Information on EC 1.14.18.1 - tyrosinase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Bacteria, Eukaryota

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
1.14.18.1
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
tyrosinase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
2 L-dopa + O2 = 2 dopaquinone + 2 H2O
show the reaction diagram
(2)
-
-
-
L-dopa + 1/2 O2 = dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
(1b)
-
-
-
L-tyrosine + 1/2 O2 = L-dopa
show the reaction diagram
(1a)
-
-
-
L-tyrosine + O2 = dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
(1) overall reaction
-
-
-
L-tyrosine + O2 = dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
proposed mechanism of hydroxylation and oxidation of phenols
-
L-tyrosine + O2 = dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
proposed interaction of the oxy site effective structure with monophenolic and diphenolic substrates
-
L-tyrosine + O2 = dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
2 o-diphenol + O2 = 2 o-quinone + 2 H2O i.e. catecholase activity, proposed mechanism for sequence of hydroxylase and catecholase; monophenol + O2 = o-diphenol + H2O, i.e. cresolase activity, proposed mechanism for sequence of hydroxylase and catecholase
-
L-tyrosine + O2 = dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
reaction mechanism of monophenolase and diphenolase activity
-
L-tyrosine + O2 = dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
proposed structural reaction mechanism for the monophenolase and diphenolase activity
Mushroom
-
L-tyrosine + O2 = dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
catalytic cycle, reaction mechanism, active site structure
-
L-tyrosine + O2 = dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
the active site of the enzyme contains a pair of antiferromagnetically coupled Cu2+ ions in the met form, and during turnover both the reduced and the oxy forms are cyclically produced, the rate-limiting step is associated with cleavage of the peroxide O-O bond, reaction and kinetic mechanism
-
L-tyrosine + O2 = dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
catalyzes the hydroxylation of monophenols to o-diphenols (cresolase activity) and the oxidation of o-diphenols to o-quinones (catecholase activity)
-
L-tyrosine + O2 = dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
PPO catalyzes the hydroxylation of monophenols to o-diphenols (EC 1.14.18.1) throughout a cresolase/monophenolase activity and a subsequent oxidation of these o-diphenols to the corresponding o-quinones (EC 1.10.3.1) by a catecholase/diphenolase activity
-
L-tyrosine + O2 = dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
EC 1.14.18.1, catalyze hydroxylation of monophenols to o-diphenols and their subsequent oxidation to o-quinones
-
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
oxidation
-
-
-
-
redox reaction
-
-
-
-
reduction
-
-
-
-
PATHWAY
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
betacyanin biosynthesis
-
L-dopachrome biosynthesis
-
Tyrosine metabolism
-
Riboflavin metabolism
-
Isoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis
-
Betalain biosynthesis
-
Metabolic pathways
-
Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
L-tyrosine,L-dopa:oxygen oxidoreductase
A type III copper protein found in a broad variety of bacteria, fungi, plants, insects, crustaceans, and mammals, which is involved in the synthesis of betalains and melanin. The enzyme, which is activated upon binding molecular oxygen, can catalyse both a monophenolase reaction cycle (reaction 1) or a diphenolase reaction cycle (reaction 2). During the monophenolase cycle, one of the bound oxygen atoms is transferred to a monophenol (such as L-tyrosine), generating an o-diphenol intermediate, which is subsequently oxidized to an o-quinone and released, along with a water molecule. The enzyme remains in an inactive deoxy state, and is restored to the active oxy state by the binding of a new oxygen molecule. During the diphenolase cycle the enzyme binds an external diphenol molecule (such as L-dopa) and oxidizes it to an o-quinone that is released along with a water molecule, leaving the enzyme in the intermediate met state. The enzyme then binds a second diphenol molecule and repeats the process, ending in a deoxy state [7]. The second reaction is identical to that catalysed by the related enzyme catechol oxidase (EC 1.10.3.1). However, the latter can not catalyse the hydroxylation or monooxygenation of monophenols.
SYNONYMS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
AbPPO1
O42713
-
catalase-phenol oxidase
-
bifunctional enzyme
catalase-phenol oxidase
-
bifunctional enzyme, its major activity is the catalase-mediated decomposition of hydrogen peroxide, but it also catalyzes peroxide-independent phenol oxidation
catechol oxidase
-
-
-
-
catechol oxidase
-
-
catechol oxidase
-
-
catecholase
-
-
-
-
catecholase
-
-
catecholase
-
-
catecholase
-
-
catecholase
Q8Y2J8
-
chlorogenic acid oxidase
-
-
-
-
chlorogenic oxidase
-
-
-
-
cresolase
-
-
-
-
cresolase
-
-
cresolase
Hypocrea jecorina
-
-
cresolase
-
-
cresolase
-
-
cresolase/monophenolase
-
-
deoxy-tyrosinase
-
-
dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine:oxygen oxidoreductase
-
-
Diphenol oxidase
-
-
-
-
Diphenol oxidase
-
-
Diphenol oxidase
-
-
diphenolase
B2ZB02
-
dopa oxidase
-
-
-
-
dopa oxidase
-
DOPA oxidase activity of murine tyrosinase
EC 1.10.3.1
-
-
related
-
Hc-derived phenoloxidase
-
-
Hc-phenoloxidase
-
-
hemocyanin-derived phenoloxidase
-
-
L-DOPA:oxygen oxidoreductase
-
-
L-tyrosine hydroxylase
-
-
met-tyrosinase
-
-
monophenol dihydroxyphenylalanine:oxygen oxidoreductase
-
-
-
-
monophenol monooxidase
-
-
-
-
monophenol monooxygenase
-
-
monophenol monooxygenase
-
-
monophenol monooxygenase
-
-
monophenol monooxygenase
-
-
monophenol monooxygenase
-
-
monophenol monooxygenase
Q8Y2J8
-
monophenol monooxygenase
-
-
monophenol monoxygenase
Rana esculenta
-
-
monophenol oxidase
-
-
-
-
monophenol oxygen oxidoreductase
-
-
monophenol, 3,4-dihydroxy L-phenylalanine (L-DOPA):oxygen oxidoreductase
-
-
monophenol, dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine oxygen oxidoreductase
-
-
-
-
monophenol, dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine:oxygen oxidoreductase
-
-
monophenol, dihydroxyphenylalanine:oxygen oxidoreductase
-
copper binding metalloenzyme
monophenol, L-Dopa: oxidoreductase
Q6RX65
-
monophenol, L-DOPA: oxygen oxidoreductase
-
-
monophenol, L-DOPA: oxygen oxidoreductase
Q8Y2J8
-
monophenol, o-diphenol: oxygen oxidoreductase
B2Z3P7
-
monophenol, o-diphenol: oxygen oxidoreductase
B2Z3P7
-
-
monophenol, o-diphenol: oxygen oxidoreductase
Hypocrea jecorina
-
-
monophenol, o-diphenol: oxygen oxidoreductase
-
-
monophenol, o-diphenol:O2 oxidoreductase
-
-
monophenol, o-diphenol:oxygen oxido-reductase
O42713
-
monophenol, o-diphenol:oxygen oxidoreductase
-
-
monophenol, o-diphenol:oxygen oxidoreductase
O42713
-
monophenol, o-diphenol:oxygen oxidoreductase
Hypocrea jecorina
-
-
monophenol, o-diphenol:oxygen oxidoreductase
Malus x domestica
-
-
monophenol, o-diphenol:oxygen oxidoreductase
Q41428
-
monophenol, o-diphenol:oxygen oxidoreductase
-
-
monophenol, polyphenol oxidase
-
-
monophenol: dioxygen oxidoreductases, hydroxylating
-
-
monophenolase
-
-
-
-
monophenolase
B2ZB02
-
monophenolase
-
-
monophenolase
-
-
monophenolase
-
-
monophenolase
Hypocrea jecorina
-
-
monophenolase
-
-
monophenolase
-
-
mTyr
P11344
-
murine tyrosinase
-
from cultured B16 cells
N-acetyl-6-hydroxytryptophan oxidase
-
-
-
-
o-diphenol oxidase
-
-
-
-
o-diphenol oxidase
Helix vulgaris, Rapana venosa
-
-
o-diphenol oxidoreductase
-
-
-
-
o-diphenol oxygen oxidoreductase
-
-
o-diphenol: O2 oxidoreductase
-
-
o-diphenol: oxidoreductase
-
-
o-diphenol:O2 oxidoreductase
-
-
-
-
o-diphenol:oxygen oxidoreductase
-
-
-
-
o-diphenolase
-
-
-
-
o-diphenolase
-
-
oxygen oxidoreductase
-
-
phenol oxidase
-
-
-
-
phenol oxidase
-
-
phenol oxidases
-
-
phenolase
-
-
-
-
phenolase
-
-
phenoloxidase
-
-
phenoloxidase
Q6RX65
-
phenoloxidase
-
-
phenoloxidase
-
-
phenoloxidase
-
-
phenoloxidase
P11344
-
phenoloxidase
-
-
phenoloxidase
-
-
polyaromatic oxidase
-
-
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
-
-
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
-
catalyzes both the hydroxylation of monophenols to diphenols and the oxidation of o-diphenols to o-quinones
polyphenol oxidase
O42713
-
polyphenol oxidase
Amorphophallus paeonifolius var. campanulatus
-
a binuclear copper containing metalloprotein
polyphenol oxidase
-
responsible for browning reaction in demaged plant tissues and fruits
polyphenol oxidase
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
-
acts like cresolase and catecholase
polyphenol oxidase
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
-
EC1.14.18.1, EC1.10.3.1
polyphenol oxidase
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
Q45NF5
-
polyphenol oxidase
Q3YJ63
-
polyphenol oxidase
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
Hypocrea jecorina
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
Lolium sp.
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
Malus x domestica
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
Q8Y2J8
-
polyphenol oxidase
Ramonda serbica
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
Q41428
-
polyphenol oxidase
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
Q84YH9, Q84YI0, Q84YI1
-
polyphenol oxidase
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
-
-
polyphenol oxidase B
-
-
polyphenolase
-
-
-
-
polyphenoloxidase
-
-
polyphenoloxidase
-
-
polyphenoloxidase
-
-
polyphenoloxidase
-
-
polyphenoloxidase
-
-
PotPPO
Q41428
-
PPO
Q45NF5
-
PPO
Q3YJ63
-
PPO
-
enzyme catalyses two distinct reactions: the o-hydroxylation of monophenols to o-diphenols (acts like cresolase) (E.C. 1.14.18.1) and the oxidation of o-diphenols to o-quinones (acts like catecholase) (E.C. 1.10.3.2)
PPO
Lolium sp.
-
-
PPO
Ramonda serbica
-
-
PPO
Q84YH9, Q84YI0, Q84YI1
-
PPO
-
-
PPO1
Q45NF5
-
PPO1
Q3YJ63
-
PPO1
Q84YI1
-
PPO2
O42713
-
PPO2
Q84YI0
-
PPO3
Q84YH9
-
pro-PO III
Q6RX65
-
prophenoloxidase III
Q6RX65
-
pyrocatechol oxidase
-
-
-
-
ST94
Ilex argentinus
Q76DT9, Q76DU0
-
ST94t
Ilex argentinus
Q76DT9, Q76DU0
the tyrosinase activity of ST94 is enhanced by proteolysis with trypsin to form a protein, termed ST94t
tryosinase
-
-
tryrosinase
-
-
tyr
P11344
-
TYR1
Q5DB10
isozyme
TYR2
Hypocrea jecorina
-
-
TYR2
Q5DHS0
isozyme
tyrA
B2Z3P7
has both monophenol oxidase and diphenol oxidase activity
tyrA
B2Z3P7
has both monophenol oxidase and diphenol oxidase activity
-
tyrosinase
-
-
-
-
tyrosinase
B2Z3P7
-
tyrosinase
B2Z3P7
-
-
tyrosinase
-
a real tyrosinase because it shows both diphenolase and monophenolase activities
tyrosinase
-
catalyzes two distinct reactions of melanin biosynthesis: the o-hydroxylation of the amino acid L-tyrosine to L-DOPA and subsequently the oxidation of L-DOPA to the corresponding o-dopaquinone
tyrosinase
-
copper-containing monooxygenase
tyrosinase
-
rate-limiting enzyme in melanin synthesis
tyrosinase
O42713
-
tyrosinase
Amorphophallus paeonifolius var. campanulatus
-
-
tyrosinase
B2ZB02
-
tyrosinase
-
-
tyrosinase
-
-
tyrosinase
-
this enzyme is able to catalyse two different reactions: the hydroxylation of monophenols to o-diphenols (monophenolase or cresolase activity, EC 1.14.18.1), and the oxidation of o-diphenols to o-quinones (diphenolase or catechol oxidase activity, EC 1.10.3.1)
tyrosinase
Helix vulgaris
-
-
tyrosinase
-
plays a core role in melanogenesis
tyrosinase
-
this enzyme is able to catalyse two different reactions: the hydroxylation of monophenols to o-diphenols (monophenolase or cresolase activity, EC 1.14.18.1), and the oxidation of o-diphenols to o-quinones (diphenolase or catechol oxidase activity, EC 1.10.3.1)
tyrosinase
Hypocrea jecorina
-
-
tyrosinase
Ilex argentinus
Q76DT9, Q76DU0
-
tyrosinase
-
-
tyrosinase
-
-
tyrosinase
Malus x domestica
-
-
tyrosinase
-
this enzyme is able to catalyse two different reactions: the hydroxylation of monophenols to o-diphenols (monophenolase or cresolase activity, EC 1.14.18.1), and the oxidation of o-diphenols to o-quinones (diphenolase or catechol oxidase activity, EC 1.10.3.1)
tyrosinase
P11344
-
tyrosinase
-
-
tyrosinase
-
-
tyrosinase
-
-
tyrosinase
-
-
tyrosinase
-
-
tyrosinase
-
-
tyrosinase
Pseudomonas putida F6
-
-
-
tyrosinase
Rana esculenta
-
-
tyrosinase
-
-
tyrosinase
-
-
tyrosinase
Q5DB10, Q5DHS0
-
tyrosinase
-
-
tyrosinase
Q41428
-
tyrosinase
-
binuclear copper enzyme
tyrosinase
-
this enzyme is able to catalyse two different reactions: the hydroxylation of monophenols to o-diphenols (monophenolase or cresolase activity, EC 1.14.18.1), and the oxidation of o-diphenols to o-quinones (diphenolase or catechol oxidase activity, EC 1.10.3.1)
tyrosinase
Streptomyces castaneoglobisporus HUT6202
-
-
-
tyrosinase
-
-
tyrosinase 2
Hypocrea jecorina
-
-
tyrosinase diphenolase
-
-
tyrosine-dopa oxidase
-
-
-
-
monphenol mono-oxgenase
-
-
additional information
-
cf. EC 1.10.3.1
additional information
-
cf. EC 1.10.3.1
additional information
-
cf. EC 1.10.3.1
additional information
-
cf. 1.10.3.1
additional information
-
cf. EC 1.10.3.1
additional information
-
cf. EC 1.10.3.1
additional information
-
cf. EC 1.10.3.1
additional information
-
cf. EC 1.10.3.1
additional information
-
cf. EC 1.10.3.1
additional information
-
cf. EC 1.10.3.1
additional information
-
cf. EC 1.10.3.1
additional information
-
cf. EC 1.10.3.1
additional information
-
cf. EC 1.10.3.1
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY
9002-10-2
not distinguished from EC 1.10.3.1
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SEQUENCE CODE
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
strain WS
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain WS
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Agaricus bisporus (J.E.Lange) Imbach
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-tyrosinase
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
high enzyme content
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
white button mushroom, enzyme protects a human lymphoma cell line, Raji cells, against H2O2-induced oxidative damage to cellular DNA
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Agaricus hortensis
mushroom
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Amorphophallus paeonifolius var. campanulatus
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Cherimoya fruit var. Concha Lisa
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
subsp. Kurstaki
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
common name Pupunha
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
red Swiss chard, subspecies Beta vulgaris cicla
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
spinach-beet
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
var. botrytis italica
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
smooth bromegrass
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
subsp. delileana
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cv. H1023
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Coffea guarini
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
var. Gigante de Vranja, quince
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cultivar Abertop
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
orchardgrass
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
carrot
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
yam tubers
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
white yam from Nigeria
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
quackgrass
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Emericella nidulans
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Emerita asiatica
Milne Edwards
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
L. 1767
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
common name Jucara
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
common name Acai
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
tall fescue
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
meadow fescue
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Festuca sp.
tall fescue, soft leaf
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
expressed in retinal pigment epithelium
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
soybean
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Helix vulgaris
garden snail
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Hypocrea jecorina
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Hypocrea jecorina
-
Uniprot
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Hypocrea jecorina
gene tyr2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Ilex argentinus
tyrosinase precursor 1
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Ilex argentinus
tyrosinase precursor 2
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
enzyme is involved in sclerotisation, i.e., the hardening of the chitinous cuticle, and defense
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
iceberg lettuce
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
var. capitata L.
