Information on EC 1.14.18.1 - tyrosinase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Bacteria, Eukaryota

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
1.14.18.1
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
tyrosinase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
2 L-dopa + O2 = 2 dopaquinone + 2 H2O
show the reaction diagram
(2)
-
-
-
L-dopa + 1/2 O2 = dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
(1b)
-
-
-
L-tyrosine + 1/2 O2 = L-dopa
show the reaction diagram
(1a)
-
-
-
L-tyrosine + O2 = dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
oxidation
-
-
-
-
redox reaction
-
-
-
-
reduction
-
-
-
-
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
Betalain biosynthesis
-
-
Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
-
-
Isoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis
-
-
L-dopachrome biosynthesis
-
-
Metabolic pathways
-
-
Riboflavin metabolism
-
-
Tyrosine metabolism
-
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
L-tyrosine,L-dopa:oxygen oxidoreductase
A type III copper protein found in a broad variety of bacteria, fungi, plants, insects, crustaceans, and mammals, which is involved in the synthesis of betalains and melanin. The enzyme, which is activated upon binding molecular oxygen, can catalyse both a monophenolase reaction cycle (reaction 1) or a diphenolase reaction cycle (reaction 2). During the monophenolase cycle, one of the bound oxygen atoms is transferred to a monophenol (such as L-tyrosine), generating an o-diphenol intermediate, which is subsequently oxidized to an o-quinone and released, along with a water molecule. The enzyme remains in an inactive deoxy state, and is restored to the active oxy state by the binding of a new oxygen molecule. During the diphenolase cycle the enzyme binds an external diphenol molecule (such as L-dopa) and oxidizes it to an o-quinone that is released along with a water molecule, leaving the enzyme in the intermediate met state. The enzyme then binds a second diphenol molecule and repeats the process, ending in a deoxy state [7]. The second reaction is identical to that catalysed by the related enzyme catechol oxidase (EC 1.10.3.1). However, the latter can not catalyse the hydroxylation or monooxygenation of monophenols.
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
9002-10-2
not distinguished from EC 1.10.3.1
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
strain WS
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain WS
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Agaricus hortensis
mushroom
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Cherimoya fruit var. Concha Lisa
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
subsp. Kurstaki
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
common name Pupunha
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
var. botrytis italica
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
subsp. delileana
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
blowfly
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
tea
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cv. H1023
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Coffea guarini
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
var. Gigante de Vranja, quince
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
white yam from Nigeria
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
quackgrass
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Emerita asiatica
Milne Edwards
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
L. 1767
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
common name Jucara
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
common name Acai
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
tall fescue
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
meadow fescue
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Festuca sp.
tall fescue, soft leaf
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
soybean
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Helix vulgaris
garden snail
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
scorpion
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Ilex argentinus
enzyme is involved in sclerotisation, i.e., the hardening of the chitinous cuticle, and defense
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
whiteleg shrimp
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Lolium sp.
ryegrass
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
the Barbados cherry (Malpighia glabra L.) has a very short shelf life under ambient conditions due to skin colour loss and quality deterioration during storage
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
sago palm, isoenzymes I and III
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Musa cavendishii
banana
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mushroom
isolated from armadillo
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
tobacco
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
european spiny lobsters from the Northern Atlantic Sea
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
opium, isoenzymes A and B
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
reed canarygrass
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
bush bean
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
; pinto bean, CDC Pintium and 1533-15
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
timothy grass
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
Uniprot
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
3 isoenzymes
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
pea
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Kentucky bluegrass
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Polyporus dichrous
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
black poplar
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
apricot, var Bergeron
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Prunus persica L. Cv. Catherina
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain F6, soil bacterium. The coexistence of this tyrosinase with a laccase in Pseudomonas putida F6 is reported and both activities characterised
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Chinese pear, cultivar Nakai
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Ramonda serbica
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Rana esculenta ridibunda
frog
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
frog, 2 probably identical enzymes
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
marine snail
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
mediterranean slipper lobster
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
type culture Humicola insolens, ATCC 16454
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
HUT6202
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cacao
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
ATCC 27502
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain MUCL 30555, strain MUCL 29375, strain MUCL 38480, strain MUCL 39533, strain MUCL 38466, strain MUCL 38467, strain I-937, strain ss3
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
water caltrop
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 2-40 isolated from a salt marsh grass, related to Alteromonas
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 2-40 isolated from a salt marsh grass, related to Alteromonas
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
two isozymes
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
probably 3 isoenzymes
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Vibrio tyrosinaticus
2 isoenzymes
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cv. Arifiye
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
physiological function
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
(+)-catechin + 1/2 O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
(+)-catechin + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
(+)-catechin hydrate + 1/2 O2
?
show the reaction diagram
(+/-)-catechin + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
58.7% activity compared to L-DOPA
-
-
?
