Information on EC 1.14.11.4 - procollagen-lysine 5-dioxygenase

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The enzyme appears in viruses and cellular organisms

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
1.14.11.4
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
procollagen-lysine 5-dioxygenase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
L-lysine-[procollagen] + 2-oxoglutarate + O2 = (2S,5R)- 5-hydroxy-L-lysine-[procollagen] + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
L-lysine-[procollagen] + 2-oxoglutarate + O2 = (2S,5R)- 5-hydroxy-L-lysine-[procollagen] + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
mechanism
-
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
decarboxylation
-
-
-
-
hydroxylation
-
-
-
-
redox reaction
-
-
-
-
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
Lysine degradation
-
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
L-lysine-[procollagen],2-oxoglutarate:oxygen oxidoreductase (5-hydroxylating)
Requires Fe2+ and ascorbate.
SYNONYMS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
collagen lysine hydroxylase
-
-
-
-
lysine hydroxylase
-
-
-
-
lysine, 2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase
-
-
-
-
lysine-2-oxoglutarate dioxygenase
-
-
-
-
lysylprotocollagen dioxygenase
-
-
-
-
oxygenase, protocollagen lysine, di-
-
-
-
-
peptidyl-lysine, 2-oxoglutarate: oxygen oxidoreductase
-
-
-
-
peptidyllysine, 2-oxoglutarate:oxygen 5-oxidoreductase
-
-
-
-
protocollagen lysine hydroxylase
-
-
-
-
protocollagen lysyl hydroxylase
-
-
-
-
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY
9059-25-0
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
Acanthamoeba polyphaga Mimivirus L230
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
1 enzyme form LH, no isozymes
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Canis lupus familiaris Madin-Darby
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
zebrafish
TrEMBL
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene dPlod, or CG6199, encoding the only lysyl hydroxylase of the organism
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
2 splicing variants of isozyme LH2, termed LH2long and LH2short
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
3 isozyme LH1-3
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
3 isozymes LH1-3, isozyme LH2 exists in 2 splicing variants LH2a and LH2b
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
; isoform LH3, possessing lysyl hydroxylase, collagengalactosyltransferase and glucosyltransferase activities
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene PLOD2, encoding for splice variants LH2a and LH2b
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene Plod3
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
genes PLOD1 and PLOD2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
HT 1080 sarcoma cells
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozyme LH2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozyme LH2, gene PLOD2; gene PLOD2 encoding isozyme LH2
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozyme LH3
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozyme LH3, gene PLOD3
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozyme lysyl hydroxylase 1, i.e. LH1, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VIA patients
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
three isoenzymes
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
3 isozymes LH1-3, isozyme LH2 occurs in 2 splicing variant, 2a and 2b, the first without insert
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene Plod3
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform lysyl hydroxylase 1
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mus musculus C57BL/6
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mus musculus CRL-2593
gene Plod3
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
3 isozymes LH1-3
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozyme LH2b; 3 isozymes LH1-3; ospzyme LH2a; 3 isozymes LH1-3
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
evolution
-
LH3 belongs to the lysyl hydroxylase family of enzymes that has important roles in the biosynthesis of collagen
evolution
-
whereas in animals from sponges to humans the transfer of galactose to hydroxylysine in collagen is conserved, the mimivirus L230 enzyme transfers glucose to hydroxylysine, thereby defining another type of collagen glycosylation in nature. Utilization of glucose instead of the galactose found throughout animals as well as a bifunctional enzyme rather than two separate enzymes may represent a parallel evolutionary track in collagen biology