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
6 isoenzymes
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
whiteleg shrimp
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Lolium sp.
ryegrass
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
the Barbados cherry (Malpighia glabra L.) has a very short shelf life under ambient conditions due to skin colour loss and quality deterioration during storage
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
apple, var. red delicious
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Malus x domestica
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
tyrosinases A and B
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
sago palm, isoenzymes I and III
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
B16 melanoma cells
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
B16 melanoma cells; high-mobility- and low-mobility tyrosinase
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
B16 melanoma cells; isoenzymes T1, T2, T3 and T4
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
melanocyte cell lines
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Musa cavendishii
banana
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
housefly
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mushroom
4 isoenzymes
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mushroom
obtained from Sigma
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isolated from armadillo
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
enzyme is synthesized as a precursur
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cultivars Picual and FS-17
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
green olive
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
manzanilla cultivar (Olea europaea pomiformis)
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
european spiny lobsters from the Northern Atlantic Sea
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
opium, isoenzymes A and B
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
avocado
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
reed canarygrass
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
bush bean
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
; pinto bean, CDC Pintium and 1533-15
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
timothy grass
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
3 isoenzymes
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Kentucky bluegrass
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Polyporus dichrous
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
black poplar
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
apricot, var Bergeron
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Prunus persica L. Cv. Catherina
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
F6 strain wild-type and 2 mutants overproducing melanin, F6-HDO with disrupted homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase gene and F6-TR with disrupted transcriptional regulator gene
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain F6, soil bacterium. The coexistence of this tyrosinase with a laccase in Pseudomonas putida F6 is reported and both activities characterised
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Pseudomonas putida F6
strain F6, soil bacterium. The coexistence of this tyrosinase with a laccase in Pseudomonas putida F6 is reported and both activities characterised
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
d'anjou pear, 3 isoenzymes
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Chinese pear, cultivar Nakai
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Ramonda serbica
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Rana esculenta
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Rana esculenta ridibunda
frog
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
frog, 2 probably identical enzymes
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
marine snail
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
mediterranean slipper lobster
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
type culture Humicola insolens, ATCC 16454
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
var. Naomi, Pizzutello, Rosa Maletto, and PO228, physicochemical properties of the different tomato varieties, overview
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
eggplant
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cultivar Rooster, rooster potato
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
tyrosinases from apple, potato, the white rot fungus Pycnoporus sanguineus, the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei and the edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus are compared for their biochemical characteristics
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gram-positive soil bacterium
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Streptomyces castaneoglobisporus HUT6202
HUT6202
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
intra- and extracellular enzymes are identical
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
KY-453, isolated from soil
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
REN-21, organic solvent resistant enzyme
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain MUCL 30555, strain MUCL 29375, strain MUCL 38480, strain MUCL 39533, strain MUCL 38466, strain MUCL 38467, strain I-937, strain ss3
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain CBS 357.63, strain CBS 614.73, strain G05, strain W006, strain W 006-2, strain W 3008, strain W28, strain G118, strain G66, strain H2180
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
white-rot basidomycete
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
water caltrop
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cultivars Milvus and Lemmon
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cv. Milvus, red clover
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
PPO2, polyphenol oxidase (EC 1.10.3.1) (EC 1.14.18.1)
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
PPO3, polyphenol oxidase (EC 1.10.3.1) (EC 1.14.18.1)
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cultivars CA 9632, PH82-2, Nongda 3291, Jing 9428, Nongda 152, Zhongyou 9507, Yumai 70, and Nongda 116
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 2-40 isolated from a salt marsh grass, related to Alteromonas
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
uncultured marine bacterium 2.40
strain 2-40 isolated from a salt marsh grass, related to Alteromonas
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
two isozymes
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
probably 3 isoenzymes
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Vibrio tyrosinaticus
2 isoenzymes
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
c.v. long pod, broad bean
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
mung bean
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
monastrell grape
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cv. Arifiye
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
physiological function
-, B2Z3P7
key enzyme involved in melanin formation
physiological function
-, Q6RX65
knockdown of As-pro-PO III expression in pupae using double-stranded RNA results in high pupal mortality and deformed adults that subsequently died following emergence
physiological function
Q5DB10, Q5DHS0, -
tyrosinases might play a significant role during egg shell formation in Schistosoma japonicum; tyrosinases might play a significant role during egg shell formation in Schistosoma japonicum
physiological function
-
tyrosinases are essential enzymes in melanin biosynthesis and therefore responsible for pigmentation of skin and hair
physiological function
-
tyrosinase is a key enzyme in the melanin biosynthesis
physiological function
-
phenoloxidase can serve as a protecting agent against environmental pathogens in Dugesia japonica
physiological function
-
key enzyme involved in melanin formation
-
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                      
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
(+)-catechin + 1/2 O2
?
show the reaction diagram
Q84YH9, Q84YI0, Q84YI1
-
-
-
?
(+)-catechin + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
60.8% activity compared to L-DOPA
-
-
?
(+)-catechin hydrate + 1/2 O2
?
show the reaction diagram
Hypocrea jecorina, Trametes sanguinea, Malus x domestica, Agaricus bisporus
-
-
-
-
?
(+)-catechin hydrate + 1/2 O2
?
show the reaction diagram
Q41428
-
-
-
?
(+/-)-catechin + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
58.7% activity compared to L-DOPA
-
-
?
(-)-epicatechin + 1/2 O2
?
show the reaction diagram
Hypocrea jecorina, Trametes sanguinea, Malus x domestica
-
-
-
-
?
(-)-epicatechin + 1/2 O2
?
show the reaction diagram
Q84YH9, Q84YI0, Q84YI1
-
-
-
?
(-)-epicatechin + 1/2 O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
(-)-epicatechin + 1/2 O2
?
show the reaction diagram
Q41428
-
-
-
?
(-)-epicatechin + 1/2 O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
the major endogenous polyphenol in litchi pericarp
-
-
?
(-)-epicatechin + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
119% activity at 2.5 mM substrate concentration
-
-
?
(1R,3R,4S,5R)-3-[[(2E)-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)prop-2-enoyl]oxy]-1,4,5-trihydroxycyclohexanecarboxylic acid + O2
(1R,3R,4S,5R)-3-[[(2E)-3-(3,4-dioxocyclohexa-1,5-dien-1-yl)prop-2-enoyl]oxy]-1,4,5-trihydroxycyclohexanecarboxylic acid + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
(1S,3R,4S,5R)-4-[[(2E)-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)prop-2-enoyl]oxy]-1,3,5-trihydroxycyclohexanecarboxylic acid + O2
(1S,3R,4S,5R)-4-[[(2E)-3-(3,4-dioxocyclohexa-1,5-dien-1-yl)prop-2-enoyl]oxy]-1,3,5-trihydroxycyclohexanecarboxylic acid + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
(R)-dopaxanthin + dehydroascorbic acid + O2
(R)-dopaxanthin quinone + L-ascorbic acid + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
(R)-dopaxanthin + dehydroascorbic acid + O2
(R)-dopaxanthin quinone + L-ascorbic acid + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
(R)-dopaxanthin + dehydroascorbic acid + O2
(R)-dopaxanthin quinone + L-ascorbic acid + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
(R)-dopaxanthin is a pigment, the reaction rate on the (R)-isomer of dopaxanthin is 1.9fold lower than that for the (S)-isomer
quantitative product analysis
-
?
(R)-tyrosine-betaxanthin + L-DOPA + O2
(R)-dopaxanthin + dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. (R)-portulacaxanthin II, the activity of the enzyme is not restricted to betaxanthins derived from (S)-amino acids
(R)-dopaxanthin is a pigment, quantitative product analysis
-
?
(RS)-catechin + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
83% of activity with L-dopa
-
-
?
(RS)-catechin + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
isoenzymes 1-3, 96, 104, and 168% of activity with L-dopa respectively
-
-
?
1,5-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,4-pentadiene-3-one + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2 hydroquinone + O2
2 quinone + 2 H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2 hydroquinone + O2
2 quinone + 2 H2O
show the reaction diagram
Emerita asiatica
-
no activity with hydroquinone
-
-
-
2,3-dimethylphenol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
11% relative activity compared to L-DOPA
-
-
?
2,4,5-trihydroxyphenethylamine + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-caffeoylisocitric acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e., E-3-carboxy-2-(3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)prop-2-enoyloxy)pentanedioic acid
-
-
?
2-caffeoylisocitric acid 6-methyl ester + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e, E-2-(3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)prop-2-enoyloxy)-3-(methoxycarbonyl)pentanedioic acid
-
-
?
2-hydroxy-1-[[(2E)-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)prop-2-enoyl]oxy]propane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid + O2
3-C-carboxy-2-deoxy-4-O-[(2E)-3-(3-methoxy-4-oxocyclohexa-1,5-dien-1-yl)prop-2-enoyl]pentaric acid + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-O-caffeoylhydroxycitric acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e., E-3-carboxy-2-(3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)prop-2-enoyloxy)-3-hydroxypentanedioic acid
-
-
?
2-O-caffeoylthreonic acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e., E-2-(3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)prop-2-enoyloxy)-3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid
-
-
?
2-[[(2E)-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)prop-2-enoyl]oxy]-3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid + O2
2-[[(2E)-3-(3,4-dioxocyclohexa-1,5-dien-1-yl)prop-2-enoyl]oxy]-3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone + 1/2 O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
quercetin
-
-
?
3,4,5-trihydroxy-L-phenylalanine + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
cytotoxicity of TOPA, i.e. TOPA
-
-
?
3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
trivial name gallic acid
-
-
?
3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
trivial name gallic acid
-
-
?
3,4,6-trihydroxyphenylalanine + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3,4-dihydroxyanisol + 1/2 O2
anisol o-quinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid + 1/2 O2
(3,4-dioxocyclohexa-1,5-dien-1-yl)acetic acid + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
isoenzymes 1-3, 22%, 13%, and 13% of L-dopa activity respectively
-
?
3,4-dihydroxyhydrocinnamic acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
100% activity
-
-
?
3,4-dihydroxymandelic acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
9% of the activity with L-dopa
-
-
?
3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid + 1/2 O2
(3,4-dioxocyclohexa-1,5-dien-1-yl)acetic acid + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
DHPAA
-
-
?
3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
12% of the activity with L-dopa
-
-
?
3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
3-methylbenzothyazolinone hydrazone, MBTH, as chromophore coupling agent
-
-
?
3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine + 1/2 O2
dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine methyl ester + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3,4-dihydroxyphenylpropionic acid + 1/2 O2
3-(3,4-dioxocyclohexa-1,5-dien-1-yl)propanoic acid + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
DHPPA
-
-
?
3,4-dihydroxyphenylpropionic acid + O2
3-(3,4-dioxocyclohexa-1,5-dien-1-yl)propionic acid
show the reaction diagram
Ilex argentinus
Q76DT9, Q76DU0
-
-
-
?
3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) propionic acid + 1/2 O2
3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)propionic acid + H2O
show the reaction diagram
A7BHQ9, -
-
-
-
?
3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-methylalanine + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid + 1/2 O2
3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)propionic acid + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
3-aminophenol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
3.9% activity compared to L-DOPA
-
-
?
3-chlorophenol + O2
4-chloro-1,2-quinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
20% of 3-chlorophenol is oxidized after 2 h by tyrosinase
4-chloro-1,2-quinone subsequently undergoes a nucleophilic substitution reaction at the chlorine atom by excess phenol to give the corresponding phenol-quinone adduct 4-(3-chlorophenoxy)cyclohexa-3,5-diene-1,2-dione
-
?
3-fluorophenol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3-hydroxyanthranilic acid + O2
cinnabarinic acid + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
3-hydroxybenzyl alcohol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3-hydroxyphloridzin + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3-methoxyphenol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3-methylcatechol + O2
3-methyl-o-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
3-[2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethylaminocarbonyl]-3-methyl-1-(4-acetylphenyl)triazene + O2
(2E)-3-(4-acetylphenyl)-N-[2-(3,4-dioxocyclohexa-1,5-dien-1-yl)ethyl]-1-methyltriaz-2-ene-1-carboxamide + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3-[2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethylaminocarbonyl]-3-methyl-1-(4-ethoxycarbonylphenyl)triazene + O2
ethyl 4-[(1E)-3-[[2-(3,4-dioxocyclohexa-1,5-dien-1-yl)ethyl]carbamoyl]-3-methyltriaz-1-en-1-yl]benzoate + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3-[2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethylaminocarbonyl]-3-methyl-1-(4-tolyl)triazene + O2
(2E)-N-[2-(3,4-dioxocyclohexa-1,5-dien-1-yl)ethyl]-1-methyl-3-(4-methylphenyl)triaz-2-ene-1-carboxamide + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3-[2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethylaminocarbonyl]-3-methyl-1-(4-acetylphenyl)triazene + O2
(2E)-3-(4-acetylphenyl)-1-methyl-N-[2-(4-oxocyclohexa-1,5-dien-1-yl)ethyl]triaz-2-ene-1-carboxamide + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3-[2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethylaminocarbonyl]-3-methyl-1-(4-cyanophenyl)triazene + O2
(2E)-3-(4-cyanophenyl)-1-methyl-N-[2-(4-oxocyclohexa-1,5-dien-1-yl)ethyl]triaz-2-ene-1-carboxamide + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3-[2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethylaminocarbonyl]-3-methyl-1-(4-ethoxycarbonylphenyl)triazene + O2
ethyl 4-[(1E)-3-methyl-3-[[2-(4-oxocyclohexa-1,5-dien-1-yl)ethyl]carbamoyl]triaz-1-en-1-yl]benzoate + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3-[2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethylaminocarbonyl]-3-methyl-1-(4-tolyl)triazene + O2
(2E)-1-methyl-3-(4-methylphenyl)-N-[2-(4-oxocyclohexa-1,5-dien-1-yl)ethyl]triaz-2-ene-1-carboxamide + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-bromophenol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-chlorocatechol + 1/2 O2
4-chlorocyclohexa-3,5-diene-1,2-dione + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-chlorophenol + O2
4-chloro-1,2-quinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-chlorophenol + O2
4-chloro-1,2-quinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
91% of 4-chlorophenol is oxidized after 2 h by tyrosinase
4-chloro-1,2-quinone subsequently undergoes a nucleophilic substitution reaction at the chlorine atom by excess phenol to give the corresponding phenol-quinone adduct 4-(4-chlorophenoxy)cyclohexa-3,5-diene-1,2-dione
-
?
4-coumaric acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
Hypocrea jecorina
-
-
-
-
?
4-cresol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-cresol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
root and pulp enzyme
-
-
?
4-ethoxyphenol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-ethoxyphenol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
Mushroom
-
-
-
-
-
4-ethylcatechol + 1/2 O2
4-ethylcyclohexa-3,5-diene-1,2-dione + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-fluorophenol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-fluorophenol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-hydroxyanisol + 1/2 O2
3,4-dihydoxyanisol + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
4-hydroxyanisole + O2
3,4-dihydoxyanisol + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-hydroxybenzaldehyde + 1/2 O2
3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
4-hydroxybenzaldehyde + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-hydroxybenzoic acid + O2 + AH2
3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
4-hydroxybenzoic acid + O2 + AH2
3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
-
50% of activity with L-dopa
-
?
4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol + O2 + AH2
3,4-dihydroxybenzyl alcohol + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
Mushroom
-
-
-
-
-
4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-hydroxyphenyl propionic acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
85% activity compared to 3,4-dihydroxyhydrocinnamic acid
-
-
?
4-iodophenol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-methoxyphenol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-methoxyphenol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
40% relative activity compared to L-DOPA, weak monophenolase activity
-
-
?
4-methyl catechol + O2
4-methyl-o-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
5% of the activity with L-dopa
-
-
?
4-methyl-catechol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-methylbenzene-1,2-diol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-methylcatechol + 1/2 O2
4-methyl-1,2-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-methylcatechol + 1/2 O2
4-methyl-1,2-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-methylcatechol + 1/2 O2
4-methyl-1,2-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-methylcatechol + 1/2 O2
4-methyl-1,2-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-methylcatechol + 1/2 O2
4-methyl-1,2-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
best substrate
-
-
?
4-methylcatechol + 1/2 O2
4-methyl-1,2-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
diphenolic substrate
-
-
?
4-methylcatechol + 1/2 O2
4-methyl-1,2-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
efficient diphenolic substrates for cherry PPO
-
-
?
4-methylcatechol + 1/2 O2
4-methyl-1,2-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
oxidation of the substrate with NaIO4 in CHCl3, and [P]CHCl3
-
-
?
4-methylcatechol + 1/2 O2
4-methyl-1,2-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
PPO from butter lettuce shows a higher affinity to 4-methylcatechol than to catechol
-
-
?
4-methylcatechol + O2
4-methyl-o-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
4-methylcatechol + O2
4-methyl-o-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
4-methylcatechol + O2
4-methyl-o-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
4-methylcatechol + O2
4-methyl-o-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
4-methylcatechol + O2
4-methyl-o-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
4-methylcatechol + O2
4-methyl-o-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
4-methylcatechol + O2
4-methyl-o-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
4-methylcatechol + O2
4-methyl-o-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Emericella nidulans
-
-
-
?
4-methylcatechol + O2
4-methyl-o-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
4-methylcatechol + O2
4-methyl-o-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
4-methylcatechol + O2
4-methyl-o-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
4-methylcatechol + O2
4-methyl-o-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
4-methylcatechol + O2
4-methyl-o-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
4-methylcatechol + O2
4-methyl-o-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
4-methylcatechol + O2
4-methyl-o-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Mushroom
-
-
-
-
-
4-methylcatechol + O2
4-methyl-o-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Mushroom
-
-
-
?
4-methylcatechol + O2
4-methyl-o-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Mushroom
-
-
-
?
4-methylcatechol + O2
4-methyl-o-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
4-methylcatechol + O2
4-methyl-o-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
4-methylcatechol + O2
4-methyl-o-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
4-methylcatechol + O2
4-methyl-o-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
4-methylcatechol + O2
4-methyl-o-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
4-methylcatechol + O2
4-methyl-o-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
4-methylcatechol + O2
4-methyl-o-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
4-methylcatechol + O2
4-methyl-o-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
4-methylcatechol + O2
4-methyl-o-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
4-methylcatechol + O2
4-methyl-o-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
4-methylcatechol + O2
4-methyl-o-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
4-methylcatechol + O2
4-methyl-o-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
4-methylcatechol + O2
4-methyl-o-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
4-methylcatechol + O2
4-methyl-o-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
4-methylcatechol + O2
4-methyl-o-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
4-methylcatechol + O2
4-methyl-o-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
4-methylcatechol + O2
4-methyl-o-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
4-methylcatechol + O2
4-methyl-o-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
4-methylcatechol + O2
4-methyl-o-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
4-methylcatechol + O2
4-methyl-o-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
catecholase/cresolase activity ratio of 41
-
?
4-methylcatechol + O2
4-methyl-o-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
uncultured marine bacterium 2.40
-
-
-
?
4-methylcatechol + O2
4-methyl-1,2-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-methylcatechol + O2
4-methyl-1,2-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-methylcatechol + O2
4-methyl-1,2-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-methylcatechol + O2
4-methyl-1,2-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
highest activity
-
-
?
4-methylcatechol + O2
4-methyl-1,2-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-, Q3YJ63
good substrate
-
-
?
4-methylcatechol + O2
4-methyl-1,2-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
good substrate
-
-
?
4-methylcatechol + O2
4-methyl-1,2-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Q45NF5
good substrate
-
-
?
4-methylcatechol + O2
4-methyl-1,2-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
highest activity, 183% activity at 10 mM substrate concentration
-
-
?