(-)-epicatechin + 1/2 O2
?
show the reaction diagram
(-)-epicatechin + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
(1R,3R,4S,5R)-3-[[(2E)-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)prop-2-enoyl]oxy]-1,4,5-trihydroxycyclohexanecarboxylic acid + O2
(1R,3R,4S,5R)-3-[[(2E)-3-(3,4-dioxocyclohexa-1,5-dien-1-yl)prop-2-enoyl]oxy]-1,4,5-trihydroxycyclohexanecarboxylic acid + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
(1S,3R,4S,5R)-4-[[(2E)-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)prop-2-enoyl]oxy]-1,3,5-trihydroxycyclohexanecarboxylic acid + O2
(1S,3R,4S,5R)-4-[[(2E)-3-(3,4-dioxocyclohexa-1,5-dien-1-yl)prop-2-enoyl]oxy]-1,3,5-trihydroxycyclohexanecarboxylic acid + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
(R)-dopaxanthin + dehydroascorbic acid + O2
(R)-dopaxanthin quinone + L-ascorbic acid + H2O
show the reaction diagram
(R)-tyrosine-betaxanthin + L-DOPA + O2
(R)-dopaxanthin + dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. (R)-portulacaxanthin II, the activity of the enzyme is not restricted to betaxanthins derived from (S)-amino acids
(R)-dopaxanthin is a pigment, quantitative product analysis
-
?
(RS)-catechin + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
1,5-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,4-pentadiene-3-one + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2 hydroquinone + O2
2 quinone + 2 H2O
show the reaction diagram
2,3-dimethylphenol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
11% relative activity compared to L-DOPA
-
-
?
2,4,5-trihydroxyphenethylamine + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-caffeoylisocitric acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e., E-3-carboxy-2-(3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)prop-2-enoyloxy)pentanedioic acid
-
-
?
2-caffeoylisocitric acid 6-methyl ester + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e, E-2-(3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)prop-2-enoyloxy)-3-(methoxycarbonyl)pentanedioic acid
-
-
?
2-hydroxy-1-[[(2E)-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)prop-2-enoyl]oxy]propane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid + O2
3-C-carboxy-2-deoxy-4-O-[(2E)-3-(3-methoxy-4-oxocyclohexa-1,5-dien-1-yl)prop-2-enoyl]pentaric acid + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-O-caffeoylhydroxycitric acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
2-O-caffeoylisocitric acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
2-O-caffeoylisocitric acid 6-methyl ester + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
2-O-caffeoylthreonic acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e., E-2-(3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)prop-2-enoyloxy)-3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid
-
-
?
2-[[(2E)-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)prop-2-enoyl]oxy]-3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid + O2
2-[[(2E)-3-(3,4-dioxocyclohexa-1,5-dien-1-yl)prop-2-enoyl]oxy]-3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone + 1/2 O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
quercetin
-
-
?
3,4,5-trihydroxy-L-phenylalanine + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
3,4,6-trihydroxyphenylalanine + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3,4-dihydroxyanisol + 1/2 O2
anisol o-quinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid + 1/2 O2
(3,4-dioxocyclohexa-1,5-dien-1-yl)acetic acid + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
isoenzymes 1-3, 22%, 13%, and 13% of L-dopa activity respectively
-
?
3,4-dihydroxyhydrocinnamic acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
100% activity
-
-
?
3,4-dihydroxymandelic acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
9% of the activity with L-dopa
-
-
?
3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid + 1/2 O2
(3,4-dioxocyclohexa-1,5-dien-1-yl)acetic acid + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
DHPAA
-
-
?
3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine + 1/2 O2
dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine methyl ester + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3,4-dihydroxyphenylpropionic acid + 1/2 O2
3-(3,4-dioxocyclohexa-1,5-dien-1-yl)propanoic acid + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
DHPPA
-
-
?
3,4-dihydroxyphenylpropionic acid + O2
3-(3,4-dioxocyclohexa-1,5-dien-1-yl)propionic acid
show the reaction diagram
Ilex argentinus
-
-
-
?
3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) propionic acid + 1/2 O2
3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)propionic acid + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-methylalanine + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid + 1/2 O2
3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)propionic acid + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
3-aminophenol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
3.9% activity compared to L-DOPA
-
-
?