evolution
Acanthamoeba polyphaga Mimivirus L230
-
whereas in animals from sponges to humans the transfer of galactose to hydroxylysine in collagen is conserved, the mimivirus L230 enzyme transfers glucose to hydroxylysine, thereby defining another type of collagen glycosylation in nature. Utilization of glucose instead of the galactose found throughout animals as well as a bifunctional enzyme rather than two separate enzymes may represent a parallel evolutionary track in collagen biology
-
malfunction
-
although differential expression of LH2 (long) is associated with fibrotic conditions, there is no direct evidence that the increased Pyr cross-links in the overaccumulated collagen contribute definitively to fibrosis
malfunction
-
mutations in the LH3 gene cause connective tissue disorder
malfunction
O60568
reduction of lysyl hydroxylase 3 causes deleterious changes in the deposition and organization of extracellular matrix, reduction of lysyl hydroxylase 3 causes deleterious changes in the deposition and organization of extracellular matrix. Mutations in the human LH3 gene cause a severe connective tissue disorder with features that overlap with a number of collagen disorders
malfunction
-
disorders of LH3 with a unique phenotype causing severe morbidity as a result of feauters that overlap with collagen disorders
malfunction
Q9R0E1
impairment of LH3 function significantly affects type I collagen fibrillogenesis
malfunction
-
lack of LH3 prevents the formation of hydroxylysine linked Glc-Gal structures in collagen. Secretion of type IV collagen is blocked in embryos that lack LH3 catalyzed Glc-Gal-Hyl residues, and this disrupts formation of the basement membranes that support tissues e.g. blood vessels. Changes in the lysyl hydroxylase activity of LH3 affect the adiponectin level and modifications in mouse, its secretion and oligomer distribtion, phenotype, overview. Recombinant adiponectin produced in LH3-/- knockout fibroblasts cells does not form middle molecular weight and high molecular weight oligomers
malfunction
-
PLOD2 knockdown prevents fibrillar collagen formation in breast tumors, decreased PLOD2 expression in breast cancer cells inhibits metastasis, also lung metastasis is significantly impaired by PLOD2 knockdown
malfunction
Mus musculus C57BL/6
-
lack of LH3 prevents the formation of hydroxylysine linked Glc-Gal structures in collagen. Secretion of type IV collagen is blocked in embryos that lack LH3 catalyzed Glc-Gal-Hyl residues, and this disrupts formation of the basement membranes that support tissues e.g. blood vessels. Changes in the lysyl hydroxylase activity of LH3 affect the adiponectin level and modifications in mouse, its secretion and oligomer distribtion, phenotype, overview. Recombinant adiponectin produced in LH3-/- knockout fibroblasts cells does not form middle molecular weight and high molecular weight oligomers
-
malfunction
Mus musculus CRL-2593
-
impairment of LH3 function significantly affects type I collagen fibrillogenesis
-
physiological function
-
the enzyme is responsible for the hydroxylation of collagen telopeptides
physiological function
-
the enzyme LH3 has an important role in the organization of the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton
physiological function
-
forms part of the many posttranslational modifications required during collagen biosynthesis
physiological function
-
dPlod is required for type-IV collagen secretion from hemocytes and fat body
physiological function
-
in hypoxic breast cancer cells, hypoxia-inducible factor 1 activates transcription of the PLOD1 and PLOD2 genes encoding procollagen lysyl hydroxylases that are required for the biogenesis of collagen, which is a major constituent of the extracellular matrix. High PLOD2 expression in breast cancer biopsies is associated with increased risk of mortality. PLOD2 is critical for fibrillar collagen formation by breast cancer cells, increases tumor stiffness, and is required for metastasis to lymph nodes and lungs
physiological function
-
lysyl hydroxylase (LH) catalyzes the hydroxylation of lysine residues in collagens, and contributes to the formation of more stable collagen cross-links
physiological function
-