4-methylcatechol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
90% activity compared to 3,4-dihydroxyhydrocinnamic acid
-
-
?
4-Methylphenol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-nitrocatechol + 1/2 O2
4-nitrocyclohexa-3,5-diene-1,2-dione + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-nitrocatechol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-t-butylphenol + O2 + AH2
4-t-butyl 1,2-benzoquinone + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
A7BHQ9, -
-
-
-
?
4-tert-butylcatechol + 1/2 O2
4-(tert-butyl)benzo-1,2-quinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-tert-butylcatechol + 1/2 O2
4-(tert-butyl)benzo-1,2-quinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
A7BHQ9, -
-
-
-
?
4-tert-butylcatechol + 1/2 O2
4-tert-butylcyclohexa-3,5-diene-1,2-dione + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-tert-butylphenol + O2
4-tert-butyl 1,2-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
4-tert-butylphenol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-tyrosol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
Hypocrea jecorina
-
-
-
-
?
4-[(4-methylphenyl)azo]-1,2-benzendiol + 1/2 O2
4-[(E)-(4-methylphenyl)diazenyl]cyclohexa-3,5-diene-1,2-dione + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-[(4-methylphenyl)azo]-1,2-benzendiol + 1/2 O2
4-[(E)-(4-methylphenyl)diazenyl]cyclohexa-3,5-diene-1,2-dione + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
synthetic substrate
-
-
?
4-[(4-methylphenyl)azo]-phenol + O2 + AH2
4-[(4-methylbenzo)azo]-1,2-benzendiol + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-[(4-methylphenyl)azo]-phenol + O2 + AH2
4-[(4-methylbenzo)azo]-1,2-benzendiol + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
-
synthetic substrate
-
-
?
5,6-dihydroxyindole + 1/2 O2
1H-indole-5,6-dione + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
adrenaline bitartrate + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
alpha-methyl-DL-tyrosine + O2 + AH2
N-methyl-DL-dopa + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas putida F6
-
-
-
-
?
alpha-methyl-dopa + O2
alpha-methyldopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
alpha-methyl-L-tyrosine + O2 + AH2
N-methyl-L-dopa + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
caffeic acid + 1/2 O2
caffeoyl quinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
caffeic acid + 1/2 O2
caffeoyl quinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
caffeic acid + 1/2 O2
caffeoyl quinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
caffeic acid + 1/2 O2
caffeoyl quinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
caffeic acid + 1/2 O2
caffeoyl quinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
caffeic acid + 1/2 O2
caffeoyl quinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
caffeic acid + 1/2 O2
caffeoyl quinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Hypocrea jecorina
-
-
-
-
?
caffeic acid + 1/2 O2
caffeoyl quinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
caffeic acid + 1/2 O2
caffeoyl quinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Malus x domestica
-
-
-
-
?
caffeic acid + 1/2 O2
caffeoyl quinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
caffeic acid + 1/2 O2
caffeoyl quinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
caffeic acid + 1/2 O2
caffeoyl quinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
caffeic acid + 1/2 O2
caffeoyl quinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Q84YH9, Q84YI0, Q84YI1
-
-
-
?
caffeic acid + 1/2 O2
caffeoyl quinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
caffeic acid + 1/2 O2
caffeoyl quinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Ramonda serbica
-
-
-
-
-
caffeic acid + 1/2 O2
caffeoyl quinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Q41428
-
-
-
?
caffeic acid + 1/2 O2
caffeoyl quinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
17% of activity with L-dopa
-
?
caffeic acid + 1/2 O2
caffeoyl quinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
diphenolic caffeic acid is oxidized relatively fast by all tyrosinases, except only moderately by tyrosinase from Pycnoporus sanguineus
-
-
?
caffeic acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-, Q3YJ63
-
-
-
?
caffeic acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
caffeic acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
caffeic acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
Q45NF5
-
-
-
?
caffeic acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
caffeic acid + O2
caffeoyl quinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Agaricus bisporus, Hypocrea jecorina
-
-
-
-
?
caffeic acid + O2
caffeoyl quinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
50% activity compared to catechol
-
-
?
caffeic acid + O2
caffeoyl quinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
60.9% activity compared to L-DOPA
-
-
?
caffeic acid + O2
caffeoyl quinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
31% activity at 2.5 mM substrate concentration
-
-
?
caffeic acid + O2
caffeoyl quinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
31% activity at 2.5 mM substrate concentration
-
-
?
catechin + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-, Q3YJ63
-
-
-
?
catechin + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
catechin + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
Q45NF5
-
-
-
?
catechol + 1/2 O2
1,2-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Emericella nidulans
-
-
-
?
catechol + 1/2 O2
1,2-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
catechol + 1/2 O2
1,2-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
catechol + 1/2 O2
1,2-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
catechol + 1/2 O2
1,2-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
catechol + 1/2 O2
1,2-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
catechol + 1/2 O2
1,2-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
catechol + 1/2 O2
1,2-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
catechol + 1/2 O2
1,2-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
catechol + 1/2 O2
1,2-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
catechol + 1/2 O2
1,2-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
catechol + 1/2 O2
1,2-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
catechol + 1/2 O2
1,2-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
catechol + 1/2 O2
1,2-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
catechol + 1/2 O2
1,2-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
catechol + 1/2 O2
1,2-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
catechol + 1/2 O2
1,2-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
catechol + 1/2 O2
1,2-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Emerita asiatica
-
-
-
-
?
catechol + 1/2 O2
1,2-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
catechol + 1/2 O2
1,2-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
catechol + 1/2 O2
1,2-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Q84YH9, Q84YI0, Q84YI1
-
-
-
?
catechol + 1/2 O2
1,2-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
catechol + 1/2 O2
1,2-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
125% of activity with L-dopa
-
?
catechol + 1/2 O2
1,2-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
24% of the activity with L-dopa
-
-
?
catechol + 1/2 O2
1,2-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
diphenolic substrate
-
-
?
catechol + 1/2 O2
1,2-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
efficient diphenolic substrates for cherry PPO
-
-
?
catechol + 1/2 O2
1,2-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
pyrogallol and catechol are best substrates for catalysis and inactivation
-
-
?
catechol + 1/2 O2
1,2 benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
catechol + 1/2 O2
o-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
PPO from butter lettuce shows a higher affinity to 4-methylcatechol than to catechol
-
-
?
catechol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-, Q3YJ63
-
-
-
?
catechol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
catechol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
Q45NF5
-
-
-
?
catechol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
catechol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
PPO has a great affinity for catechol
-
-
?
catechol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
12% activity compared to 3,4-dihydroxyhydrocinnamic acid
-
-
?
catechol + O2
1,2-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Agaricus bisporus, Hypocrea jecorina
-
-
-
-
?
catechol + O2
1,2-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
catechol + O2
1,2-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
catechol + O2
1,2-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Q5DB10, Q5DHS0, -
-
-
-
?
catechol + O2
1,2-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
catechol + O2
1,2-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
most suitable substrate
-
-
?
catechol + O2
1,2-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
10.3% activity compared to L-DOPA
-
-
?
catechol + O2
1,2-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
86% relative activity compared to L-DOPA
-
-
?
catechol + O2
1,2-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
the highest oxidase activity is observed against catechol
-
-
?
catechol + O2
1,2-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
100% activity at 10 mM substrate concentration
-
-
?
chlorogenic acid + 1/2 O2
chlorogenoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
chlorogenic acid + 1/2 O2
chlorogenoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
chlorogenic acid + 1/2 O2
chlorogenoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Q84YH9, Q84YI0, Q84YI1
-
-
-
?
chlorogenic acid + 1/2 O2
chlorogenoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Ramonda serbica
-
-
-
-
?
chlorogenic acid + 1/2 O2
chlorogenoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
best substrate
-
-
?
chlorogenic acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
chlorogenic acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
chlorogenic acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-, Q3YJ63
best substrate
-
-
?
chlorogenic acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
best substrate
-
-
?
chlorogenic acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
Q45NF5
best substrate
-
-
?
chlorogenic acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
formation of a highly reactive o-quinone intermediate which then can interact with NH2 groups of lysine, SCH3 groups of methionines and indole rings of tryptophan in nucleophilic addition and in polymerization reactions, the so-called browning and greening reactions, formation of a highly reactive o-quinone intermediate
-
-
?
chlorogenic acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
20.1% activity compared to L-DOPA
-
-
?
chlorogenic acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
80% relative activity compared to L-DOPA
-
-
?
chlorogenic acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
the major polyphenol oxidase substrate is chlorogenic acid
-
-
?
chlorogenic acid + O2
chlorogenoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Emericella nidulans
-
-
-
?
chlorogenic acid + O2
chlorogenoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
chlorogenic acid + O2
chlorogenoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
chlorogenic acid + O2
chlorogenoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
chlorogenic acid + O2
chlorogenoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
chlorogenic acid + O2
chlorogenoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
chlorogenic acid + O2
chlorogenoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
chlorogenic acid + O2
chlorogenoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
chlorogenic acid + O2
chlorogenoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
chlorogenic acid + O2
chlorogenoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
chlorogenic acid + O2
chlorogenoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
108% of activity with L-dopa
-
?
coumaric acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-, Q3YJ63
-
-
-
?
coumaric acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
coumaric acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
Q45NF5
-
-
-
?
cumaric acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
D-catechin + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
Emericella nidulans
-
-
-
-
?
D-catechin + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
D-catechin + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
D-catechin + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
D-catechin + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
D-catechin + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
D-catechin + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
67% of activity with L-dopa
-
-
?
D-catechin + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
isoenzymes 1, 2 and 3, 90%, 86% and 188% of L-dopa activity respectively
-
-
?
D-dopa + 1/2 O2
D-dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
A7BHQ9, -
-
-
-
?
D-dopa + 1/2 O2
D-dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Ilex argentinus
Q76DT9, Q76DU0
-
-
-
?
D-dopa + 1/2 O2
D-dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Hypocrea jecorina, Trametes sanguinea
-
L-forms of dopa and tyrosine are much better substrates than the corresponding D-forms
-
-
?
D-dopa + 1/2 O2
D-dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Malus x domestica
-
L-forms of dopa and tyrosine are much better substrates than the corresponding D-forms. Because the activity of the tyrosinase on tyrosine is practically nondetectable, no significant differences between the oxidation rates on the D-, DL- and D-forms of tyrosine can be measured for tyrosinase
-
-
?
D-dopa + 1/2 O2
D-dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
tyrosinase oxidizes L- and D-forms with similar rate
-
-
?
D-dopa + 1/2 O2
D-dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Q41428
tyrosinase oxidizes L- and D-forms with similar rate
-
-
?
D-DOPA + O2
D-dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
D-DOPA + O2
D-dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
34.0% activity compared to L-DOPA
-
-
?
D-Tyr + O2
D-dopa + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Ilex argentinus
Q76DT9, Q76DU0
-
-
-
?
D-tyrosine + L-dopa + O2
D-dopa + dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
D-tyrosine + O2
D-dopa + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
D-tyrosine + O2
D-dopa + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
20.3% activity compared to L-DOPA
-
-
?
D-tyrosine + O2
D-dopa + H2O
show the reaction diagram
uncultured marine bacterium 2.40
-
-
-
?
D-tyrosine + O2
dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Q8Y2J8, -
-
-
-
?
D-tyrosine + O2 + AH2
D-dopa + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
Hypocrea jecorina, Trametes sanguinea
-
L-forms of dopa and tyrosine are much better substrates than the corresponding D-forms
-
-
?
D-tyrosine + O2 + AH2
D-dopa + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
Malus x domestica
-
L-forms of dopa and tyrosine are much better substrates than the corresponding D-forms. Because the activity of the tyrosinase on tyrosine is practically nondetectable, no significant differences between the oxidation rates on the D-, DL- and D-forms of tyrosine can be measured for tyrosinase
-
-
?
D-tyrosine + O2 + AH2
D-dopa + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
-
tyrosinase oxidizes L- and D-forms with similar rate
-
-
?
D-tyrosine + O2 + AH2
D-dopa + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
Q41428
tyrosinase oxidizes L- and D-forms with similar rate
-
-
?
D-tyrosine + O2 + AH2
L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
DL-2-methyltyrosine + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
DL-dopa + 1/2 O2
DL-dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Hypocrea jecorina, Trametes sanguinea
-
L-forms of dopa and tyrosine are much better substrates than the corresponding D-forms
-
-
?
DL-dopa + 1/2 O2
DL-dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Malus x domestica
-
L-forms of dopa and tyrosine are much better substrates than the corresponding D-forms. Because the activity of the tyrosinase on tyrosine is practically nondetectable, no significant differences between the oxidation rates on the D-, DL- and D-forms of tyrosine can be measured for tyrosinase
-
-
?
DL-dopa + 1/2 O2
DL-dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
tyrosinase oxidizes L- and D-forms with similar rate
-
-
?
DL-dopa + 1/2 O2
DL-dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Q41428
tyrosinase oxidizes L- and D-forms with similar rate
-
-
?
DL-DOPA + O2
dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
39% activity at 2.5 mM substrate concentration
-
-
?
DL-DOPA + O2
DL-dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
78% activity compared to L-DOPA
-
-
?
DL-epicatechin + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
DL-epicatechin + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
91% of activity with L-dopa
-
-
?
DL-tyrosine + O2
DL-DOPA + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
20.6% activity compared to L-DOPA
-
-
?
DL-tyrosine + O2 + AH2
DL-dopa + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
Hypocrea jecorina, Trametes sanguinea
-
L-forms of dopa and tyrosine are much better substrates than the corresponding D-forms
-
-
?
DL-tyrosine + O2 + AH2
DL-dopa + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
Malus x domestica
-
L-forms of dopa and tyrosine are much better substrates than the corresponding D-forms. Because the activity of the tyrosinase on tyrosine is practically nondetectable, no significant differences between the oxidation rates on the D-, DL- and D-forms of tyrosine can be measured for tyrosinase
-
-
?
DL-tyrosine + O2 + AH2
DL-dopa + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
-
tyrosinase oxidizes L- and D-forms with similar rate
-
-
?
DL-tyrosine + O2 + AH2
DL-dopa + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
Q41428
tyrosinase oxidizes L- and D-forms with similar rate
-
-
?
dopa + 1/2 O2
dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
dopa + 1/2 O2
dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
dopa + 1/2 O2
dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
dopa + 1/2 O2
dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
dopa + 1/2 O2
dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
dopa + 1/2 O2
dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
dopa + 1/2 O2
dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
dopa + 1/2 O2
dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
dopa + 1/2 O2
dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
dopa + 1/2 O2
dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
dopa + 1/2 O2
dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
dopa + 1/2 O2
dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
dopa + 1/2 O2
dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
dopa + 1/2 O2
dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
dopa + 1/2 O2
dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
dopa + 1/2 O2
dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
dopa + 1/2 O2
dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
dopa + 1/2 O2
dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
dopa + 1/2 O2
dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Emerita asiatica
-
-
-
-
?
dopa + 1/2 O2
dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
L-dopa
-
?
dopa + 1/2 O2
dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
L-dopa
-
?
dopa + 1/2 O2
dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
L-dopa, D-dopa
-
?
dopa + 1/2 O2
dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
uncultured marine bacterium 2.40
-
L-dopa
-
?
dopamine + 1/2 O2
dopamine quinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
dopamine + 1/2 O2
dopamine quinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
A7BHQ9, -
-
-
-
?
dopamine + 1/2 O2
dopamine quinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
dopamine + 1/2 O2
dopamine quinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
dopamine + 1/2 O2
dopamine quinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Emerita asiatica
-
-
-
-
?
dopamine + 1/2 O2
dopamine quinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
dopamine + 1/2 O2
dopamine quinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Ilex argentinus
Q76DT9, Q76DU0
-
-
-
?
dopamine + 1/2 O2
dopamine quinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Amorphophallus paeonifolius var. campanulatus
-
-
-
-
?
dopamine + 1/2 O2
dopamine quinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
dopamine + 1/2 O2
dopamine quinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
preferred substrates in terms of affinity in descending order: N-beta-alanyldopamine, dopamine, N-acetyldopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopa
-
?
dopamine + 1/2 O2
dopamine quinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
96% of the activity with L-dopa
-
-
?
dopamine + 1/2 O2
dopamine quinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
diphenol
-
-
?
dopamine + 1/2 O2
dopamine quinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
hydrophilic substrate
-
-
?
dopamine + 1/2 O2
dopaminequinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Q84YH9, Q84YI0, Q84YI1
-
-
-
?
dopamine + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
dopamine + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
dopamine + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
dopamine + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
Hypocrea jecorina
-
-
-
-
?
dopamine + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
dopamine + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-, Q3YJ63
-
-
-
?
dopamine + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
dopamine + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
Q45NF5
-
-
-
?
ellagic acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
high affinity substrate
-
-
?
epicatechin + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
epicatechin + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
epicatechin + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
epicatechin + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
epicatechin + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
23.4% activity compared to L-DOPA
-
-
?
epicatechin gallate + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
epigallocatechin gallate + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
epinephrine + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
epinephrine + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
Emerita asiatica
-
-
-
-
?
esculetin + 1/2 O2
2H-chromene-2,6,7-trione + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
demonstration, that esculetin is no inhibitor, but a substrate of mushroom polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and horseradish peroxidase (POD)
-
-
?
esculetin + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ferulic acid + O2 + AH2
(2E)-3-(3,4-dihydroxy-5-methoxyphenyl)prop-2-enoic acid + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ferulic acid + O2 + AH2
(2E)-3-(3,4-dihydroxy-5-methoxyphenyl)prop-2-enoic acid + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ferulic acid + O2 + AH2
(2E)-3-(3,4-dihydroxy-5-methoxyphenyl)prop-2-enoic acid + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
gallic acid + 1/2 O2
5-hydroxy-3,4-dioxocyclohexa-1,5-diene-1-carboxylic acid + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
gallic acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
73% relative activity compared to L-DOPA
-
-
?
gallic acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
39% activity at 2.5 mM substrate concentration
-
-
?
gamma-L-glutaminyl-3,4-dihydroxybenzene + O2
gamma-L-glutaminyl-3,4-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
gamma-L-glutaminyl-4-hydroxybenzene + O2 + AH2
gamma-L-glutaminyl-3,4-dihydroxybenzene + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
Gly-Gly-L-Tyr + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
Agaricus bisporus, Hypocrea jecorina
-
-
-
-
?
