0V0B8
x * 47040, calculated from amino acid sequence
?
Chromochloris zofingiensis ATCC 30412
-
x * 47040, calculated from amino acid sequence
-
dimer
-
2 * 36000, SDS-PAGE
dimer
-
alpha2, 2 * 37000, recombinant enzyme lacking a putative transit peptide, SDS-PAGE
dimer
P9WNZ5, P9WNZ7
DesA2 isoform, gel filtration
dimer
Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv,variant DesA2
-
DesA2 isoform, gel filtration
-
Crystallization/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
DesA2 crystals grown by the method of hanging drop vapor diffusion, one metal bound per subunit which is likely Mn2+, native and selenomethionine-substituted, 2.0 A resolution X-ray structure
P9WNZ5, P9WNZ7
hanging drop vapor diffusion, 12-18 mg/ml enzyme solution, reservoir solution contains 100 mM cacodylate buffer, pH 5.4, 200 mM magnesium acetate and 12-18% polyethyleneglycol 8000, needle shaped crystals too thin for X-ray study
-
in complex with azide or acetae, apo- and single-iron form
-
TEMPERATURE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
50
-
1 min, inactivation
438431
GENERAL STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
unstable to dialysis
-
STORAGE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
-70°C, 50% glycerol, 0.1% bovine serum albumin, 100 mM potassium phosphate buffer, pH 6.8, at least 2 months, no loss of activity
-
4°C, overnight, 30% loss of activity
-
0°C, 10 h, 50% loss of activity
-
frozen state, 1 month, complete loss of activity
-
Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
by Ni-NTA purification system
-
overexpressed S-ACP-DES1 enzyme; overexpressed S-ACP-DES3 enzyme; overexpressed S-ACP-DES4 enzyme; overexpressed S-ACP-DES5 enzyme
Q84VY3, Q9LF04, Q9LF05, Q9M879, Q9M880, Q9M881
recombinant enzyme
Bignonia unguis-cati
P92933
aceton powder, anion-exchange, affinity chromatography on acyl-carrier protein-Sepharose
-
by gel filtration
A8D2K7
DesA2 isoform purified by ion exchange and gel filtration chromatographies
P9WNZ5, P9WNZ7
recombinant enzyme
-
recombinant enzyme lacking a putative transit peptide
-
recombinant enzyme
-
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
into the pUCm-T vector and subcloned into the vector pET30a for expression in Escherichia coli BL21DE3 cells
-
S-ACP-DES1 expressed in Escherichia coli; S-ACP-DES3 enzyme expressed in Escherichia coli; S-ACP-DES4 enzyme expressed in Escherichia coli; S-ACP-DES5 enzyme expressed in Escherichia coli
Q84VY3, Q9LF04, Q9LF05, Q9M879, Q9M880, Q9M881
expression in Escherichia coli
-
expression of 2 isoforms in Escherichia coli
-
expression in Escherichia coli
Bignonia unguis-cati
P92933
a Brassica napus bacterial artificial chromosome, BAC, library is constructed
-
expression of cDNA in Escherichia coli
-
expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) cells
D0V0B8
into the vector pQE-30 for expression in Escherichia coli M15 cells
A8D2K7
full-length cDNA clone
-
cloning of isoform 1; cloning of isoform 2
Q9XFH1
cloned in pQE-30 vector and expressed in Escherichia coli strain M15, His-tag
Q4JIJ4
expression of cDNA in Escherichia coli
-
DesA1 overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21-(DE3) with the natural N-terminal methionine residue as the first amino acid; DesA2 overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21-(DE3) with the natural N-terminal methionine residue as the first amino acid
P9WNZ5, P9WNZ7
expression of cDNA in Escherichia coli
-
OeSAD2 is not expressed as a soluble protein
-
expression of cDNA in Escherichia coli
-
expression of N-terminal truncated enzyme in Escherichia coli
-
expression of wild-type, A181T/A188G/Y189F/S205N/L206T/G207A, A188G/Y189F, A181T/A200F and A181T/A200F/S205N/L206T/G207A mutant enzyme in Escherichia coli
-
EXPRESSION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
ahSAD3 is expressed exclusively during seed development
-
12-24 h after cold stress the enzyme expression is strongly increased and decreases thereafter
A8IQB8
exposure to HL (0.4 mM photons m-2 s-1) significantly increases the enzyme's mRNA level. Nitrogen deficiency also markedly up-regulates the expression of the enzyme. mRNA levels of the enzyme are drastically upregulated, reaching their maximum at 48 h after glucose induction
D0V0B8
exposure to HL (0.4 mM photons m-2 s-1) significantly increases the enzyme's mRNA level. Nitrogen deficiency also markedly up-regulates the expression of the enzyme. mRNA levels of the enzyme are drastically upregulated, reaching their maximum at 48 h after glucose induction
Chromochloris zofingiensis ATCC 30412
-
-
ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
L118F/P179I
-
15fold higher activity with palmitoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] than wild-type enzyme, low DELTA10 desaturase activity
L118W
-
100% activity with palmitoyl-[acyl-carrier protein], 89% activity with stearoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] and 8.2% activity with myristoyl-[acyl-carrier protein], wild-type is only active with stearoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]
T117R/G188L
-
82fold higher specificity for palmitoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] with respect to wild-type
A181T/A188G/Y189F/S205N/L206T/G207A
-
compared to wild-type: reduced DELTA6 desaturase activity with palmitoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] as substrate, strong DELTA9 desaturase activity with stearoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] as substrate, exhibits DELTA9 desaturase activity with palmitoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] as substrate
A181T/A200F
-
increase in DELTA6 desaturase activity with palmitoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] as substrate, strong DELTA9 desaturase activity with stearoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] as substrate
A181T/A200F/S205N/L206T/G207A
-
reduced DELTA6 desaturase activity with palmitoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] as substrate, very low DELTA9 desaturase activity, no DELTA6 desaturase activity with stearoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] as substrate
A188G/Y189F
-
reduced DELTA6 desaturase activity with palmitoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] as substrate
APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
agriculture
-
mutant strain showing contents of up to 20% of unusual acyl chains such as 16:1DELTA9, 16:2DDELTA9,12, 18:1DELTA11, increase of enzyme activity in mutant