lysyl hydroxylase 3 (LH3) is a post-translational modification enzyme with lysyl hydroxylase, collagen galactosyltransferase EC 2.4.1.50, and glucosyltransferase, EC 2.4.1.66, activities, LH3 is able to catalyze the three consecutive reactions required for the formation of unique hydroxylysine-linked carbohydrates, galactosylhydroxylysine and glucosylgalactosyl hydroxylysine, found in collagens and a few other proteins. The active sites for the different activities of the mutifunctional enzyme are localized separately in the C- and the N-terminal parts of the molecule. While the lysyl hydroxylase active site mediates retention of LH3 in the endoplasmic reticulum, the glucosyltransferase active site is required for the secretion of LH3 into the extracellular space
physiological function
O60568
lysyl hydroxylase 3 (LH3) is a post-translational modification enzyme with lysyl hydroxylase, collagen galactosyltransferase EC 2.4.1.50, and glucosyltransferase, EC 2.4.1.66, activities, LH3 is able to catalyze the three consecutive reactions required for the formation of unique hydroxylysine-linked carbohydrates, galactosylhydroxylysine and glucosylgalactosyl hydroxylysine, found in collagens and a few other proteins. The active sites for the different activities of the mutifunctional enzyme are localized separately in the C- and the N-terminal parts of the molecule. While the lysyl hydroxylase active site mediates retention of LH3 in the endoplasmic reticulum, the glucosyltransferase active site is required for the secretion of LH3 into the extracellular space
physiological function
Q9R0E1
lysyl hydroxylase 3 glucosylates galactosylhydroxylysine residues in type I collagen in osteoblast culture, role of LH3 in bone physiology
physiological function
-
lysyl hydroxylases are enzymes that catalyze the hydroxylation of lysine into hydroxylysine and, therefore, fulfill a crucial role in collagen modification and cross-linking. Lysyl hydroxylase 2b increases pyridinoline cross-links, making collagen less susceptible to enzymatic degradation
physiological function
-
regulation of the posttranslational lysine modifications in the collagenous domain is the key event in determining the function of adiponectin, changes in the lysyl hydroxylase activity of LH3 affect the adiponectin level and modifications in mouse, its secretion and oligomer distribtion
physiological function
-
the lysyl 5S-hydroxylase, JMJD6 acts on proteins involved in RNA splicin. JMJD6 in human cells is self-hydroxylated at Lys111JMJD6 and Lys167JMJD6 to give lysyl 5S-hydroxylase. Self-hydroxylation of JMJD6 may play a regulatory role in modulating the hydroxylation status of proteins involved in RNA splicing
physiological function
Mus musculus C57BL/6
-
regulation of the posttranslational lysine modifications in the collagenous domain is the key event in determining the function of adiponectin, changes in the lysyl hydroxylase activity of LH3 affect the adiponectin level and modifications in mouse, its secretion and oligomer distribtion
-
physiological function
Canis lupus familiaris Madin-Darby
-
lysyl hydroxylase 3 (LH3) is a post-translational modification enzyme with lysyl hydroxylase, collagen galactosyltransferase EC 2.4.1.50, and glucosyltransferase, EC 2.4.1.66, activities, LH3 is able to catalyze the three consecutive reactions required for the formation of unique hydroxylysine-linked carbohydrates, galactosylhydroxylysine and glucosylgalactosyl hydroxylysine, found in collagens and a few other proteins. The active sites for the different activities of the mutifunctional enzyme are localized separately in the C- and the N-terminal parts of the molecule. While the lysyl hydroxylase active site mediates retention of LH3 in the endoplasmic reticulum, the glucosyltransferase active site is required for the secretion of LH3 into the extracellular space
-
physiological function
Mus musculus CRL-2593
-
lysyl hydroxylase 3 glucosylates galactosylhydroxylysine residues in type I collagen in osteoblast culture, role of LH3 in bone physiology
-
metabolism
-
in osteoarthritic human synovial fibroblasts, the enzyme expression is induced by TGF-beta via kinase ALK5, not ALK1, and Smad2/3P
additional information
-
heterocomplex formation between mouse and human LH3, between human LH1 and LH3 and between human LH2 and LH3, low amount of complexes formed in vivo
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                      
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
(GDK)4 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
Acanthamoeba polyphaga Mimivirus, Acanthamoeba polyphaga Mimivirus L230
-
peptide acceptor substrate
-
-
?