Gly-L-Tyr-Gly + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
Agaricus bisporus, Hypocrea jecorina
-
-
-
-
?
glycyl-glycyl-L-tyrosine + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
Hypocrea jecorina
-
3.4fold higher activity compared to Tyr
-
-
?
glycyl-L-tyrosine + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
Hypocrea jecorina
-
2.9fold higher activity compared to Tyr
-
-
?
hydrocaffeic acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
hydrocaffeic acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
Agaricus bisporus, Hypocrea jecorina
-
-
-
-
?
hydrocaffeic acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
hydroquinone monomethylether + O2
quinone monomethylether
show the reaction diagram
Emericella nidulans
-
-
-
?
hydroxyquinone + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
hydroxyquinone + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-, Q3YJ63
-
-
-
?
hydroxyquinone + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
hydroxyquinone + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
Q45NF5
-
-
-
?
L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine + 1/2 O2
L-dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine + 1/2 O2
L-dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine + 1/2 O2
L-dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine + 1/2 O2
L-dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine + 1/2 O2
L-dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine + 1/2 O2
L-dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine + 1/2 O2
L-dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
individually grafted onto a novel CSG1.0 membrane as a ligand
-
-
?
L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine + 1/2 O2
L-dopachrome + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-3-hydroxytyrosine + L-dopa + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
L-adrenaline + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-dopa + 1/2 O2
L-dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-dopa + 1/2 O2
L-dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-dopa + 1/2 O2
L-dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-dopa + 1/2 O2
L-dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
L-dopa + 1/2 O2
L-dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-dopa + 1/2 O2
L-dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Hypocrea jecorina
A0ZXZ4, -
-
-
-
?
L-dopa + 1/2 O2
L-dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-dopa + 1/2 O2
L-dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
A7BHQ9, -
-
-
-
?
L-dopa + 1/2 O2
L-dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-dopa + 1/2 O2
L-dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-dopa + 1/2 O2
L-dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-dopa + 1/2 O2
L-dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-dopa + 1/2 O2
L-dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Ilex argentinus
Q76DT9, Q76DU0
-
-
-
?
L-dopa + 1/2 O2
L-dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-dopa + 1/2 O2
L-dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-dopa + 1/2 O2
L-dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-dopa + 1/2 O2
L-dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-dopa + 1/2 O2
L-dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
O42713
-
-
-
?
L-dopa + 1/2 O2
L-dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Ramonda serbica
-
-
-
-
?
L-dopa + 1/2 O2
L-dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Helix vulgaris
-
-
-
-
?
L-dopa + 1/2 O2
L-dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
1.5fold higher affinity for L-tyrosine compared to L-dopa
-
-
?
L-dopa + 1/2 O2
L-dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Hypocrea jecorina, Trametes sanguinea
-
L-forms of dopa and tyrosine are much better substrates than the corresponding D-forms
-
-
?
L-dopa + 1/2 O2
L-dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Malus x domestica
-
L-forms of dopa and tyrosine are much better substrates than the corresponding D-forms. Because the activity of the tyrosinase on tyrosine is practically nondetectable, no significant differences between the oxidation rates on the D-, DL- and D-forms of tyrosine can be measured for tyrosinase
-
-
?
L-dopa + 1/2 O2
L-dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
tyrosinase oxidizes L- and D-forms with similar rate
-
-
?
L-dopa + 1/2 O2
L-dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Q41428
tyrosinase oxidizes L- and D-forms with similar rate
-
-
?
L-dopa + 1/2 O2
L-dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Pseudomonas putida F6
-
1.5fold higher affinity for L-tyrosine compared to L-dopa
-
-
?
L-dopa + 1/2 O2
L-dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Streptomyces castaneoglobisporus HUT6202
-
-
-
-
?
L-dopa + 1/2 O2
dopachrome + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-dopa + 1/2 O2
L-dopachrome + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-DOPA + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-DOPA + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-DOPA + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-DOPA + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-DOPA + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-DOPA + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-DOPA + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-, Q3YJ63
-
-
-
?
L-DOPA + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-DOPA + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
Q45NF5
-
-
-
?
L-DOPA + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine
-
-
?
L-DOPA + O2
dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-DOPA + O2
dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-DOPA + O2
dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-DOPA + O2
dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-DOPA + O2
dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-DOPA + O2
dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-DOPA + O2
dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-DOPA + O2
dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Hypocrea jecorina
-
-
-
-
?
L-DOPA + O2
dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-DOPA + O2
dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-DOPA + O2
dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-DOPA + O2
dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-DOPA + O2
dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-, Q6RX65
-
-
-
?
L-DOPA + O2
dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-DOPA + O2
dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-DOPA + O2
dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
o-diphenolase activity
-
-
?
L-DOPA + O2
dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
diphenolase activity
-
-
?
L-DOPA + O2
dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
monophenolase activity
-
-
?
L-DOPA + O2
dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
1% activity compared to 3,4-dihydroxyhydrocinnamic acid
-
-
?
L-Dopa + O2
L-dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-Dopa + O2
L-dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-Dopa + O2
L-dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-Dopa + O2
L-dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
100% activity
-
-
?
L-Dopa + O2
L-dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
100% activity
-
-
?
L-Dopa + O2
L-dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
30% activity compared to catechol
-
-
?
L-DOPA + O2
L-dopachrome + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-epicatechin + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-epicatechin + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-epicatechin + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-epicatechin + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
155% of activity with L-dopa
-
-
?
L-epicatechin + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
isoenzyme 1, 150% of L-dopa activity, isoenzyme 2 and 3, 170% and 175% of activity with L-dopa respectively
-
-
?
L-Tyr + O2
L-Dopa + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
diphenolase activity
-
-
?
L-Tyr + O2 + AH2
L-dopa + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-Tyr + O2 + AH2
L-dopa + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
Ilex argentinus
Q76DT9, Q76DU0
-
-
-
?
L-Tyr + O2 + AH2
L-dopa + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
-
10% of the activity with L-dopa
-
-
?
L-Tyr-Gly-Gly + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
Agaricus bisporus, Hypocrea jecorina
-
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + H2O2
3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + L-dopa + O2
L-dopa + dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + L-dopa + O2
L-dopa + dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + L-dopa + O2
L-dopa + dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + L-dopa + O2
L-dopa + dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + L-dopa + O2
L-dopa + dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
L-tyrosine + L-dopa + O2
L-dopa + dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + L-dopa + O2
L-dopa + dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
L-tyrosine + L-dopa + O2
L-dopa + dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + L-dopa + O2
L-dopa + dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
L-tyrosine + L-dopa + O2
L-dopa + dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + L-dopa + O2
L-dopa + dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + L-dopa + O2
L-dopa + dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + L-dopa + O2
L-dopa + dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
L-tyrosine + L-dopa + O2
L-dopa + dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + L-dopa + O2
L-dopa + dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
o-dopaquinone is unstable in aqueous solution and rapidly suffers a non-enzymatic cyclization to leukodopachrome
-
?
L-tyrosine + L-dopa + O2
L-dopa + dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
pathway of melanin biosynthesis, detailed overview
cytotoxicity of L-DOPA
-
?
L-tyrosine + L-dopa + O2
L-dopa + dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
high activity, best substrate
-
-
-
L-tyrosine + L-dopa + O2
L-dopa + dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
air saturated 50 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, 30°C
polymerizes to form melanin-like pigments
-
?
L-tyrosine + L-dopa + O2
L-dopa + dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-, B2Z3P7
TyrA has a relatively higher affinity to L-DOPA than many other tyrosinases, the monophenol oxidase activity of this enzyme is undetectable when the concentration of L-dopa was lower than 0.01 mM, while the maximum monophenol oxidase activity is detected with 0.05 mM L-DOPA as cosubstrate
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + L-dopa + O2
L-dopa + dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
B2Z3P7
TyrA has a relatively higher affinity to L-DOPA than many other tyrosinases, the monophenol oxidase activity of this enzyme is undetectable when the concentration of L-dopa was lower than 0.01 mM, while the maximum monophenol oxidase activity is detected with 0.05 mM L-DOPA as cosubstrate
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + O2
dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + O2
dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + O2
dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + O2
dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Rana esculenta
-
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + O2
dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + O2
dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + O2
dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + O2
dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + O2
dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Q8Y2J8, -
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + O2
dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
6% activity compared to 3,4-dihydroxyhydrocinnamic acid
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + O2
L-DOPA + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + O2
L-DOPA + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + O2
L-DOPA + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + O2
L-DOPA + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + O2
L-DOPA + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + O2
L-DOPA + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Hypocrea jecorina
-
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + O2
L-DOPA + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + O2
L-DOPA + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + O2
L-DOPA + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-, Q3YJ63
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + O2
L-DOPA + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + O2
L-DOPA + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + O2
L-DOPA + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + O2
L-DOPA + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Q45NF5
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + O2
L-DOPA + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
2% relative activity compared to L-DOPA, weak monophenolase activity
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + O2
L-DOPA + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
35.6% activity compared to L-DOPA
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + O2
L-DOPA + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
o-monophenolase activity
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + O2
L-DOPA + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
diphenolase activity
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + O2
L-DOPA + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
monophenolase activity
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + O2
L-DOPA + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
very low activity, 6% activity at 2.5 mM substrate concentration
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + O2
dihydroxyphenylalanine quinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + O2
dopachrome + H2O
show the reaction diagram
B2ZB02
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + O2
L-dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + O2 + AH2
L-dopa + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + O2 + AH2
L-dopa + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + O2 + AH2
L-dopa + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
L-tyrosine + O2 + AH2
L-dopa + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + O2 + AH2
L-dopa + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
L-tyrosine + O2 + AH2
L-dopa + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + O2 + AH2
L-dopa + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
Hypocrea jecorina
A0ZXZ4, -
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + O2 + AH2
L-dopa + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + O2 + AH2
L-dopa + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + O2 + AH2
L-dopa + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
-
no activity with tyrosine
-
-
-
L-tyrosine + O2 + AH2
L-dopa + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
-
no activity with tyrosine
-
-
-
L-tyrosine + O2 + AH2
L-dopa + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
-
no activity with tyrosine
-
-
-
L-tyrosine + O2 + AH2
L-dopa + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
-
no activity with tyrosine
-
-
-
L-tyrosine + O2 + AH2
L-dopa + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
Emerita asiatica
-
no activity with tyrosine
-
-
-
L-tyrosine + O2 + AH2
L-dopa + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
-
10% of activity with L-dopa
-
?
L-tyrosine + O2 + AH2
L-dopa + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
Hypocrea jecorina
-
nearly no activity with the D-isomer, 7% of the activity with the L-isomer
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + O2 + AH2
L-dopa + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
-
1.5fold higher affinity for L-tyrosine compared to L-dopa
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + O2 + AH2
L-dopa + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
Hypocrea jecorina, Trametes sanguinea
-
L-forms of dopa and tyrosine are much better substrates than the corresponding D-forms
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + O2 + AH2
L-dopa + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
P11344
radioactive substrate L-[3,5-3H]-tyrosine, specific activity 50 Ci/mmol
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + O2 + AH2
L-dopa + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
-
tyrosinase oxidizes L- and D-forms with similar rate
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + O2 + AH2
L-dopa + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
Q41428
tyrosinase oxidizes L- and D-forms with similar rate
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + O2 + AH2
L-dopa + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
Pseudomonas putida F6
-
1.5fold higher affinity for L-tyrosine compared to L-dopa
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + O2 + AH2
L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
L-tyrosine + O2 + AH2
L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
L-tyrosine + O2 + AH2
L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
L-tyrosine + O2 + AH2
L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + O2 + AH2
L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
A7BHQ9, -
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + O2 + AH2
L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
-
rate-limiting enzyme in melanin biosynthesis
-
-
-
L-tyrosine + O2 + AH2
L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme initiates the formation of pigmentation, absence leads to forms of albinism
-
-
-
L-tyrosine + O2 + AH2
L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
-
individually grafted onto a novel CSG1.0 membrane as a ligand
-
-
?
L-tyrosine methyl ester + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine methyl ester + O2
L-DOPA methyl ester + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Q5DB10, Q5DHS0, -
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine methyl ester + O2 + AH2
L-dopa methyl ester + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
methyl gallate + O2
methyl 5-hydroxy-3,4-dioxocyclohexa-1,5-diene-1-carboxylate + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
methylcatechol + O2
4-methyl-1,2-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Ramonda serbica
-
-
-
-
?
N-acetyl-3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
N-acetyl-6-hydroxytryptophan + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
Emericella nidulans
-
-
-
-
-
N-acetyl-6-hydroxytryptophan + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
Emericella nidulans
-
-
-
?
N-acetyl-L-tyrosine + O2
N-acetyl-dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
N-acetyldopamine + 1/2 O2
N-acetyldopamine quinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
N-acetyldopamine + 1/2 O2
N-acetyldopamine quinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme has both o-diphenoloxidase and N-acetyldopamine quinone:N-acetyldopamine quinone methide isomerase activity
-
?
N-acetyldopamine quinone + O2
1,2-dehydro-N-acetyldopamine + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme has both o-diphenoloxidase and N-acetyldopamine quinone:N-acetyldopamine quinone methide isomerase activity
-
?
N-beta-alanyldopamine + 1/2 O2
N-beta-alanyldopamine quinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
N-formyl-L-tyrosine + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
N-methyl-3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
noradrenaline + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
Norepinephrine + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
o-coumaric acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
58% of activity with L-dopa
-
-
?
o-coumaric acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
less than 1% activity compared to L-DOPA
-
-
?
o-diphenol + 1/2 O2
?
show the reaction diagram
Rapana venosa, Helix vulgaris
-
-
-
-
?
o-diphenol + O2
o-quinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Q8Y2J8, -
-
-
-
?
o-diphenol + O2
o-quinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
low activity
-
-
?
o-methoxyphenol + O2 + AH2
1,2-dihydroxy-3-methoxybenzene + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
Emericella nidulans
-
trivial name guaiacol
-
?
o-methoxyphenol + O2 + AH2
1,2-dihydroxy-3-methoxybenzene + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
-
trivial name guaiacol
-
?
orcin + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
42% of activity with L-dopa
-
-
?
orcin + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
isoenzymes 1-3, 41%, 33%, and 25% of activity with L-dopa respectively
-
-
?
p-coumaric acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p-coumaric acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p-coumaric acid + O2
caffeic acid + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Agaricus bisporus, Hypocrea jecorina
-
-
-
-
?
p-coumaric acid + O2
caffeic acid + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
6.1% activity compared to L-DOPA
-
-
?
p-coumaric acid + O2 + AH2
caffeic acid + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
p-coumaric acid + O2 + AH2
caffeic acid + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
p-coumaric acid + O2 + AH2
caffeic acid + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
p-coumaric acid + O2 + AH2
caffeic acid + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
p-coumaric acid + O2 + AH2
caffeic acid + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
-
artificial electron donors: NADH, dimethyltetrahydropteridine and ascorbic acid
-
?
p-coumaric acid + O2 + AH2
caffeic acid + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
Hypocrea jecorina
-
p-coumaric acid is rapidly oxidized only by tyrosinase from Trichoderma reesei
-
-
?
p-cresol + O2
4-methylpyrocatechol + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
p-cresol + O2
4-methylpyrocatechol + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
p-cresol + O2
4-methylpyrocatechol + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
p-cresol + O2
4-methylpyrocatechol + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
no activity
-
-
-
p-cresol + O2
4-methylpyrocatechol + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
no activity
-
-
-
p-cresol + O2
4-methylpyrocatechol + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Q41428
relatively well oxidized
-
-
?
p-cresol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
20% activity at 2.5 mM substrate concentration
-
-
?
p-cresol + O2
4-methyl-o-quinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p-cresol + O2 + AH2
4-methyl-o-quinone + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
A7BHQ9, -
-
-
-
?
p-cresol + O2 + AH2
4-methylcatechol + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p-cresol + O2 + AH2
4-methylpyrocatechol + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p-cresol + O2 + AH2
4-methylpyrocatechol + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
Malus x domestica
-
relatively well oxidized by tyrosinase
-
-
?
p-hydroquinone + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
2% activity compared to catechol
-
-
?
p-hydroxybenzoic acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
less than 1% activity compared to L-DOPA
-
-
?
p-tyrosol + O2
2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethanol + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Agaricus bisporus, Hypocrea jecorina
-
-
-
-
?
p-tyrosol + O2 + AH2
2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethanol + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p-tyrosol + O2 + AH2
2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethanol + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
Q41428
relatively well oxidized
-
-
?
p-tyrosol + O2 + AH2
2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethanol + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
Malus x domestica
-
relatively well oxidized by tyrosinase
-
-
?
phaselic acid + 1/2 O2
(2S)-2-[[(2E)-3-(3,4-dioxocyclohexa-1,5-dien-1-yl)prop-2-enoyl]oxy]butanedioic acid + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phenol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phenol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
Hypocrea jecorina
-
-
-
-
?
phenol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phenol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
Hypocrea jecorina
-
low activity
-
-
?
phenol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
less than 1% activity compared to L-DOPA
-
-
?
phenol + O2 + AH2
o-dihydroxybenzene + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
phenol + O2 + AH2
o-dihydroxybenzene + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
Hypocrea jecorina, Trametes sanguinea
-
-
-
-
?
phenol + O2 + AH2
o-dihydroxybenzene + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
Emerita asiatica
-
no activity with phenol
-
-
-
phenol + O2 + AH2
catechol + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phenol + O2 + AH2
catechol + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
phenol + O2 + AH2
catechol + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
Malus x domestica, Agaricus bisporus
-
-
-
-
?
phenol + O2 + AH2
catechol + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
Q41428
-
-
-
?
phloretic acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
Agaricus bisporus, Hypocrea jecorina
-
-
-
-
?
phloridzin + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phloroglucin + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
87% of activity with L-dopa
-
-
?
phloroglucin + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
1.6% activity compared to L-DOPA
-
-
?