3-chlorophenol + O2
4-chloro-1,2-quinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
20% of 3-chlorophenol is oxidized after 2 h by tyrosinase
4-chloro-1,2-quinone subsequently undergoes a nucleophilic substitution reaction at the chlorine atom by excess phenol to give the corresponding phenol-quinone adduct 4-(3-chlorophenoxy)cyclohexa-3,5-diene-1,2-dione
-
?
3-fluorophenol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3-hydroxyanthranilic acid + O2
cinnabarinic acid + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
3-hydroxybenzyl alcohol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3-hydroxyphloridzin + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3-methoxyphenol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3-methylcatechol + O2
3-methyl-o-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
3-[2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethylaminocarbonyl]-3-methyl-1-(4-acetylphenyl)triazene + O2
(2E)-3-(4-acetylphenyl)-N-[2-(3,4-dioxocyclohexa-1,5-dien-1-yl)ethyl]-1-methyltriaz-2-ene-1-carboxamide + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3-[2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethylaminocarbonyl]-3-methyl-1-(4-ethoxycarbonylphenyl)triazene + O2
ethyl 4-[(1E)-3-[[2-(3,4-dioxocyclohexa-1,5-dien-1-yl)ethyl]carbamoyl]-3-methyltriaz-1-en-1-yl]benzoate + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3-[2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethylaminocarbonyl]-3-methyl-1-(4-tolyl)triazene + O2
(2E)-N-[2-(3,4-dioxocyclohexa-1,5-dien-1-yl)ethyl]-1-methyl-3-(4-methylphenyl)triaz-2-ene-1-carboxamide + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3-[2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethylaminocarbonyl]-3-methyl-1-(4-acetylphenyl)triazene + O2
(2E)-3-(4-acetylphenyl)-1-methyl-N-[2-(4-oxocyclohexa-1,5-dien-1-yl)ethyl]triaz-2-ene-1-carboxamide + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3-[2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethylaminocarbonyl]-3-methyl-1-(4-cyanophenyl)triazene + O2
(2E)-3-(4-cyanophenyl)-1-methyl-N-[2-(4-oxocyclohexa-1,5-dien-1-yl)ethyl]triaz-2-ene-1-carboxamide + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3-[2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethylaminocarbonyl]-3-methyl-1-(4-ethoxycarbonylphenyl)triazene + O2
ethyl 4-[(1E)-3-methyl-3-[[2-(4-oxocyclohexa-1,5-dien-1-yl)ethyl]carbamoyl]triaz-1-en-1-yl]benzoate + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3-[2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethylaminocarbonyl]-3-methyl-1-(4-tolyl)triazene + O2
(2E)-1-methyl-3-(4-methylphenyl)-N-[2-(4-oxocyclohexa-1,5-dien-1-yl)ethyl]triaz-2-ene-1-carboxamide + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-bromophenol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-chlorocatechol + 1/2 O2
4-chlorocyclohexa-3,5-diene-1,2-dione + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-chlorophenol + O2
4-chloro-1,2-quinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
4-coumaric acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-cresol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
4-ethoxyphenol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
4-ethylcatechol + 1/2 O2
4-ethylcyclohexa-3,5-diene-1,2-dione + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-fluorophenol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
4-hydroxyanisol + 1/2 O2
3,4-dihydoxyanisol + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
4-hydroxyanisole + O2
3,4-dihydoxyanisol + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-hydroxybenzaldehyde + 1/2 O2
3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
4-hydroxybenzaldehyde + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-hydroxybenzoic acid + O2 + AH2
3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol + O2 + AH2
3,4-dihydroxybenzyl alcohol + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
4-hydroxyphenyl propionic acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
4-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
4-iodophenol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-methoxyphenol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
4-methyl catechol + O2
4-methyl-o-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
5% of the activity with L-dopa
-
-
?
4-methyl-catechol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-methylbenzene-1,2-diol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-methylcatechol + 1/2 O2
4-methyl-1,2-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
4-methylcatechol + O2
4-methyl-1,2-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
4-methylcatechol + O2
4-methyl-o-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
4-methylcatechol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
90% activity compared to 3,4-dihydroxyhydrocinnamic acid
-
-
?