(IKG)3 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
(Ile-Lys-Gly)3 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
(Ile-5-hydroxylyseine-Gly)3 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
O60568
-
-
?
(Ile-Lys-Gly)3 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
(Ile-5-hydroxylyseine-Gly)3 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
(Ile-Lys-Gly)3 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
(Pro-Pro-Gly)4-Ala-Arg-Gly-Met-Lys-Gly-His-Arg-Gly-(Pro-Pro-Gly)4 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
(Pro-Pro-Gly)4-Ala-Arg-Gly-Met-5-hydroxylysine-Gly-His-Arg-Gly-(Pro-Pro-Gly)4 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
2-oxoglutarate + O2 + ascorbate
succinate + CO2 + dehydroascorbate + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
2-oxoglutarate + O2 + ascorbate
succinate + CO2 + dehydroascorbate + H2O
show the reaction diagram
O60568
-
-
-
-
2-oxoglutarate + O2 + ascorbate
succinate + CO2 + dehydroascorbate + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
2-oxoglutarate + O2 + ascorbate
succinate + CO2 + dehydroascorbate + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
2-oxoglutarate + O2 + ascorbate
succinate + CO2 + dehydroascorbate + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
uncoupled decarboxylation in absence of peptide substrate
-
?
Ala-Arg-Gly-Ile-Lys-Gly-Ile-Arg-Gly-Phe-Ser-Gly + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
Ala-Arg-Gly-Ile-5-hydroxylysine-Gly-Ile-Arg-Gly-Phe-Ser-Gly + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
Ala-Arg-Gly-Ile-Lys-Gly-Ile-Arg-Gly-Phe-Ser-Gly + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
Ala-Arg-Gly-Ile-5-hydroxylysine-Gly-Ile-Arg-Gly-Phe-Ser-Gly + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
O60568
-
-
?
Ala-Arg-Gly-Met-Lys-Gly-His-Arg-Gly-(Pro-Pro-Gly)4 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
Ala-Arg-Gly-Met-5-hydroxylysine-Gly-His-Arg-Gly-(Pro-Pro-Gly)4 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
collagen + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
5-hydroxylysyl-collagen + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
collagen + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
5-hydroxylysyl-collagen + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
collagen + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
5-hydroxylysyl-collagen + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
collagen + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
5-hydroxylysyl-collagen + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
A0JMD1, A4U7F8, A4U7F9
-
-
-
?
collagen + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
5-hydroxylysyl-collagen + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme required during collagen biosynthesis
-
?
collagen + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
5-hydroxylysyl-collagen + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
O00469
enzyme required during collagen biosynthesis
-
?
collagen + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
5-hydroxylysyl-collagen + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
O60568
enzyme required during collagen biosynthesis
-
?
collagen + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
5-hydroxylysyl-collagen + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme required during collagen biosynthesis
-
?
collagen + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
5-hydroxylysyl-collagen + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Q63321
enzyme required during collagen biosynthesis
-
?
collagen + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
5-hydroxylysyl-collagen + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
influence the integrity and stability of collagen
-
?
collagen + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
5-hydroxylysyl-collagen + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
O00469
influence the integrity and stability of collagen
-
?
collagen + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
5-hydroxylysyl-collagen + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
influence the integrity and stability of collagen
-
?
collagen + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
5-hydroxylysyl-collagen + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Q63321
influence the integrity and stability of collagen
-
?
KGIKGIKG + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
a synthetic peptide substrate
-
-
?
KGIKGIKG + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
O60568
a synthetic peptide substrate
-
-
?
KGIKGIKG + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
Canis lupus familiaris Madin-Darby
-
a synthetic peptide substrate
-
-
?
L-lysine containing nonapeptides + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
5-hydroxy-L-lysine containing nonapeptides + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
diverse nonapeptides, synthetic substrates
-
-
?