phloroglucinol + 1/2 O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phloroglucinol + 1/2 O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
protocatechuic acid + 1/2 O2
3,4-dioxocyclohexa-1,5-diene-1-carboxylic acid + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
protocatechuic acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
protocatechuic acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
protocatechuic acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
protocatechuic acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-, Q3YJ63
-
-
-
?
protocatechuic acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
protocatechuic acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
Q45NF5
-
-
-
?
protocatechuic aldehyde + 1/2 O2
3,4-dioxocyclohexa-1,5-diene-1-carbaldehyde + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
protocatechuic aldehyde + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
protocatechuic aldehyde + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
pyrocatechol + 1/2 O2
1,2-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
pyrocatechol + 1/2 O2
1,2-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Hypocrea jecorina, Trametes sanguinea, Malus x domestica, Agaricus bisporus
-
-
-
-
?
pyrocatechol + 1/2 O2
1,2-benzoquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Q41428
-
-
-
?
pyrocatechol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
Ilex argentinus
Q76DT9, Q76DU0
-
-
-
?
pyrogallol + 1/2 O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
pyrogallol + 1/2 O2
?
show the reaction diagram
Hypocrea jecorina, Trametes sanguinea, Malus x domestica
-
-
-
-
?
pyrogallol + 1/2 O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
pyrogallol + 1/2 O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
pyrogallol + 1/2 O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
pyrogallol + 1/2 O2
?
show the reaction diagram
Ramonda serbica
-
-
-
-
?
pyrogallol + 1/2 O2
?
show the reaction diagram
Q41428
-
-
-
?
pyrogallol + 1/2 O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
a triphenolic substrate
-
-
?
pyrogallol + 1/2 O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
pyrogallol and catechol are best substrates for catalysis and inactivation
-
-
?
pyrogallol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
pyrogallol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
pyrogallol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
pyrogallol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
pyrogallol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
Emerita asiatica
-
-
-
-
-
pyrogallol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
pyrogallol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
pyrogallol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
417% of activity with L-dopa
-
-
?
pyrogallol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
isoenzymes 1-3, 210%, 263%, and 225% of activity with L-dopa respectively
-
-
?
pyrogallol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
99.9% activity compared to L-DOPA
-
-
?
pyrogallol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
92% activity at 10 mM substrate concentration
-
-
?
quinol + O2
quinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
resorcinol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
67% of activity with L-dopa
-
-
?
resorcinol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
isoenzymes 1-3, 96%, 129%, and 100% of activity with L-dopa respectively
-
-
?
resorcinol + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
3% of the activity with L-dopa
-
-
?
syringaldazine + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-, Q3YJ63
-
-
-
?
syringaldazine + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
syringaldazine + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
Q45NF5
-
-
-
?
syringic acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
tert-butylcatechol + 1/2 O2
4-(tert-butyl)benzo-1,2-quinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
hydrophobic substrate
-
-
?
trans-cinnamic acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
trans-cinnamic acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
tyramine + O2
4-(2-aminoethyl)cyclohexa-3,5-diene-1,2-dione + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Hypocrea jecorina, Trametes sanguinea
-
-
-
-
?
tyramine + O2
4-(2-aminoethyl)cyclohexa-3,5-diene-1,2-dione + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
tyramine + O2
4-(2-aminoethyl)cyclohexa-3,5-diene-1,2-dione + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Malus x domestica
-
-
-
-
?
tyramine + O2
4-(2-aminoethyl)cyclohexa-3,5-diene-1,2-dione + H2O
show the reaction diagram
A7BHQ9, -
-
-
-
?
tyramine + O2
4-(2-aminoethyl)cyclohexa-3,5-diene-1,2-dione + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
tyramine + O2
4-(2-aminoethyl)cyclohexa-3,5-diene-1,2-dione + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
tyramine + O2
4-(2-aminoethyl)cyclohexa-3,5-diene-1,2-dione + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
tyramine + O2
4-(2-aminoethyl)cyclohexa-3,5-diene-1,2-dione + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Ilex argentinus
Q76DT9, Q76DU0
-
-
-
?
tyramine + O2
4-(2-aminoethyl)cyclohexa-3,5-diene-1,2-dione + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
tyramine + O2
4-(2-aminoethyl)cyclohexa-3,5-diene-1,2-dione + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Q41428
-
-
-
?
tyramine + O2
4-(2-aminoethyl)cyclohexa-3,5-diene-1,2-dione + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
67% of activity with L-dopa
-
?
tyramine + O2
4-(2-aminoethyl)cyclohexa-3,5-diene-1,2-dione + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Emerita asiatica
-
no activity with tyramine
-
-
-
tyramine + O2
4-(2-aminoethyl)cyclohexa-3,5-diene-1,2-dione + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
isoenzymes 1, 20% of L-dopa activity, isoenzyme2, 13% of activity with L-dopa, isoenzyme 3, 25% of activity with L-dopa
-
?
tyramine + O2
4-(2-aminoethyl)cyclohexa-3,5-diene-1,2-dione + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
monophenol
-
-
?
tyramine + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
tyramine + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
tyramine + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
tyramine + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
Hypocrea jecorina
-
-
-
-
?
tyramine + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
2.5% activity compared to L-DOPA
-
-
?
tyrosine + O2 + AH2
dopa + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
tyrosine + O2 + AH2
L-dopa + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
vanillin + O2 + AH2
3,4-dihydroxy-5-methoxybenzaldehyde + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
monophenol + O2
o-diphenol + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Q8Y2J8, -
-
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
mechanical damage by Hemileia vastatrix fungus, the causal agent of the leaf orange rust disease, inoculation and Leucoptera coffeella, the coffee leaf miner, infestation caused different responses in PPO activity in different Coffea species, level of damage or resistance, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
PPO activity is associated with color changes associated with browning and lycopene degradation, the commercial variety Naomi is more susceptible to enzymatic browning than the local varieties Pizzutello, Rosa Maletto and PO228, due to higher PPO activity levels, lycopene is an antioxidant agent that reconstitutes the polyphenols oxidized by the action of PPO
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
role of the enzyme in the biosynthetic scheme of betalains, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme plays a role in enzymatic browning, rapid discolouration of leaf, stem and root tissue after injury and strong pigmentation of tissue extracts, PPO and phenolic compounds could be an important part of the plant’s defence system against pests and diseases, including root parasitic nematodes, e.g. Radopholus similis
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
tyrosinase is known to be a key enzyme in melanin biosynthesis, involved in determining the color of mammalian skin and hair, various dermatological disorders, such as melasma, age spots and sites of actinic damage, arise from the accumulation of an excessive level of epidermal pigmentation
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
activity with phenolic and diphenolic substrates, also performing the reaction of tyrosinase, a ortho-hydroxylation of monophenols, EC 1.14.18.1, and the oxidation of catechols to ortho-quinones, the diphenolase activity, EC 1.10.3.1, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Hypocrea jecorina
-
broad substrate specificity, overview, no or poor activity with 4-aminophenol, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, tyramine, 2-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and aniline, tyrosinase is a mono-oxygenase and a bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the o-hydroxylation of monophenols and subsequent oxidation of o-diphenols to quinones, the enzyme thus accepts monophenols and diphenols as substrates, and the monophenolase activity is the initial rate-determining reaction
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
no activity with L-tyrosine by the root and the pulp enzyme, the enzyme catalyzes the hydroxylation of monophenols to o-diphenols, monophenolase activity EC 1.14.18.1, and the oxidation of the o-diphenols to o-quinones, diphenolase activity EC 1.10.3.1, cross-reaction analysis, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
streospecificity, and monophenolase and diphenolase activities and specificities dependent on conditions, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
substrate specificity, overview, activity with phenolic and diphenolic substrates, also performing the reaction of tyrosinase, a ortho-hydroxylation of monophenols, EC 1.14.18.1, and the oxidation of catechols to ortho-quinones, the diphenolase activity, EC 1.10.3.1, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
substrate specificity, overview, the enzyme catalyzes the hydroxylation of monophenols to o-diphenols, monophenolase activity EC 1.14.18.1, and the oxidation of the o-diphenols to o-quinones, diphenolase activity EC 1.10.3.1, cross-reaction analysis, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme catalyzes the hydroxylation of monophenols to o-diphenols, monophenolase activity EC 1.14.18.1, and the oxidation of the o-diphenols to o-quinones, diphenolase activity EC 1.10.3.1, cross-reaction analysis, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme catalyzes the hydroxylation of monophenols to o-diphenols, monophenolase activity EC 1.14.18.1, and the oxidation of the o-diphenols to o-quinones, diphenolase activity EC 1.10.3.1, cross-reaction analysis, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme catalyzes the hydroxylation of monophenols to o-diphenols, monophenolase activity EC 1.14.18.1, and the oxidation of the o-diphenols to o-quinones, diphenolase activity EC 1.10.3.1, cross-reaction analysis, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme catalyzes the hydroxylation of monophenols to o-diphenols, monophenolase activity EC 1.14.18.1, and the oxidation of the o-diphenols to o-quinones, diphenolase activity EC 1.10.3.1, cross-reaction analysis, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme catalyzes the hydroxylation of monophenols to o-diphenols, monophenolase activity EC 1.14.18.1, and the oxidation of the o-diphenols to o-quinones, diphenolase activity EC 1.10.3.1, cross-reaction analysis, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme catalyzes the hydroxylation of monophenols to o-diphenols, monophenolase activity EC 1.14.18.1, and the oxidation of the o-diphenols to o-quinones, diphenolase activity EC 1.10.3.1, cross-reaction analysis, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme catalyzes the hydroxylation of monophenols to o-diphenols, monophenolase activity EC 1.14.18.1, and the oxidation of the o-diphenols to o-quinones, diphenolase activity EC 1.10.3.1, cross-reaction analysis, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the purified tyrosinase from hemolymph shows both monophenolase, EC 1.14.18.1, and diphenolase, EC 1.10.3.1, activity and therefore it can be defined as a true tyrosinase, the purified hemocynin does not show any tyrosinase activity
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
tyrosinase is a copper-containing enzyme that catalyzes two distinct reactions of melanin synthesis: the hydroxylation of tyrosine by monophenolase action and the oxidation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) to o-dopaquinone by diphenolase action
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
catalyzing the rate-limiting step for melanin biosynthesis
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
accepts both mono- and diphenols as substrates. The hydroxylation ability of the enzyme is also referred to cresolase or monophenolase activity (EC 1.14.18.1), and the oxidation ability to catecholase or diphenolase activity (EC 1.10.3.1). The tyrosinases generally have noticeably lower activity on monophenols than on di- or triphenols, the activity of tyrosinase from Pycnoporus sanguineus on tyrosine is particularly low. Ferulic acid is not a substrate to any of the tyrosinases. The substrate p-coumaric acid is rapidly oxidized only by tyrosinase from Trichoderma reesei
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
accepts both mono- and diphenols as substrates. The hydroxylation ability of the enzyme is also referred to cresolase or monophenolase activity (EC 1.14.18.1), and the oxidation ability to catecholase or diphenolase activity (EC 1.10.3.1). The tyrosinases generally have noticeably lower activity on monophenols than on di- or triphenols. Ferulic acid is not a substrate to any of the tyrosinases. The substrate p-coumaric acid is rapidly oxidized only by tyrosinase from Trichoderma reesei
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q41428
accepts both mono- and diphenols as substrates. The hydroxylation ability of the enzyme is also referred to cresolase or monophenolase activity (EC 1.14.18.1), and the oxidation ability to catecholase or diphenolase activity (EC 1.10.3.1). The tyrosinases generally have noticeably lower activity on monophenols than on di- or triphenols. Ferulic acid is not a substrate to any of the tyrosinases. The substrate p-coumaric acid is rapidly oxidized only by tyrosinase from Trichoderma reesei
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Malus x domestica
-
accepts both mono- and diphenols as substrates. The hydroxylation ability of the enzyme is also referred to cresolase or monophenolase activity (EC 1.14.18.1), and the oxidation ability to catecholase or diphenolase activity (EC 1.10.3.1). The tyrosinases generally have noticeably lower activity on monophenols than on di- or triphenols. The activity of tyrosinase on tyrosine is particularly low. Ferulic acid is not a substrate to any of the tyrosinases. The substrate p-coumaric acid is rapidly oxidized only by tyrosinase from Trichoderma reesei
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Hypocrea jecorina
-
accepts both mono- and diphenols as substrates. The hydroxylation ability of the enzyme is also referred to cresolase or monophenolase activity (EC 1.14.18.1), and the oxidation ability to catecholase or diphenolase activity (EC 1.10.3.1). The tyrosinases generally have noticeably lower activity on monophenols than on di- or triphenols. Tyrosinase from Trichoderma reesei shows the best ability to crosslink alpha-casein. Tyrosinase from Trichoderma reesei also has the highest activity on most of the tested monophenols, and shows noticeable short lag periods prior to the oxidation. Ferulic acid is not a substrate to any of the tyrosinases
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
catalyse the hydroxylation of monophenols to o-dihydroxyphenols (E.C. 1.14.18.1), and the oxidation of o-dihydroxyphenols to o-quinones (E.C. 1.10.3.2). PPO activities with diphenolic substrates are higher than with monophenolic substrate (tyrosine) in both embryo and endosperm tissues. Time course of PPO activities in embryo and endosperm of maize seeds treated with boron during and following germination is shown
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
enzyme catalyzes two distinct reactions: the o-hydroxylation of monophenols to o-diphenols (acts like cresolase (E.C. 1.14.18.1.)) and the oxidation of o-diphenols to o-quinones (acts like catecholase (E.C. 1.10.3.2.)). No activity towards monophenols (tyrosine) and low activity - towards trihydroxyphenol-phloroglucinol
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
no activity is detectable with L-tyrosine, tyramine or phenol as substrate
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
no activity with vanillin and tyrosine as a substrate
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
pyrogallol is the most suitable substrate, followed by catechol and 4-methylcatechol. No activity is detected toward L-tyrosine, a monophenolic substrate
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
substrate-binding site of cherry PPO has a high affinity for small o-diphenols, such as catechol, 4-methylcatechol or L-dopa, and less affinity for the larger o-diphenols, caffeic acid, and triphenol-pyrogallol
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme shows low activity using mono- and triphenols as substrates but much greater activity with the diphenolic substrate
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
CATPO shows both catalase and phenol oxidase activities, its major activity is the catalase-mediated decomposition of hydrogen peroxide, but it also catalyzes peroxide-independent phenol oxidation
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
native hemocyanin in whiteleg shrimp does not have phenoloxidase activity, but when incubated with SDS, hemocyanin is converted into hemocyanin-phenoloxidase
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
no activity is detected against L-tyrosine and common laccase substrates such as 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and syringaldazine with the exception of weak activity with p-hydroquinone
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
vanillic acid, 1-naphthol, 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, and resorcinol are no substrates for tyrosinase
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the partially purified enzyme has both cresolase and catecholase activity. Activity is lower toward monophenols than diphenols
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
tyrosinase possesses cresolase/monophenolase and/or catecholase/diphenolase activities
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
2-chlorophenol is not reactive with tyrosinase
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
no activity with ferulic acid and phenol
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
polyphenol oxidases can catalyze oxidation of o-diphenols to o-quinones and/or hydroxylation of monophenols to o-diphenols followed by the oxidation to o-benzoquinones
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
protocatechuic acid (3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid) shows little or no activity as a sole substrate
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
tyrosinase exhibits monophenolase and diphenolase activity
-
-
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
3,4,5-trihydroxy-L-phenylalanine + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
cytotoxicity of TOPA
-
-
?
chlorogenic acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
formation of a highly reactive o-quinone intermediate which then can interact with NH2 groups of lysine, SCH3 groups of methionines and indole rings of tryptophan in nucleophilic addition and in polymerization reactions, the so-called browning and greening reactions
-
-
?
D-tyrosine + O2
dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Q8Y2J8, -
-
-
-
?
L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine + 1/2 O2
L-dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine + 1/2 O2
L-dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
L-DOPA + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-DOPA + O2
dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-DOPA + O2
dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
1% activity compared to 3,4-dihydroxyhydrocinnamic acid
-
-
?
L-Dopa + O2
L-dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-DOPA + O2
L-dopachrome + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + H2O2
3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + L-dopa + O2
L-dopa + dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + L-dopa + O2
L-dopa + dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + L-dopa + O2
L-dopa + dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + L-dopa + O2
L-dopa + dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
pathway of melanin biosynthesis, detailed overview
cytotoxicity of L-DOPA
-
?
L-tyrosine + L-dopa + O2
L-dopa + dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
air saturated 50 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, 30°C
polymerizes to form melanin-like pigments
-
?