4-Methylphenol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-nitrocatechol + 1/2 O2
4-nitrocyclohexa-3,5-diene-1,2-dione + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-nitrocatechol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-t-butylphenol + O2 + AH2
4-t-butyl 1,2-benzoquinone + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
4-tert-butylcatechol + 1/2 O2
4-(tert-butyl)benzo-1,2-quinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
4-tert-butylcatechol + 1/2 O2
4-tert-butylcyclohexa-3,5-diene-1,2-dione + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-tert-butylphenol + O2
4-tert-butyl 1,2-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
4-tert-butylphenol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-tyrosol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-[(4-methylphenyl)azo]-1,2-benzendiol + 1/2 O2
4-[(E)-(4-methylphenyl)diazenyl]cyclohexa-3,5-diene-1,2-dione + H2O
show the reaction diagram
4-[(4-methylphenyl)azo]-phenol + O2 + AH2
4-[(4-methylbenzo)azo]-1,2-benzendiol + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
5,6-dihydroxyindole + 1/2 O2
1H-indole-5,6-dione + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
adrenaline bitartrate + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
alpha-methyl-DL-tyrosine + O2 + AH2
N-methyl-DL-dopa + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
alpha-methyl-dopa + O2
alpha-methyldopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
alpha-methyl-L-tyrosine + O2 + AH2
N-methyl-L-dopa + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
caffeic acid + 1/2 O2
caffeoyl quinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
caffeic acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
caffeic acid + O2
caffeoyl quinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
catechin + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
catechol + 1/2 O2
1,2 benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
catechol + 1/2 O2
1,2-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
catechol + 1/2 O2
o-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
PPO from butter lettuce shows a higher affinity to 4-methylcatechol than to catechol
-
-
?
catechol + O2
1,2-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
catechol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
chlorogenic acid + 1/2 O2
chlorogenoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
chlorogenic acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
chlorogenic acid + O2
chlorogenoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
coumaric acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
cumaric acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
D-catechin + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
D-dopa + 1/2 O2
D-dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
D-DOPA + O2
D-dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
D-Tyr + O2
D-dopa + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Ilex argentinus
-
-
-
?
D-tyrosine + L-dopa + O2
D-dopa + dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
D-tyrosine + O2
D-dopa + H2O
show the reaction diagram
D-tyrosine + O2
dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
D-tyrosine + O2 + AH2
D-dopa + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
D-tyrosine + O2 + AH2
L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
DL-2-methyltyrosine + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
DL-dopa + 1/2 O2
DL-dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
DL-DOPA + O2
DL-dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
78% activity compared to L-DOPA
-
-
?
DL-DOPA + O2
dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
39% activity at 2.5 mM substrate concentration
-
-
?
DL-epicatechin + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
DL-tyrosine + O2
DL-DOPA + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
20.6% activity compared to L-DOPA
-
-
?
DL-tyrosine + O2 + AH2
DL-dopa + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
dopa + 1/2 O2
dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
dopamine + 1/2 O2
dopamine quinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
dopamine + 1/2 O2
dopaminequinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
dopamine + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
ellagic acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
high affinity substrate
-
-
?
epicatechin + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
epicatechin gallate + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
epigallocatechin gallate + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
epinephrine + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
esculetin + 1/2 O2
2H-chromene-2,6,7-trione + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
demonstration, that esculetin is no inhibitor, but a substrate of mushroom polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and horseradish peroxidase (POD)
-
-
?
esculetin + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ferulic acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
ferulic acid + O2 + AH2
(2E)-3-(3,4-dihydroxy-5-methoxyphenyl)prop-2-enoic acid + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
gallic acid + 1/2 O2
5-hydroxy-3,4-dioxocyclohexa-1,5-diene-1-carboxylic acid + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
gallic acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
gamma-L-glutaminyl-3,4-dihydroxybenzene + O2
gamma-L-glutaminyl-3,4-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
gamma-L-glutaminyl-4-hydroxybenzene + O2 + AH2
gamma-L-glutaminyl-3,4-dihydroxybenzene + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
Gly-Gly-L-Tyr + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
Gly-L-Tyr-Gly + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
glycyl-glycyl-L-tyrosine + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
3.4fold higher activity compared to Tyr
-
-
?
glycyl-L-tyrosine + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
2.9fold higher activity compared to Tyr
-
-
?
hydrocaffeic acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
hydroquinone monomethylether + O2
quinone monomethylether
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
hydroxyquinone + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine + 1/2 O2
L-dopachrome + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine + 1/2 O2
L-dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
L-3-hydroxytyrosine + L-dopa + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
L-adrenaline + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-dopa + 1/2 O2
dopachrome + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-dopa + 1/2 O2
L-dopachrome + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-dopa + 1/2 O2
L-dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
L-DOPA + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
L-DOPA + O2
dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
L-DOPA + O2
L-dopachrome + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-Dopa + O2
L-dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
L-epicatechin + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
L-Tyr + O2
L-Dopa + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
diphenolase activity
-
-
?