L-lysine-[collagen] + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
5-hydroxy-L-lysine-[collagen] + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-lysine-[collagen] + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
5-hydroxy-L-lysine-[collagen] + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-lysine-[procollagen] + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
(2S,5R)-5-hydroxy-L-lysine-[procollagen] + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-lysine-[procollagen] + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
(2S,5R)-5-hydroxy-L-lysine-[procollagen] + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-lysine-[procollagen] + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
(2S,5R)-5-hydroxy-L-lysine-[procollagen] + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-lysine-[procollagen] + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
(2S,5R)-5-hydroxy-L-lysine-[procollagen] + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-lysine-[procollagen] + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
(2S,5R)-5-hydroxy-L-lysine-[procollagen] + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
O60568
-
-
-
?
L-lysine-[procollagen] + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
(2S,5R)-5-hydroxy-L-lysine-[procollagen] + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
A5A6S1, A5A6S2, A5A6S3
-
-
-
?
L-lysine-[procollagen] + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
(2S,5R)-5-hydroxy-L-lysine-[procollagen] + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
collagen type IV
-
-
?
L-lysine-[procollagen] + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
(2S,5R)-5-hydroxy-L-lysine-[procollagen] + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
PLOD2 specifically hydroxylates lysines in the telopeptide of procollagens, whereas PLOD1 is responsible for lysine hydroxylation in the alpha-helical or central domain
-
-
?
L-lysine-[procollagen] + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
(2S,5R)-5-hydroxy-L-lysine-[procollagen] + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
the hydroxylysyl residues are located in Y positions of X-Y-Gly repeats of collagenous sequences
-
-
?
L-lysine-[procollagen] + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
(2S,5R)-5-hydroxy-L-lysine-[procollagen] + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Acanthamoeba polyphaga Mimivirus L230
-
-
-
-
?
L-lysine-[procollagen] + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
(2S,5R)-5-hydroxy-L-lysine-[procollagen] + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Canis lupus familiaris Madin-Darby
-
-
-
-
?
L-lysine-[U2AF65] + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
5-hydroxy-L-lysine-[U2AF65] + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
U2AF65 is the splicing factor U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein auxiliary factor 65-kDa subunit, which undergoes posttranslational lysyl-5-hydroxylation catalyzed by the Fe2+ and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase Jumonji domain-6 protein Jmjd6, a nuclear protein that has an important role in vertebrate development and is a human homologue of the HIF asparaginyl-hydroxylase, U2AF65 is the splicing factor U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein auxiliary factor 65-kilodalton subunit
-
-
?
peptidyl-L-lysine + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
peptidyl-5-hydroxy-L-lysine + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
peptidyl-L-lysine + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
peptidyl-5-hydroxy-L-lysine + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
peptidyl-L-lysine + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
peptidyl-5-hydroxy-L-lysine + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
peptidyl-L-lysine + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
peptidyl-5-hydroxy-L-lysine + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
hydroxy-L-lysine
?
peptidyl-L-lysine + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
peptidyl-5-hydroxy-L-lysine + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
hydroxy-L-lysine
?
peptidyl-L-lysine + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
peptidyl-5-hydroxy-L-lysine + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
hydroxy-L-lysine
?
peptidyl-L-lysine + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
peptidyl-5-hydroxy-L-lysine + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Q63321
-
hydroxy-L-lysine
?
peptidyl-L-lysine + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
peptidyl-5-hydroxy-L-lysine + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
hydroxy-L-lysine
?
peptidyl-L-lysine + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
peptidyl-5-hydroxy-L-lysine + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
minimum sequence required: Xaa-Lys-Gly
-
-
?
peptidyl-L-lysine + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
peptidyl-5-hydroxy-L-lysine + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
minimum sequence required: Xaa-Lys-Gly
-
-
?