L-tyrosine + O2
dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + O2
dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + O2
dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + O2
dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Q8Y2J8, -
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + O2
dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
6% activity compared to 3,4-dihydroxyhydrocinnamic acid
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + O2
L-DOPA + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + O2
dihydroxyphenylalanine quinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + O2
L-dopaquinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + O2 + AH2
L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
L-tyrosine + O2 + AH2
L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
L-tyrosine + O2 + AH2
L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
L-tyrosine + O2 + AH2
L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
-
rate-limiting enzyme in melanin biosynthesis
-
-
-
L-tyrosine + O2 + AH2
L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine + H2O + A
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme initiates the formation of pigmentation, absence leads to forms of albinism
-
-
-
N-acetyl-6-hydroxytryptophan + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
Emericella nidulans
-
-
-
-
-
o-diphenol + O2
o-quinone + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Q8Y2J8, -
-
-
-
?
monophenol + O2
o-diphenol + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Q8Y2J8, -
-
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
mechanical damage by Hemileia vastatrix fungus, the causal agent of the leaf orange rust disease, inoculation and Leucoptera coffeella, the coffee leaf miner, infestation caused different responses in PPO activity in different Coffea species, level of damage or resistance, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
PPO activity is associated with color changes associated with browning and lycopene degradation, the commercial variety Naomi is more susceptible to enzymatic browning than the local varieties Pizzutello, Rosa Maletto and PO228, due to higher PPO activity levels, lycopene is an antioxidant agent that reconstitutes the polyphenols oxidized by the action of PPO
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
role of the enzyme in the biosynthetic scheme of betalains, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme plays a role in enzymatic browning, rapid discolouration of leaf, stem and root tissue after injury and strong pigmentation of tissue extracts, PPO and phenolic compounds could be an important part of the plant’s defence system against pests and diseases, including root parasitic nematodes, e.g. Radopholus similis
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
tyrosinase is known to be a key enzyme in melanin biosynthesis, involved in determining the color of mammalian skin and hair, various dermatological disorders, such as melasma, age spots and sites of actinic damage, arise from the accumulation of an excessive level of epidermal pigmentation
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
catalyzing the rate-limiting step for melanin biosynthesis
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
CATPO shows both catalase and phenol oxidase activities, its major activity is the catalase-mediated decomposition of hydrogen peroxide, but it also catalyzes peroxide-independent phenol oxidation
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the partially purified enzyme has both cresolase and catecholase activity. Activity is lower toward monophenols than diphenols
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
tyrosinase possesses cresolase/monophenolase and/or catecholase/diphenolase activities
-
-
-
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
heme
-
the enzyme contains heme
tetrahydrobiopterin
-
-
heme b
-
dependent on
additional information
-
if L-DOPA is an active cofactor, its formation as an intermediate during o-dopaquinone production is controversial
-
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
Al3+
-
127.3% activity at 1 mM
boron
-
boron in an essential micronutrient required for growth and development of plants. Boron treatments: Germination of maize seeds is not effected by boron concentrations up to 10 mM but decreased by 20 mM boron. Excess boron lowers the PPO activity in seed tissues during germination of maize. Time course of PPO activities in embryo and endosperm of maize seeds treated with boron during and following germination is shown
Ca2+
-
inactive proenzyme is maximally activated by 1 mM Ca2+
Ca2+
-
inactive enzyme is maximally activated by 10 mM Ca2+
Ca2+
-
hemocyanin is stabilized by the presence of Ca2+ ions in solution
Co2+
-
0.9 mM, slight activation of isoenzymes I and III
Co2+
-
50 mM, 360% activation
copper
-
2 copper atoms per functional unit of 42000 Da
copper
-
1H-NMR spectra, each copper atom is coordinated by the Nepsilon atoms of 3 histidine residues
copper
Emericella nidulans
-
2.1 copper atoms per polypeptide, enzyme form B
copper
-
2 atoms of copper per 150000 Da
copper
-
0.1 mM, approx. 3fold activation of isoenzymes I and III
copper
-
2 gatom per mol; enzyme contains a binuclear copper complex at the active site which is responsible for the interaction with phenolic substrates and the binding and activation of molecular O2, depending on the oxidation state of the copper, 3 different forms are known: Met-, oxy-, and deoxytyrosinase
copper
-
-
copper
-
1 gatom per mol
copper
-
extended X-ray absorption fine structure, EXAFS, studies
copper
-
activation at low concentrations, inhibition above 5 mM
copper
-
0.2% total copper content, probably 1 copper atom per subunit
copper
-
0.22% copper, probably 4 copper atoms per enzyme molecule; 4 gatom per mol
copper
-
2 gatom per mol
copper
-
0.21% copper, intra- and extracellular enzyme
copper
-
chemical and spectroscopic studies of binuclear copper site
copper
-
2 gatom per mol
copper
-
-
copper
-
1 mM, increase in activity
copper
-
enzyme contains 2 copper-binding domains
copper
-
50% activation of L-dopa oxidation
copper
Ilex argentinus
Q76DT9, Q76DU0
contains 2 copper atoms per subunit; contains 2 copper atoms per subunit
copper
-
the activator protein ORF378 may facilitate the incorporation of Cu(II) into apotyrosinase
copper
-
first presention of a complete quantitative analysis of the XANES part of the XAS spectrum of a binuclear copper site
copper
-
copper containing enzyme. Bathochromic shift of selected phenylethanoid glycosides (0.01 mM) in the presence of CuSO4 (0.05 mM)
copper
-
two copper ions in the active center of tyrosinase
copper
A7BHQ9, -
enzyme contains 1.9 copper atoms per molecule
copper
-
inhibitors such as sodium diethyl dithiocarbamate and thiourea, which combine with the copper moiety in the enzyme, are generally potent inhibitors of PPO. The inhibitors are copper-chelating agents and they suppress browning activities in which copper is directly involved in the oxidation of phenolic compounds
copper
-
copper transporter ATP7A localizes to melanosomes in wildtype melanocytes. Copper restores in vitro tyrosinase activity in melanosomes of BLOC-1-deficient melanocytes, immunofluorescence microscopy
copper
P11344
the active site of the tyrosinase model shows the same structural conformation as in sTyr and ibCO, where two copper ions are coordinated by three histidines each, forming a binuclear type 3 copper site similar to that of the template structure
copper
Hypocrea jecorina
A0ZXZ4, -
correct copper concentration in the growth medium is critical for the expression of this copper containing enzyme. Optimization of the copper concentration and the expression conditions lead to a 10fold increase in the expression level of processed active histidine tagged TYR2
copper
-
a type 3 copper protein
copper
-
contains copper
copper
-
contains copper
Cu2+
-
10 mM, increases activity. Copper-containing enzyme
Cu2+
-
copper enzyme
Cu2+
-
bound to the enzyme, the central domain contains two copper binding sites, mettyrosinase, the resting form of tyrosinase, contains two tetragonal Cu(II) ions antiferromagnetically coupled through an endogenous bridge, although hydroxide exogenous ligands other than peroxide are bound to the copper site, the exogenous oxygen molecule is bound as peroxide and bridges the two copper centers
Cu2+
-
bound to the enzyme, presently available for any tyrosinases, the central domain contains two copper binding sites, mettyrosinase, the resting form of tyrosinase, contains two tetragonal Cu(II) ions antiferromagnetically coupled through an endogenous bridge, although hydroxide exogenous ligands other than peroxide are bound to the copper site, the exogenous oxygen molecule is bound as peroxide and bridges the two copper centers
Cu2+
-
dependent on, type-3 copper enzyme
Cu2+
Hypocrea jecorina
-
copper-containing metalloprotein
Cu2+
-
a copper containing bifunctional enzyme
Cu2+
-
a copper-containing enzyme
Cu2+
-
copper-containing enzyme
Cu2+
-
copper-containing enzyme
Cu2+
-
HdPO is a copper-containing metalloenzyme
Cu2+
-
tyrosinases is a copper-containing enzyme belonging to the type 3 copper protein family
Cu2+
-
a type 3 copper enzyme possessing two copper ions in the active site
Cu2+
-
contains copper
Cu2+
-
the enzyme contains copper
Cu2+
-
tyrosinase is a member of the type 3 copper enzyme family, two Cu2+ ions serveas the major cofactors within the active site
Cu2+
-
enhances enzyme activity
Fe2+
-
enhances enzyme activity
Fe3+
-
1 mM, increase in activity
H2O2
-
the exogenous oxygen molecule is bound as peroxide and bridges the two copper centers, conferring a distinct O2-Cu(II) charge transfer
H2O2
-
the exogenous oxygen molecule is bound as peroxide and bridges the two copper centers, conferring a distinct O2-Æ Cu(II) charge transfer
Hg2+
-
enhances enzyme activity
K+
-
50% activation of L-dopa oxidation
K+
-
127% activity at 1 mM
Mg2+
-
1 mM, increase in activity
Mg2+
-
33% activation of L-dopa oxidation
Mg2+
-
10 mM, increases activity
Mg2+
-
the enzymatic activity of the SDS-treated hemocyanin can be switched between that of catechol oxidase and that of tyrosinase by addition of Mg2+-ions
Mn2+
-
activation of proenzyme
Mn2+
-
slight activation of isoenzymes I and III
Mn2+
-
activation above 1 mM Mn2+
Mn2+
-
activation
Mn2+
-
enhances enzyme activity
Na+
-
114% activity at 10 mM
Ni2+
-
0.9 mM, slight activation of isoenzymes I and III
Ni2+
-
50 mM, 20% activation
Ni2+
-
enhances enzyme activity
Zn2+
Emericella nidulans
-
0.9 mol per polypeptide
Zn2+
-
0.9 mM, approx. 2fold activation of isoenzymes I and III
additional information
-
the partially purified active enzyme is not affected by copper acetate, SDS, methanol, and trypsin
additional information
-
the enzyme is not influenced by Zn2+, Cr2+, Na+, K+, Mg2+, and Cd2+
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
(+)-gallocatechin-3-O-gallate
-
GCG, tyrosinase inhibitor
(+)haemanthamine
-
-
(-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate
-
ECG, tyrosinase inhibitor
(-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate
-
competitive, IC50: 0.034 mM
(-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate
-
EGCG, tyrosinase inhibitor
(1E,4E)-1,5-bis(2-fluoro-4-methoxyphenyl)penta-1,4-dien-3-one
-
-
(1E,4E)-1,5-bis(4-fluorophenyl)penta-1,4-dien-3-one
-
-
(1E,4E)-1,5-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)penta-1,4-dien-3-one
-
-
(2E)-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-N-(2-phenylethyl)prop-2-enamide
-
-
(2E)-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-N-(4-hydroxybenzyl)prop-2-enamide
-
-
(2E)-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-N-[2-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]prop-2-enamide
-
14% inhibition at 0.1 mM; 2% inhibition at 0.1 mM
(2E)-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-N-[2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethyl]prop-2-enamide
-
67% inhibition at 0.1 mM
(2E)-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-N-[2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethyl]prop-2-enamide
-
-
(2E)-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-N-[2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethyl]prop-2-enamide
-
-
(2E)-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-N-[2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]prop-2-enamide
-
100% inhibition at 0.1 mM
(2E)-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-N-[2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]prop-2-enamide
-
-
(2E)-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-N-[2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]prop-2-enamide
-
15% inhibition at 0.1 mM; 30% inhibition at 0.1 mM
(2E)-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-N-[2-(5-hydroxy-1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]prop-2-enamide
-
55% inhibition at 0.1 mM; 73% inhibition at 0.1 mM
(2E)-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-N-[2-(5-hydroxy-1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]prop-2-enamide
-
-
(2E)-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-N-[2-(5-methoxy-1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]prop-2-enamide
-
1% inhibition at 0.1 mM; 4% inhibition at 0.1 mM
(2E)-3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[2-(5-hydroxy-1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]prop-2-enamide
-
-
(2E)-3-(4-chlorophenyl)-N-[2-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl]prop-2-enamide
-
-
(2E)-3-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[2-(5-hydroxy-1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]prop-2-enamide
-
-
(2E)-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-N-(2-phenylethyl)prop-2-enamide
-
19% inhibition at 0.1 mM
(2E)-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-N-[2-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]prop-2-enamide
-
13% inhibition at 0.1 mM; 4% inhibition at 0.1 mM
(2E)-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-N-[2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)ethyl]prop-2-enamide
-
40% inhibition at 0.1 mM
(2E)-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-N-[2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]prop-2-enamide
-
49% inhibition at 0.1 mM
(2E)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-N-(2-phenylethyl)prop-2-enamide
-
strong tyrosinase inhibitory potential
(2E)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)prop-2-enoic acid
-
-
(2E)-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)-N-(1-phenylethyl)prop-2-enamide
-
-
(2E)-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)-N-(2-phenylethyl)prop-2-enamide
-
-
(2E)-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)prop-2-enoic acid
-
-
(2E)-3-phenyl-N-(1-phenylethyl)prop-2-enamide
-
-
(2E)-3-phenyl-N-(2-phenylethyl)prop-2-enamide
-
-
(2E)-3-phenylprop-2-enoic acid
-
-
(2E)-but-2-enoic acid
-
non-competitive inhibition
(2E)-N-(3,4-dihydroxybenzyl)-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)prop-2-enamide
-
-
(2E)-N-(4-chlorobenzyl)-3-phenylprop-2-enamide
-
-
(2E)-N-benzyl-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)prop-2-enamide
-
-
(2E)-N-benzyl-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)prop-2-enamide
-
strong tyrosinase inhibitory potential
(2E)-N-benzyl-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)prop-2-enamide
-
-
(2E)-N-benzyl-3-phenylprop-2-enamide
-
-
(2E)-N-[2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethyl]-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)prop-2-enamide
-
62% inhibition at 0.1 mM
(2E)-N-[2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethyl]-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)prop-2-enamide
-
25% inhibition at 0.1 mM
(2E)-N-[2-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl]-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)prop-2-enamide
-
-
(2E)-N-[2-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl]-3-phenylprop-2-enamide
-
-
(2E)-N-[2-(5-hydroxy-1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]-3-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)prop-2-enamide
-
-
(2E)-N-[2-(5-hydroxy-1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)prop-2-enamide
-
29% inhibition at 0.1 mM; 48% inhibition at 0.1 mM
(2E)-N-[2-(5-hydroxy-1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)prop-2-enamide
-
-
(2E)-N-[2-(5-hydroxy-1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)prop-2-enamide
-
-
(2E)-N-[2-(5-hydroxy-1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)prop-2-enamide
-
-
(2E)-N-[2-(5-hydroxy-1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]-3-phenylprop-2-enamide
-
-
(2E,4E)-hexa-2,4-dienoic acid
-
non-competitive inhibition
-
(2E,6E)-2,6-bis[(4-chlorophenyl)methylidene]cyclohexanone
-
-
(2E,6E)-2,6-bis[(4-hydroxyphenyl)methylidene]cyclohexanone
-
-
(2R,3R)-taxifolin
-
isolated from the sprout of Polygonum hydropiper L. (Benitade), inhibited 70% of tyrosinase activity at a concentration of 0.50 mM
(2Z)-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)prop-2-enoic acid
-
-
(2Z)-3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)prop-2-enoic acid
-
-
(2Z)-3-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)prop-2-enoic acid
-
-
(2Z)-3-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)prop-2-enoic acid
-
-
(2Z)-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)prop-2-enoic acid
-
-
(2Z)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)prop-2-enoic acid
-
-
(2Z)-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)prop-2-enoic acid
-
-
(2Z)-3-phenylprop-2-enoic acid
-
-
(7S, 8R, 8'R)-(-)-lariciresinol-4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside
-
tyrosinase inhibitors from Marrubium velutinum, lignan glucosides
(7S, 8R, 8'R)-(-)-lariciresinol-4,4'-O-bis-beta-D-glucopyranoside
-
tyrosinase inhibitors from Marrubium velutinum, lignan glucosides