L-Tyr + O2 + AH2
L-dopa + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
L-Tyr-Gly-Gly + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
L-tyrosine + H2O2
3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + L-dopa + O2
L-dopa + dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
L-tyrosine + O2
dihydroxyphenylalanine quinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + O2
dopachrome + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + O2
dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
L-tyrosine + O2
L-DOPA + H2O
show the reaction diagram
L-tyrosine + O2
L-dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + O2 + AH2
L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
L-tyrosine + O2 + AH2
L-dopa + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
L-tyrosine methyl ester + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
L-tyrosine methyl ester + O2
L-DOPA methyl ester + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine methyl ester + O2 + AH2
L-dopa methyl ester + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
luteolin + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
methyl gallate + O2
methyl 5-hydroxy-3,4-dioxocyclohexa-1,5-diene-1-carboxylate + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
methylcatechol + O2
4-methyl-1,2-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Ramonda serbica
-
-
-
-
?
monophenol + O2
o-diphenol + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
N-acetyl-3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
N-acetyl-6-hydroxytryptophan + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
N-acetyl-L-tyrosine + O2
N-acetyl-dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
N-acetyldopamine + 1/2 O2
N-acetyldopamine quinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
N-acetyldopamine quinone + O2
1,2-dehydro-N-acetyldopamine + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme has both o-diphenoloxidase and N-acetyldopamine quinone:N-acetyldopamine quinone methide isomerase activity
-
?
N-beta-alanyldopamine + 1/2 O2
N-beta-alanyldopamine quinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
N-formyl-L-tyrosine + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
N-methyl-3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
noradrenaline + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
Norepinephrine + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
o-coumaric acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
o-diphenol + 1/2 O2
?
show the reaction diagram
o-diphenol + O2
o-quinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
o-methoxyphenol + O2 + AH2
1,2-dihydroxy-3-methoxybenzene + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
orcin + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
p-coumaric acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
p-coumaric acid + O2
caffeic acid + H2O
show the reaction diagram
p-coumaric acid + O2 + AH2
caffeic acid + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
p-cresol + O2
4-methyl-o-quinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p-cresol + O2
4-methylpyrocatechol + H2O
show the reaction diagram
p-cresol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
20% activity at 2.5 mM substrate concentration
-
-
?
p-cresol + O2 + AH2
4-methyl-o-quinone + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
p-cresol + O2 + AH2
4-methylcatechol + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p-cresol + O2 + AH2
4-methylpyrocatechol + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
p-hydroquinone + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
2% activity compared to catechol
-
-
?
p-hydroxybenzoic acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
less than 1% activity compared to L-DOPA
-
-
?
p-tyrosol + O2
2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethanol + H2O
show the reaction diagram
p-tyrosol + O2 + AH2
2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethanol + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
phaselic acid + 1/2 O2
(2S)-2-[[(2E)-3-(3,4-dioxocyclohexa-1,5-dien-1-yl)prop-2-enoyl]oxy]butanedioic acid + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phaselic acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
phenol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
phenol + O2 + AH2
catechol + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
phenol + O2 + AH2
o-dihydroxybenzene + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
phloretic acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
phloridzin + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phloroglucin + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
phloroglucinol + 1/2 O2
?
show the reaction diagram
protocatechuic acid + 1/2 O2
3,4-dioxocyclohexa-1,5-diene-1-carboxylic acid + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
protocatechuic acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
protocatechuic aldehyde + 1/2 O2
3,4-dioxocyclohexa-1,5-diene-1-carbaldehyde + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
protocatechuic aldehyde + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
pyrocatechol + 1/2 O2
1,2-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
pyrocatechol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
Ilex argentinus
-
-
-
?
pyrogallol + 1/2 O2
?
show the reaction diagram
pyrogallol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
quercetin + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
quinol + O2
quinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
resorcinol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
syringaldazine + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
syringic acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
tert-butylcatechol + 1/2 O2
4-(tert-butyl)benzo-1,2-quinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
hydrophobic substrate
-
-
?
trans-cinnamic acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
tyramine + O2
4-(2-aminoethyl)cyclohexa-3,5-diene-1,2-dione + H2O
show the reaction diagram
tyramine + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
tyrosine + O2 + AH2
dopa + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
tyrosine + O2 + AH2
L-dopa + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
vanillic acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
vanillin + O2 + AH2
3,4-dihydroxy-5-methoxybenzaldehyde + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
additional information
?
-