peptidyl-L-lysine + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
peptidyl-5-hydroxy-L-lysine + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
in e.g. lysinevasopressin, lysine-rich histone
-
-
?
peptidyl-L-lysine + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
peptidyl-5-hydroxy-L-lysine + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
helical regions of collagen
-
-
?
peptidyl-L-lysine + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
peptidyl-5-hydroxy-L-lysine + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
synthetic peptides
-
-
?
peptidyl-L-lysine + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
peptidyl-5-hydroxy-L-lysine + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
synthetic peptides
hydroxy-L-lysine
?
peptidyl-L-lysine + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
peptidyl-5-hydroxy-L-lysine + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
synthetic peptides
hydroxy-L-lysine
?
peptidyl-L-lysine + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
peptidyl-5-hydroxy-L-lysine + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
O00469
synthetic peptides
hydroxy-L-lysine
?
peptidyl-L-lysine + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
peptidyl-5-hydroxy-L-lysine + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
O60568
synthetic peptides
hydroxy-L-lysine
?
peptidyl-L-lysine + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
peptidyl-5-hydroxy-L-lysine + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
protocollagen
-
-
-
peptidyl-L-lysine + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
peptidyl-5-hydroxy-L-lysine + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
protocollagen
hydroxy-L-lysine
?
peptidyl-L-lysine + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
peptidyl-5-hydroxy-L-lysine + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
protocollagen
hydroxy-L-lysine
?
peptidyl-L-lysine + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
peptidyl-5-hydroxy-L-lysine + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
protocollagen
hydroxy-L-lysine
?
procollagen L-lysine + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
procollagen 5-hydroxy-L-lysine + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
procollagen L-lysine + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
procollagen 5-hydroxy-L-lysine + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
procollagen L-lysine + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
procollagen 5-hydroxy-L-lysine + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
O00469
-
-
-
?
procollagen L-lysine + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
procollagen 5-hydroxy-L-lysine + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Q811A3
-
-
-
?
procollagen L-lysine + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
procollagen 5-hydroxy-L-lysine + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
O00469
-
-
-
?
procollagen L-lysine + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
procollagen 5-hydroxy-L-lysine + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
collagen and other proteins with collagenous domains
-
-
?
procollagen L-lysine + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
procollagen 5-hydroxy-L-lysine + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
O00469
enzyme is important in fibrosis because its hydroxylation activity of lysine residues in telopeptides leads to increased cross-linking of accumulated collagen with pyrolidine in fibrotic tissues, enzyme expression in increased in systemic sclerosis
-
-
?
procollagen L-lysine + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
procollagen 5-hydroxy-L-lysine + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Q811A3
hydroxylation of lysine residues collagen causes cross-linking with pyrolidine
-
-
?
procollagen L-lysine + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
procollagen 5-hydroxy-L-lysine + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
hydroxylation of lysine residues in collagenous sequences
-
-
?
procollagen L-lysine + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
procollagen 5-hydroxy-L-lysine + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
isozyme LH2b directs the collagen cross-linking pathways, lysine hydroxylation as post-translational modification critical for collagen cross-linking and glycosylation, isozyme LH2 modulates the cross-linking pattern
-
-
?
procollagen L-lysine + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
procollagen 5-hydroxy-L-lysine + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
O00469
some hydroxylated L-lysine residues are precursors for the cross-link formation essential for the tensile strength of collagen, the 2 splicing variants exhibit different specificity for hydroxylation of either telopeptide or helical collagen domain lysine residues, so that their relative expression level determines the type of cross-links formed and affecting collagen strength
-
-
?