(7S, 8R, 8'R)-(-)-lariciresinol-4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside
-
tyrosinase inhibitors from Marrubium velutinum, lignan glucosides
(S)-imperanene
-
inhibitor in rum distillate wastewater significantly inhibits tyrosinase isolated from HMV-II cells, competitive inhibition. The inhibitory activities in descending order are (S)-imperanene 4-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl imperanene, 4-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-3-methoxy imperanene
(Z)-2-(4-hydroxybenzylidene)-4-hydroxybenzofuran-3(2H)-one
-
71% inhibition at 0.1 mM
(Z)-2-(4-hydroxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxybenzofuran-3(2H)-one
-
69% inhibition at 0.1 mM
(Z)-2-(4-hydroxybenzylidene)benzofuran-3(2H)-one
-
39% inhibition at 0.1 mM
(Z)-4,6-dihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxybenzylidene)benzofuran-3(2H)-one
-
-
(Z)-4,6-dihydroxy-2-(4-methoxybenzylidene)benzofuran-3(2H)-one
-
11% inhibition at 0.1 mM
1,10-bis(1,10-carboxyethyl) ether
-
-
1,10-phenanthroline
-
1 mM, inactivation, half-life: 30 min
1,3-dimethylimidazolium methylsulfate
-
69.7% residual activity at 5% (w/v)
-
1,4-dithiothreitol
-
complete inhibition at 10 mM
1,5-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,4-pentadiene-3-one
-
-
1-(1,4-diacetylphenyl)dithiosemicarbazide
-
-
1-(1-(2,4,6-trihydroxyphenyl)ethylidene)thiosemicarbazide
-
-
1-(1-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethylidene)thiosemicarbazide
-
-
1-(1-(4-bromophenyl)ethylidene)thiosemicarbazide
-
-
1-(1-(4-fluorophenyl)ethylidene)thiosemicarbazide
-
-
1-(1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethylidene)thiosemicarbazide
-
-
1-(1-(4-isopropylphenyl)ethylidene)thiosemicarbazide
-
-
1-(1-(4-methoxyphenyl)ethylidene)thiosemicarbazide
-
-
1-(1-(4-methoxyphenyl)propan-2-ylidene)-thiosemicarbazide
-
-
1-(1-(4-methoxyphenyl)propan-2-ylidene)thiosemicarbazide
-
-
1-(1-(pyrazin-2-yl)ethylidene)thiosemicarbazide
-
-
1-(1-(pyridin-3-yl)ethylidene)thiosemicarbazide
-
-
1-(1-(thiophen-2-yl)ethylidene)thiosemicarbazide
-
-
1-(1-p-tolylethylidene)thiosemicarbazide
-
-
1-(1-phenylethylidene)thiosemicarbazide
-
-
1-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3-(2,4-dimethoxy-3-methylphenyl)propane
-
tyrosinase inhibitor with strong depigmenting effects, found in the medicinal plant Dianella ensifolia. Synthetic and plant derived versions of the enzyme inhibit mushroom tyrosinase with similar potencies
1-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3-(2,4-dimethoxy-3-methylphenyl)propane
-
tyrosinase inhibitor with strong depigmenting effects, found in the medicinal plant Dianella ensifolia. 22times more potent than kojic acid
1-(2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-hydroxyurea
-
-
1-(2,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)thiourea
-
-
1-(2-hydroxy-1,2-diphenylethylidene)thiosemicarbazide
-
-
1-(2-oxo-1,2-diphenylethylidene)thiosemicarbazide
-
-
1-(3-methylbutylidene)thiosemicarbazide
-
-
1-(3-oxocyclohexylidene)thiosemicarbazide
-
-
1-(3-phenylallylidene)thiosemicarbazide
-
-
1-(4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)butan-2-ylidene)-thiosemicarbazide
-
-
1-(4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)butan-2-ylidene)thiosemicarbazide
-
-
1-(4-bromophenyl)-3-hydroxyurea
-
-
1-(4-butoxyphenyl)-3-hydroxyurea
-
-
1-(4-fluorophenyl)-ethanone
-
-
1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-ethanone
-
-
1-(4-methylpent-3-en-2-ylidene) thiosemicarbazide
-
-
1-(but-2-enylidene)thiosemicarbazide
-
-
1-(butan-2-ylidene)thiosemicarbazide
-
-
1-(propan-2-ylidene)thiosemicarbazide
-
most potent inhibitor
1-(propan-2-ylidene)thiosemicarbazide
-
-
1-(thiophen-2-yl)-ethanone
-
-
1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium methylsulfate
-
47.8% residual activity at 5% (w/v)
-
1-cyclohexylidenethiosemicarbazide
-
-
1-cyclopentyl-1-hydroxy-2-oxohydrazine
-
inhibition of the diphenolase activity of mushroom tyrosinase over the pH range of 5.5-8.0 is studied
1-cyclopentylidenethiosemicarbazide
-
-
1-dodecyl-1-hydroxy-2-oxohydrazine
-
inhibition of the diphenolase activity of mushroom tyrosinase over the pH range of 5.5-8.0 is studied
1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethyl sulfate
-
in the presence of 10 or 20% (w/v) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethyl sulfate, the activity decreases dramatically and becomes negligible
-
1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium methylsulfate
-
64.1% residual activity at 5% (w/v)
-
1-ethylidenethiosemicarbazide
-
-
1-hydroxy-1,3-dimethyl-3-phenylurea
-
-
1-hydroxy-1-methyl-3-(4-nitrophenyl)urea
-
-
1-hydroxy-1-methyl-3-phenylurea
-
-
1-hydroxy-1-naphthalen-1-yl-2-oxohydrazine
-
inhibition of the diphenolase activity of mushroom tyrosinase over the pH range of 5.5-8.0 is studied
1-hydroxy-2-oxo-1-phenylhydrazine
-
inhibition of the diphenolase activity of mushroom tyrosinase over the pH range of 5.5-8.0 is studied
1-hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)urea
-
-
1-hydroxy-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)urea
-
-
1-hydroxy-3-(4-nitrophenyl)urea
-
-
1-hydroxy-3-phenylthiourea
-
-
1-hydroxy-3-phenylurea
-
also retains a substantial potency in cell culture by reducing pigment synthesis by 78%
1-hydroxy-3-[4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]urea
-
-
1-methoxy-3-(4-nitrophenyl)thiourea
-
-
1-methoxy-3-naphthalen-2-ylthiourea
-
-
1-methoxy-3-phenylurea
-
-
1-methylethyl (2E)-3-(5-hydroxy-4-oxo-4H-pyran-2-yl)prop-2-enoate
-
-
1-Phenyl-2-thiourea
Emericella nidulans
-
1 mM, 94% inhibition
1-Phenyl-2-thiourea
-
-
1-Phenyl-2-thiourea
-
-
1-Phenyl-2-thiourea
-
-
1-Phenyl-2-thiourea
-
the phenoloxidase activity of HdPO is most sensitive to 1-phenyl-2-thiourea, complete inhibition at 5 mM
1-propylidenethiosemicarbazide
-
-
1-[1-(4-methoxyphenyl)ethylidene]thiosemicarbazide
-
-
1-[4-(benzyloxy)phenyl]-3-hydroxyurea
-
-
1-[[tert-butyl(dimethyl)silyl]oxy]-3-phenylurea
-
-
1H-indol-5-ol
-
54% inhibition at 0.1 mM; 62% inhibition at 0.1 mM
2'-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3',5,5',7,7'-pentahydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2,2',3,3',4a,8a-hexahydro-4H,4'H-3,8'-bichromene-4,4'-dione
-
most potent inhibitor
2,2':4',2''-ter-1,3,4-oxadiazole-5,5',5''(4H,4''H)-trithione
-
-
2,2':4',2''-ter-1,3,4-thiadiazole-5,5',5''(4H,4''H)-trithione
-
-
2,3,4'-trihydroxy-4-methoxydeoxybenzoin
-
displays stable and significant inhibitory effect on tyrosinase activity
2,3,4,4'-tetrahydroxydeoxybenzoin
-
-
2,3,4-trihydroxy-3',4'-dimethoxydeoxybenzoin
-
-
2,3,4-trihydroxy-4'-methoxydeoxybenzoin
-
-
2,3-Dimercapto-1-propanol
-
2 mM, 93% inhibition
2,4,4',6-tetrahydroxydeoxybenzoin
-
-
2,4,4'-trihydroxydeoxybenzoin
-
-
2,4,5-trihydroxy-4'-methoxydeoxybenzoin
-
-
2,4,6-cycloheptatriene-1-one
Mushroom
-
copper chelator, trivial name tropolone, mixed inhibition, 90% reversible by dialysis, approx. 70% recovery by addition of CuSO4
2,4,6-cycloheptatriene-1-one
-
1 mM, 91% inhibition of catecholase activity
2,4,6-trihydroxy-4'-methoxydeoxybenzoin
-
-
2,4-dihydroxy-3',4'-dimethoxydeoxybenzoin
-
-
2,4-dihydroxy-4'-methoxydeoxybenzoin
-
-
2,4-dihydroxy-N-(3,4,5-trihydroxybenzyl)benzamide
-
IC50: 0.550 mM
2,4-dihydroxy-N-(4-hydroxybenzyl)benzamide
-
IC50: 1.820 mM
2,4-dihydroxy-N-[2-(5-hydroxy-1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]benzamide
-
39% inhibition at 0.1 mM; 50% inhibition at 0.1 mM
2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid
-
-
2-(2-furanylmethylene)-thiosemicarbazone
-
-
2-(2-hydroxyethoxy)ethyl (2E)-3-(5-hydroxy-4-oxo-4H-pyran-2-yl)prop-2-enoate
-
-
2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethyl (2E)-3-(5-hydroxy-4-oxo-4H-pyran-2-yl)prop-2-enoate
-
-
2-(3,4-dihydroxy-5-oxo-2,5-dihydrofuran-2-yl)-2-hydroxyethyl 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate
-
mixed-type inhibitor
2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-N-[2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]acetamide
-
34% inhibition at 0.1 mM
2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-N-[2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]acetamide
-
16% inhibition at 0.1 mM
2-(phenylmethylene)-thiosemicarbazone
-
-
2-butyl-5-hydroxyphenyl 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)propanoate
-
KI-063, a new tyrosinase inhibitor, strong concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on tyrosinase activity
2-butyl-5-hydroxyphenyl 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)propanoate
-
KI-063
2-chlorobenzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone
-
exhibits significant inhibitory potency on both monophenolase activity and diphenolase activity of tyrosinase, reversible noncompetitive inhibitor
-
2-chlorophenol
-
competitive inhibitor
2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzoic acid
-
-
2-hydroxy-4-methylbenzoic acid
-
-
2-hydroxy-5-methoxybenzoic acid
-
-
2-hydroxy-5-methylbenzoic acid
-
-
2-Hydroxybenzaldehyde
-
-
2-hydroxybenzoic acid
-
-
2-hydroxybenzoic acid
-
-
2-hydroxyethyl (2E)-3-(5-hydroxy-4-oxo-4H-pyran-2-yl)prop-2-enoate
-
-
2-mercaptoethanol
-
-
2-mercaptoethanol
-
-
2-mercaptoethanol
-
1 mM, complete inhibition
2-mercaptoethanol
-
2 mM, 93% inhibition
2-mercaptoethanol
-
0.029 mM, 50% inhibition
2-mercaptoethanol
-
0.1 mM, complete inhibition
2-mercaptoethanol
-
competitive
2-mercaptoethanol
-
evaluated for effectiveness as an inhibitor of PPO activity, using catechol as the substrate
2-mercaptoethanol
Agaricus bisporus, Hypocrea jecorina
-
-
2-mercaptoethanol
Q41428
-
2-mercaptoethanol
-
-
2-mercaptoethanol
-
specific inhibitor
2-mercaptoethanol
-
-
2-methoxyethyl (2E)-3-(5-hydroxy-4-oxo-4H-pyran-2-yl)prop-2-enoate
-
-
2-Methylbenzaldehyde
-
-
2-Methylbenzoic acid
-
-
2-[(2,3,4-trihydroxyphenyl)methylene]-thiosemicarbazone
-
-
2-[(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)methylene]-thiosemicarbazone
-
most potent tyrosinase inhibitor
2-[(2,5-dihydroxyphenyl)methylene]-thiosemicarbazone
-
-
2-[(2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)methylene]-thiosemicarbazone
-
-
2-[(2-hydroxy-4-bromophenyl)methylene]thiosemicarbazone
-
-
2-[(2-hydroxyphenyl)methylene]-thiosemicarbazone
-
-
2-[(3,4,5-trihydroxyphenyl)methylene]-thiosemicarbazone
-
-
2-[(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)methylene]-thiosemicarbazone
-
-
2-[(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)methylene]-thiosemicarbazone
-
-
2-[(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)methylene]-thiosemicarbazone
-
-
2-[(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)methylene]-thiosemicarbazone
-
-
2-[(3-hydroxyphenyl)methylene]-thiosemicarbazone
-
-
2-[(3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl)methylene]-thiosemicarbazone
-
-
2-[(4-bromophenyl)methylene]-thiosemicarbazone
-
-
2-[(4-hydroxyphenyl)methylene]-thiosemicarbazone
-
-
2-[(4-methoxyphenyl)methylene]-thiosemicarbazone
-
-
2-[2-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethyl]-5-(D-xylopyranosyloxy)phenyl D-xylopyranoside
-
isolated from Chlorophytum arundinaceum (liliaceae)
2-[2-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethyl]-5-hydroxyphenyl D-xylopyranoside
-
isolated from Chlorophytum arundinaceum (liliaceae)
2-[2-(2-hydroxyethoxy)ethoxy]ethyl (2E)-3-(5-hydroxy-4-oxo-4H-pyran-2-yl)prop-2-enoate
-
-
2-[2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxy]ethyl (2E)-3-(5-hydroxy-4-oxo-4H-pyran-2-yl)prop-2-enoate
-
-
2-[3-(2,4-dimethoxy-3-methylphenyl)propyl]benzene-1,4-diol
-
plant-derived diarylpropane tyrosinase inhibitor
2alpha,3alpha,23-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid
-
pentacyclic triterpene extracted from Rhododendron collettianum
3'',4''-dihydroglabridin
-
100% inhibition at 0.33 mg/ml
3',5,5',7,7'-pentahydroxy-2,2'-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2,2',3,3',4a,8a-hexahydro-4H,4'H-3,8'-bichromene-4,4'-dione
-
-
3,4,5-trihydroxy-N-(3,4,5-trihydroxybenzyl)benzamide
-
IC50: 0.555 mM
3,4,5-trihydroxy-N-(4-hydroxybenzyl)benzamide
-
IC50: 1.180 mM
3,4-dihydroxy-4'-methoxydeoxybenzoin
-
-
3,4-dihydroxy-N-(3,4,5-trihydroxybenzyl)benzamide
-
IC50: 0.280 mM
3,4-dihydroxy-N-(4-hydroxybenzyl)benzamide
-
IC50: 2.0 mM
3,4-dihydroxy-N-[2-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]benzamide
-
2% inhibition at 0.1 mM; 7% inhibition at 0.1 mM
3,4-dihydroxy-N-[2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]benzamide
-
6% inhibition at 0.1 mM; 9% inhibition at 0.1 mM
3,4-dihydroxy-N-[2-(5-hydroxy-1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]benzamide
-
43% inhibition at 0.1 mM; 48% inhibition at 0.1 mM
3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde-O-ethyloxime
-
-
3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid
-
-
3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid
-
-
3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid
-
noncompetitive inhibition
3,4-dimethoxycinnamic acid
-
2.5% inhibition at 0.33 mM
3,4-dimethoxydihydrocinnamic acid
-
20.2% inhibition at 1 mM
-
3,5-dihydroxy-N-(3,4,5-trihydroxybenzyl)benzamide
-
IC50: 0.705 mM
3,5-dihydroxy-N-(4-hydroxybenzyl)benzamide
-
IC50: 0.710 mM
3,7,3',4'-taxifolin tetraacetate
-
assayed together with (2R,3R)-taxifolin
3-(2-aminoethyl)-1H-indol-5-ol
-
15% inhibition at 0.1 mM; 22% inhibition at 0.1 mM
3-(3',4',5'-trihydroxyphenyl)-6,8-dihydroxycoumarin
-
potent, non-competitive tyrosinase inhibitior, 68.3% inhibition at 0.8 mM
3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-N-[2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]propanamide
-
94% inhibition at 0.1 mM
3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-2H-chromen-2-one
-
19.3% inhibition at 0.8 mM
3-(4-bromophenyl)-1-hydroxy-1-methylurea
-
-
3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-N-[2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]propanamide
-
28% inhibition at 0.1 mM
3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-N-[2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]propanamide
-
96% inhibition at 0.1 mM
3-hydroxy-1-methyl-1-phenylurea
-
-
3-Hydroxybenzaldehyde
-
-
3-hydroxycinnamic acid
-
-
3-hydroxycinnamic acid
-
-
3-hydroxyphloretin
-
constituents from the formosan apple (Malus doumeri var. formosana), exhibits a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on mushroom tyrosinase activity, competitive inhibitor. Enzyme kinetics study of 3-hydroxyphloretin as inhibitor with various concentrations of the L-tyrosine substrate (15.625, 31.25, 62.5, 125, 250, 500 microM)
3-hydroxyphloretin
-
constituents from the formosan apple (Malus doumeri var. formosana), inhibition 73%, shows substantial cellular tyrosinase inhibitory activity at a concentration of 100 microM
3-hydroxyphloridzin
-
-
3-methoxy-1-methyl-1-phenylurea
-
-
3-Methoxybenzaldehyde
-
-
3-methylbenzaldehyde
-
-
3-methylbenzoic acid
-
-
3-methylcrotonic acid
-
-
3-O-[2,6-di-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-beta-D-galactopyranosyl]-quercetin
-
from Guioa villosa leaf extract
3beta, 23, 24-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid
-
pentacyclic triterpene extracted from Rhododendron collettianum
4,4'-diamino-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1'H-1,3'-bi-1,2,4-triazole-5,5'(4H,4'H)-dithione
-
-
4,4'-diamino-3-(pyridin-4-yl)-1'H-1,3'-bi-1,2,4-triazole-5,5'(4H,4'H)-dithione
-
-
4,4'-ethane-1,2-diyldibenzene-1,3-diol
-
-
4,6,4'-trihydroxyaurone
-
75% inhibition at 0.1 mM
4-(1-methylethyl)benzaldehyde
-
-
4-(1-methylethyl)benzoic acid
-
-
4-(benzyloxy)-N'-(hydrazinylcarbonyl)benzohydrazide
-
-
4-(hexyloxy)benzoic acid
-
-
4-(pentyloxy)benzoic acid
-
-
4-Aminobenzoic acid
-
-
4-butoxybenzoic acid
-
-
4-butylbenzaldehyde
-
-
4-butylbenzoic acid
-
-
4-butylbenzoic acid
-
reversible and noncompetitive inhibitor
4-chlorobenzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone
-
exhibits significant inhibitory potency on both monophenolase activity and diphenolase activity of tyrosinase, reversible mixed-type inhibitor
-
4-chlorosalicylic acid
-
-
4-coumaric acid
-
74.4% inhibition at 0.33 mM
4-dodecylresorcinol
-
reversible and competitive inhibition, IC50: 0.00112 mM
4-ethenylbenzaldehyde
-
-
4-ethenylbenzoic acid
-
-
4-ethoxybenzoic acid
-
-
4-Ethylbenzaldehyde
-
-
4-ethylbenzoic acid
-
-
4-formylphenyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside
-
-
4-formylphenyl 2,3,4-tri-O-acetyl-beta-D-allopyranoside
-
-
4-formylphenyl 2,3,4-tri-O-benzyl-beta-D-ribopyranoside
-
-
4-formylphenyl 2,3,6-tri-O-acetyl-4-O-(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D-galactopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside
-
-
4-formylphenyl 2,3-O-(1-methylethylidene)-beta-D-allopyranoside
-
-
4-formylphenyl 4,6-O-(phenylmethylidene)-beta-D-gulopyranoside
-
-
4-formylphenyl 6-O-(dimethoxyphosphoryl)-beta-D-allopyranoside
-
-
4-formylphenyl 6-O-trityl-beta-D-allopyranoside
-
-
4-formylphenyl beta-D-allopyranoside
-
-
4-formylphenyl beta-D-glucopyranoside
-
-
4-formylphenyl beta-D-ribopyranoside
-
-
4-formylphenyl-O-beta-D-allopyranoside
-
-
4-heptylbenzaldehyde
-
-
4-heptylbenzoic acid
-
-
4-heptylbenzoic acid
-
reversible and noncompetitive inhibitor
4-hexylbenzaldehyde
-
-
4-hexylbenzoic acid
-
-
4-hexylbenzoic acid
-
reversible and noncompetitive inhibitor
4-hexylresorcinol
-
1 mM, 65% inhibition of catecholase activity
4-hexylresorcinol
-
reversible and competitive inhibition, IC50: 0.00150 mM
4-hexylresorcinol
-
-
4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid
-
noncompetitive inhibition
4-hydroxy-N-[2-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]benzamide
-
0% inhibition at 0.1 mM
4-hydroxy-N-[2-(5-hydroxy-1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]-3-methoxybenzamide
-
16% inhibition at 0.1 mM; 32% inhibition at 0.1 mM
4-hydroxy-N-[2-(5-hydroxy-1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]benzamide
-
31% inhibition at 0.1 mM; 9% inhibition at 0.1 mM
4-hydroxybenzaldehyde
-
16.4% inhibition at 0.2 mM
4-hydroxybenzaldehyde
-
-
4-hydroxybenzoic acid
-
-
4-hydroxybenzoic acid
-
-
4-hydroxycinnamic acid
-
-
4-hydroxyphenyl beta-D-xyloside
-
-
4-hydroxyphenyl beta-xylodioside
-
competitive inhibitor
4-hydroxyphenyl beta-xylotetraoside
-
competitive inhibitor, shows 35fold more potent inhibitory activity than beta-arbutin
4-hydroxyphenyl beta-xylotrioside
-
competitive inhibitor
4-Methoxybenzaldehyde
-
-
4-methoxybenzoic acid
-
-
4-methoxycinnamic acid
-
; tyrosinase inhibitory activity of 4-methoxycinnamic acid is ever reported, selected as comparing substance
4-methoxycinnamic acid
-
-
4-methoxycinnamic acid
-
46.62% inhibition at 0.2 mM
4-methoxycinnamic acid
-
55.2% inhibition at 1 mM
4-methylbenzaldehyde
-
-
4-methylbenzoic acid
-
-
4-Methylcatechol
Mushroom
-
substrate inhibition
4-Methylcatechol
Mushroom
-
-
4-Methylcatechol
-
-
4-nitrophenol
-
competitive to catechol
4-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl imperanene
-
inhibitor in rum distillate wastewater significantly inhibits tyrosinase isolated from HMV-II cells. The inhibitory activities in descending order are (S)-imperanene, 4-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl imperanene, 4-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-3-methoxy imperanene
4-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-3-methoxy imperanene
-
inhibitor in rum distillate wastewater significantly inhibits tyrosinase isolated from HMV-II cells. The inhibitory activities in descending order are (S)-imperanene, 4-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl imperanene, 4-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-3-methoxy imperanene
4-octylbenzaldehyde
-
-
4-octylbenzoic acid
-
-
4-octylbenzoic acid
-
reversible and noncompetitive inhibitor
4-OH-cinnamic acid
-
4% inhibition at 0.1 mM
4-pentylbenzaldehyde
-
-
4-pentylbenzoic acid
-
-
4-pentylbenzoic acid
-
reversible and noncompetitive inhibitor
4-propoxybenzoic acid
-
-
4-propylbenzaldehyde
-
-
4-propylbenzoic acid
-
-
4-propylbenzoic acid
-
reversible and noncompetitive inhibitor
4-tert-butylbenzaldehyde
-
-
4-tert-butylbenzoic acid
-
-
4-xylidine-bis(dithiocarbamate) sodium salt
-
Na-SSC-NH-CH2-C6H4-CH2-NH-CSS-Na, mixed-type inhibition for both, catecholase and cresolase activities
4-[(E)-(carbamothioylhydrazono)methyl]phenyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D-allopyranoside
-
-
4-[(E)-(carbamothioylhydrazono)methyl]phenyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
-
4-[(E)-(carbamothioylhydrazono)methyl]phenyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside
-
-
4-[(E)-(carbamothioylhydrazono)methyl]phenyl 2,3,4,6-tetrakis-O-(phenylcarbonyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside
-
-
4-[(E)-(carbamothioylhydrazono)methyl]phenyl 2,3,4-tris-O-(phenylcarbonyl)-beta-D-xylopyranoside
-
-
4-[(E)-(carbamothioylhydrazono)methyl]phenyl 2,3,6-tri-O-acetyl-4-O-(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D-galactopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside
-
-
4-[(E)-(carbamothioylhydrazono)methyl]phenyl beta-D-allopyranoside
-
-
4-[(E)-(carbamothioylhydrazono)methyl]phenyl beta-D-glucopyranoside
-
-
4-[(E)-(hydroxyimino)methyl]phenyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D-allopyranoside
-
reversible and competitive-type inhibitor
4-[(E)-(hydroxyimino)methyl]phenyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
-
4-[(E)-(hydroxyimino)methyl]phenyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside
-
-
4-[(E)-(hydroxyimino)methyl]phenyl 2,3,4,6-tetrakis-O-(phenylcarbonyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside
-
-
4-[(E)-(hydroxyimino)methyl]phenyl 2,3,4-tris-O-(phenylcarbonyl)-beta-D-xylopyranoside
-
-
4-[(E)-(hydroxyimino)methyl]phenyl 2,3,6-tri-O-acetyl-4-O-(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D-galactopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside
-
-
4-[(E)-(hydroxyimino)methyl]phenyl beta-D-allopyranoside
-
-
4-[(E)-(hydroxyimino)methyl]phenyl beta-D-glucopyranoside
-
-
4-[(E)-(methoxyimino)methyl]phenyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D-allopyranoside
-
-
4-[(E)-(methoxyimino)methyl]phenyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
-
4-[(E)-(methoxyimino)methyl]phenyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside
-
-
4-[(E)-(methoxyimino)methyl]phenyl 2,3,4,6-tetrakis-O-(phenylcarbonyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside
-
-
4-[(E)-(methoxyimino)methyl]phenyl 2,3,4-tris-O-(phenylcarbonyl)-beta-D-xylopyranoside
-
-
4-[(E)-(methoxyimino)methyl]phenyl 2,3,6-tri-O-acetyl-4-O-(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D-galactopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside
-
-
4-[(E)-(methoxyimino)methyl]phenyl beta-D-allopyranoside
-
-
4-[(E)-(methoxyimino)methyl]phenyl beta-D-glucopyranoside
-
-
4-[2-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethyl]-3-hydroxyphenyl D-xylopyranoside
-
isolated from Chlorophytum arundinaceum (liliaceae)
4-[3-(2-hydroxy-5-methoxyphenyl)propyl]benzene-1,3-diol
-
plant-derived diarylpropane tyrosinase inhibitor
4-[[hydroxy(nitroso)amino]methyl]benzene-1,3-diol
-
inhibition of the diphenolase activity of mushroom tyrosinase over the pH range of 5.5-8.0 is studied
4-[[hydroxy(nitroso)amino]methyl]phenol
-
inhibition of the diphenolase activity of mushroom tyrosinase over the pH range of 5.5-8.0 is studied
5'-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-2,3'-bi-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2',5(4H)-dithione
-
-
5'-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2,3'-bi-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2',5(4H)-dithione
-
-
5'-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2,3'-bi-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2',5(4H)-dithione
-
-
5'-(4-[[tert-butyl(dimethyl)silyl]oxy]phenyl)-2,3'-bi-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2',5(4H)-dithione
-
-
5'-(diphenylmethyl)-2,3'-bi-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2',5(4H)-dithione
-
-
5'-(diphenylmethyl)-2,3'-bi-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2',5(4H)-dithione
-
-
5'-(naphthalen-1-yl)-2,3'-bi-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2',5(4H)-dithione
-
-
5'-(pyridin-4-yl)-2,3'-bi-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2',5(4H)-dithione
-
-
5'-(pyridin-4-yl)-2,3'-bi-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2',5(4H)-dithione
-
-
5'-benzyl-2,3'-bi-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2',5(4H)-dithione
-
-
5'-cyclohexyl-2,3'-bi-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2',5(4H)-dithione
-
-
5'-phenyl-2,3'-bi-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2',5(4H)-dithione
-
-
5'-phenyl-2,3'-bi-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2',5(4H)-dithione
-
-
5'-[(5-thioxo-4,5-dihydro-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)methyl]-2,3'-bi-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2',5(4H)-dithione
-
-
5'-[(5-thioxo-4,5-dihydro-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)methyl]-2,3'-bi-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2',5(4H)-dithione
-
-
5'-[3-(5-thioxo-4,5-dihydro-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)propyl]-2,3'-bi-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2',5(4H)-dithione
-
-
5'-[3-(benzyloxy)phenyl]-2,3'-bi-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2',5(4H)-dithione
-
-
5'-[4-(benzyloxy)phenyl]-2,3'-bi-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2',5(4H)-dithione
-
-
5,2',4'-trihydroxy-2'',2''-dimethylchromene-(6,7:5'',6'')-flavanone
-
dalenin, the reversible inhibitor is 52 and 495times more effective as a monophenolase inhibitor than hydroquinone and kojic acid, respectively, non-competitive inhibitor with L-DOPA as substrate, mixed-I type inhibitor with L-tyrosine as substrate
5,5',7,7'-tetrahydroxy-2,2'-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2,2',3,3',4a,8a-hexahydro-4H,4'H-3,8'-bichromene-4,4'-dione
-
-
5,5',7-trihydroxy-2,2'-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4,4'-dioxo-3,3',4,4',4a,8a-hexahydro-2H,2'H-3,8'-bichromen-7'-yl D-glucopyranoside
-
tyrosinase inhibitor isolated from extracts of the seeds of Garcinia kola
5,6,7,4'-tetramethylscutellarein
-
tyrosinase inhibitors from Marrubium velutinum, flavones/flavonols. Methoxylated flavones, like the methylethers of scutellarein, showed 10times lower inhibitory activity than kojic acid
5,6,7,8,4'-pentahydroxyflavone
-
tyrosinase inhibitors from Marrubium cylleneum, flavones/flavonols
5,7,3',4'-taxifolin teramethyl ether
-
assayed together with (2R,3R)-taxifolin
5,7,4'-trimethylscutellarein
-
tyrosinase inhibitors from Marrubium velutinum, flavones/flavonols. Methoxylated flavones, like the methylethers of scutellarein, showed 10times lower inhibitory activity than kojic acid
5-(4-(2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxy)benzyl)-2-thioxodihydropyrimidine-4,6(1H,5H)-dione
-
97.49% inhibition at 0.2 mM
5-(4-(2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxy)benzyl)pyrimidine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)trione
-
14.3% inhibition at 0.2 mM
5-(4-(2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxy)benzylidene)-2-thioxodihydropyrimidine-4,6(1H,5H)-dione
-
complete inhibition at 0.2 mM
5-(4-(2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxy)benzylidene)pyrimidine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione
-
88.67% inhibition at 0.2 mM
5-(4-(2-butoxyethoxy)benzyl)-2-thioxodihydropyrimidine-4,6(1H,5H)-dione
-
78.67% inhibition at 0.2 mM
5-(4-(2-butoxyethoxy)benzylidene)-2-thioxodihydropyrimidine-4,6(1H,5H)-dione
-
85.88% inhibition at 0.2 mM
5-(4-(2-butoxyethoxy)benzylidene)pyrimidine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione
-
complete inhibition at 0.2 mM
5-(4-(2-hydroxyethoxy)benzyl)-2-thioxodihydropyrimidine-4,6(1H,5H)-dione
-
95.86% inhibition at 0.2 mM
5-(4-(2-hydroxyethoxy)benzyl)pyrimidine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione
-
5.27% inhibition at 0.2 mM
5-(4-(2-hydroxyethoxy)benzylidene)-2-thioxodihydropyrimidine-4,6(1H,5H)-dione
-
16.54% inhibition at 0.2 mM
5-(4-(2-hydroxyethoxy)benzylidene)pyrimidine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione
-
22.41% inhibition at 0.2 mM
5-(4-(2-methoxyethoxy)benzyl)-2-thioxodihydropyrimidine-4,6(1H,5H)-dione
-
complete inhibition at 0.2 mM
5-(4-(2-methoxyethoxy)benzyl)pyrimidine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione
-
23.12% inhibition at 0.2 mM
5-(4-(2-methoxyethoxy)benzylidene)-2-thioxodihydropyrimidine-4,6(1H,5H)-dione
-
complete inhibition at 0.2 mM
5-(4-(2-methoxyethoxy)benzylidene)pyrimidine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione
-
complete inhibition at 0.2 mM
5-(4-(4-methoxy)benzylidene)pyrimidine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione
-
12.2% inhibition at 0.2 mM
5-(4-(4-methoxybutoxy)benzyl)-2-thioxodihydropyrimidine-4,6(1H,5H)-dione
-
9.85% inhibition at 0.2 mM
5-(4-(4-methoxyethoxy)benzyl)pyrimidine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione
-
1.15% inhibition at 0.2 mM
5-(4-(4-methoxyethoxy)benzylidene)-2-thioxodihydropyrimidine-4,6(1H,5H)-dione
-
complete inhibition at 0.2 mM
5-(4-hydroxybenzyl)-2-thioxo-dihydropyrimidine-4,6(1H,5H)-dione
-
complete inhibition at 0.2 mM
5-(4-hydroxybenzyl)pyrimidine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione
-
47.5% inhibition at 0.2 mM
5-(4-hydroxybenzylidene)-2-thioxo-dihydropyrimidine-4,6(1H,5H)-dione
-
complete inhibition at 0.2 mM
5-(4-hydroxybenzylidene)pyrimidine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione
-
complete inhibition at 0.2 mM
5-ethenyl-5-hydroxy-3-isocyanocyclopent-2-en-1-one
-
inhibitor produced by Trichoderma viride strain H1-7 from a marine environment. Competitive inhibition
5-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)-2H-pyran-4-one
-
trivial name kojic acid, 1 mM, complete inhibition of L-dopa oxidation, 94% inhibition of tyrosinase activity
5-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)-2H-pyran-4-one
-
1.12 mM, 50% inhibition of recombinant enzyme
5-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)-2H-pyran-4-one
-
-
5-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)-2H-pyran-4-one
-
1 mM, 50% inhibition of L-dopa oxidation
5-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)-4H-pyran-4-one
-
-
5-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)-4H-pyran-4-one
-
-
5-hydroxyindole
-
-
5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural
-
noncompetitive inhibition
5-hydroxytryptophan
-
-
5-methyl-1,3-benzenediol
-
competitive to catechol
6'-glucosyl-martynoside
-
tyrosinase inhibitors from Marrubium velutinum, phenylethanoid glycosides. Bathochromic shift of 6'-glucosyl-martynoside in the presence of CuSO4 (0.05 mM)
6-hydroxy-2H-pyran-3-carbaldehyde
-
a new tyrosinase inhibitor from Crinum yemense, testing for tyrosinase inhibiting activity, based on structural similarity to kojic acid. It shows a concentration-dependant reduction in tyrosinase activity similar to kojic acid in an in vitro assay, more potent than kojic acid
6-hydroxy-3-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)coumarin
-
26.7% inhibition at 0.8 mM
6-hydroxy-kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside
-
tyrosinase inhibitors from Marrubium velutinum, flavone/flavonol glucosides
6-hydroxyapigenin
-
5,6,7-trihydroxyflavone, high inhibitory effects on tyrosinase. Acts as a cofactor to monophenolase
6-hydroxygalangin
-
5,6,7-trihydroxyflavone, high inhibitory effects on tyrosinase. Acts as a cofactor to monophenolase
6-hydroxykaempferol
-
5,6,7-trihydroxyflavone, high inhibitory effects on tyrosinase. Acts as a cofactor to monophenolase. competitive inhibitor
7-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-4-hydroxy-2-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-2,3-dihydrofuro(3,2-g)chromen-5-one
-
artocarpfuranol, isolated from the wood of Artocarpus heterophyllus, strong mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activity
7-hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2H-chromen-2-one
-
9.6% inhibition at 0.8 mM
8-hydroxyquinoline
Emericella nidulans
-
3 mM, 44% inhibition
8-hydroxyquinoline
-
1.3 mM, 50% inhibition
8-isoprenyl-5'-geranyl-5,7,2',4'-tetrahydroxy flavanone
-
competitive inhibitor
8-O-methyltianmushanol
-
-
9-hydroxy-4-methoxypsoralen
-
noncompetitive inhibition
acetone
-
increasing solvent concentration up to 80% (v/v) yields a gradual reduction in the activity of the soluble and cross-linked enzyme forms, the cross-linked enzyme aggregate shows about 40% residual activity after incubation in acetone for about 34 h
acetophenone
-
-
Acetylacetone
-
0.1 mM, 75% inhibition
acteoside
-
tyrosinase inhibitors from Marrubium velutinum, phenylethanoid glycosides. Bathochromic shift of acteoside in the presence of CuSO4 (0.05 mM)
Agaritine
-
uncompetitive inhibition
Al3+
-
strongly inhibited diphenolase activity at ripening stage 1 and 2
allyl thiourea
Q5DB10, Q5DHS0, -
;
aloesin
-
noncompetitive inhibition
alpha,alpha'-dipyridyl
-
5 mM, 44% inhibition
alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid
-
-
-
alpha-picolyl heptyl amine
-
-
-
alpha-picolyl nonyl amine
-
-
alpha-picolyl pentyl amine
-
-
alpha-picolyl propyl amine
-
-
alyssonoside
-
tyrosinase inhibitors from Marrubium velutinum, phenylethanoid glycosides
ammonium tetramolybdate
-
-
anacardic acid
-
competitive inhibition
angelic acid
-
-
Anisaldehyde
-
noncompetitive inhibition
Anisic acid
-
uncompetitive inhibition
anthraglycoside B
-
anthraquinone, isolated from the root of Polygonum cuspidatum
Antrodia camphorata extract
-
basidiomycete, only other effect on tyrosinase activity is prepared from Antrodia camphorata using 75% ethanol extraction
-
apigenin
-
tyrosinase inhibitors from Marrubium velutinum, flavones/flavonols
apigenin 4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside
-
from Guioa villosa leaf extract
apigenin-7-O-(3'',6''-di-p-coumaroyl)-glucoside
-
tyrosinase inhibitors from Marrubium velutinum, flavone/flavonol acylated glucosides
apigenin-7-O-(6''-p-coumaroyl)-glucoside
-
tyrosinase inhibitors from Marrubium cylleneum, flavone/flavonol acylated glucosides
Arbutin
-
3.7 mM, 50% inhibition of recombinant enzyme
Arbutin
-
no inhibition by 1 mM arbutin
Arbutin
-
as compared with two major effective cosmetic additives, arbutin and L-ascorbic acid, the polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-wrapped fullerene derivative (Radical Sponge) shows the more marked depigmenting effect in human melanocytes or melanoma cells
Arbutin
-
tyrosinase inhibitory activity of arbutin is ever reported, selected as comparing substance
Arbutin
-
inhibitory effect on diphenolase activity of tyrosinase
Arbutin
-
common tyrosinase inhibitor
Arbutin
-
commercially available depigmenting agent, used as a positive control
Arbutin
-, B2Z3P7
exhibits little inhibitory effect on TyrA with 25.6% inhibition at 10 mM
arjungenin
-
pentacyclic triterpene extracted from Rhododendron collettianum
arjunilic acid
-
pentacyclic triterpene extracted from Rhododendron collettianum, most potent inhibitor, have potential to be used for the treatment of hyperpigmentation associated with the high production of melanocytes
artocarpanone
-
isolated from the wood of Artocarpus heterophyllus, strong mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activity
artocarpesin
-
isolated from the wood of Artocarpus heterophyllus, strong mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activity
artocarpetin
-
isolated from the wood of Artocarpus heterophyllus
artocarpin
-
isolated from the wood of Artocarpus heterophyllus
ascorbic acid
-
inhibition of tyrosinase-catalyzed enzymatic browning by trapping the dopaquinone intermediate with cysteine or ascorbic acid, overview
ascorbic acid
-
-
ascorbic acid
-
noncompetitive inhibition
ascorbic acid
-
-
ascorbic acid
-
in descending order of inhibition