type I procollagen + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
type IV procollagen + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
U2AF65 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
luc7like2(267-278) + 2-oxoglutarate
? + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Q6NYC1
substrate is a Luc7like2 protein fragment
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VIA patients show highly reduced enzyme activity
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
O00469
the long splicing variant of isozyme LH2 is the major ubiquitously-expressed form that is spliced into the short form, which is expressed together with the long form only in some tissues, e.g. kidney, spleen, liver, and placenta, alternative splicing can be regulated by both cell density and cycloheximide, regulation of LH2long transcript and of expression of both splicing variants in kidney via cycloheximide that suppress a factor taht inhibits exclusion of exon 13A thereby promoting expression of LH2short, and vice versa also via cycloheximide in fibroblasts, overview, perturbation of LH2 regulation can influence the stability of the extracellular matrix and contribute to connective tissue disorders
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q811A3
isozyme LH2a possesses telopeptide lysyl hydroxylase activity
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
isozymes show no strict substrate specificity concerning the synthetic peptide substrates, but preferences for sequences, analysis of the different isozymes' binding affinities for the peptides whose net charges are very important, partly the peptides bind to the active site, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme is also able to glycosylate hydroxylysyl residues and is functionally similar to the isozyme LH3 of vertebrates
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
LH2 hydroxylates the N telopeptide of the full-length procollagen alpha type I chain when coexpressed with this isoenzyme
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
1,25(OH)2D3 directly regulates collagen cross-linking in MC3T3-E1 cells likely by upregulating gene expression of specific lysyl hydroxylase and lysine oxidase enzymes, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
Jmjd6 changes alternative RNA splicing of some, but not all, of the endogenous and reporter genes, supporting a specific role for Jmjd6 in the regulation of RNA splicing, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
LH3 is responsible for hydroxylysine formation and also for hydroxylysine glycosylations in polypeptides, enzyme mutations cause a severe phenotype, detailed overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
O60568
lysyl hydroxylase catalyzes the posttranslational formation of hydroxylysines in -X-Lys-Gly- sequences in collagens and other proteins with collagen-like domains
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme is responsible for the hydroxylation of collagen telopeptides
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
O60568
LH3 differs from the other lysyl hydroxylase isoforms in that it possesses, in addition to lysyl hydroxylase activity, hydroxylysyl galactosyltransferase and galactosylhydroxylysyl glucosyltransferase activities, thus LH3 is able to catalyze the formation of glucosylgalactosylhydroxylysine residues
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q6NYC1
JMJD6 catalyses the iron- and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent hydroxylation of lysyl residues in arginine-serine-rich domains of RNAsplicing-related proteins. It catalyses C5 hydroxylation rather than Nepsilon demethylation
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
bifunctional lysyl hydroxylase and glycosyltransferase enzyme, mimivirus L230 is capable of hydroxylating lysine and glycosylating the resulting hydroxylysine residues in a native mimivirus collagen acceptor substrate. In contrast to other animals, the mimivirus L230 enzyme transfers glucose instead of galactose to hydroxylysine in collagen
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
JMJD6 undergoes self-hydroxylation in the presence of Fe(II) and 2-oxoglutarate, in absence of substrate or in presence of substrates like U2AF65, resulting in production of (5S)<-hydroxylysine residues. JMJD6 in human cells is hydroxylated
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
lysyl hydroxylase 3 is a multifunctional enzyme of collagen biosynthesis, with glycosyltransferase activity and lysyl hydroxylase activity
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q9R0E1
lysyl hydroxylase 3 is the multifunctional collagen-modifying enzyme possessing lysyl hydroxylase, hydroxylysine galactosyltransferase, and galactosylhydroxylysine-glucosyltransferase activities, lysyl hydroxylase 3 glucosylates galactosylhydroxylysine residues in type I collagen
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
in absence of substrate JMJD6 catalyses turnover of 2-oxoglutarate to succinate
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme sequentially hydroxylates and glucosylates collagensubstrates in vitro
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Acanthamoeba polyphaga Mimivirus L230
-
bifunctional lysyl hydroxylase and glycosyltransferase enzyme, mimivirus L230 is capable of hydroxylating lysine and glycosylating the resulting hydroxylysine residues in a native mimivirus collagen acceptor substrate. In contrast to other animals, the mimivirus L230 enzyme transfers glucose instead of galactose to hydroxylysine in collagen, the enzyme sequentially hydroxylates and glucosylates collagensubstrates in vitro
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Mus musculus CRL-2593
Q9R0E1
lysyl hydroxylase 3 is the multifunctional collagen-modifying enzyme possessing lysyl hydroxylase, hydroxylysine galactosyltransferase, and galactosylhydroxylysine-glucosyltransferase activities, lysyl hydroxylase 3 glucosylates galactosylhydroxylysine residues in type I collagen
-
-
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
collagen + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
5-hydroxylysyl-collagen + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
collagen + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
5-hydroxylysyl-collagen + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme required during collagen biosynthesis
-
?
collagen + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
5-hydroxylysyl-collagen + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
O00469
enzyme required during collagen biosynthesis
-
?
collagen + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
5-hydroxylysyl-collagen + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
O60568
enzyme required during collagen biosynthesis
-
?
collagen + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
5-hydroxylysyl-collagen + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme required during collagen biosynthesis
-
?
collagen + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
5-hydroxylysyl-collagen + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Q63321
enzyme required during collagen biosynthesis
-
?
collagen + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
5-hydroxylysyl-collagen + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
influence the integrity and stability of collagen
-
?
collagen + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
5-hydroxylysyl-collagen + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
O00469
influence the integrity and stability of collagen
-
?
collagen + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
5-hydroxylysyl-collagen + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
influence the integrity and stability of collagen
-
?
collagen + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
5-hydroxylysyl-collagen + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Q63321
influence the integrity and stability of collagen
-
?
L-lysine-[collagen] + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
5-hydroxy-L-lysine-[collagen] + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-lysine-[collagen] + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
5-hydroxy-L-lysine-[collagen] + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-lysine-[procollagen] + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
(2S,5R)-5-hydroxy-L-lysine-[procollagen] + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-lysine-[procollagen] + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
(2S,5R)-5-hydroxy-L-lysine-[procollagen] + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-lysine-[procollagen] + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
(2S,5R)-5-hydroxy-L-lysine-[procollagen] + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-lysine-[procollagen] + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
(2S,5R)-5-hydroxy-L-lysine-[procollagen] + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
O60568
-
-
-
?
L-lysine-[procollagen] + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
(2S,5R)-5-hydroxy-L-lysine-[procollagen] + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
A5A6S1, A5A6S2, A5A6S3
-
-
-
?
L-lysine-[procollagen] + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
(2S,5R)-5-hydroxy-L-lysine-[procollagen] + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
collagen type IV
-
-
?
L-lysine-[procollagen] + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
(2S,5R)-5-hydroxy-L-lysine-[procollagen] + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
PLOD2 specifically hydroxylates lysines in the telopeptide of procollagens, whereas PLOD1 is responsible for lysine hydroxylation in the alpha-helical or central domain
-
-
?
L-lysine-[procollagen] + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
(2S,5R)-5-hydroxy-L-lysine-[procollagen] + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Acanthamoeba polyphaga Mimivirus L230
-
-
-
-
?
L-lysine-[procollagen] + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
(2S,5R)-5-hydroxy-L-lysine-[procollagen] + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Canis lupus familiaris Madin-Darby
-
-
-
-
?
procollagen L-lysine + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
procollagen 5-hydroxy-L-lysine + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
procollagen L-lysine + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
procollagen 5-hydroxy-L-lysine + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
collagen and other proteins with collagenous domains
-
-
?
procollagen L-lysine + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
procollagen 5-hydroxy-L-lysine + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
O00469
enzyme is important in fibrosis because its hydroxylation activity of lysine residues in telopeptides leads to increased cross-linking of accumulated collagen with pyrolidine in fibrotic tissues, enzyme expression in increased in systemic sclerosis
-
-
?
procollagen L-lysine + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
procollagen 5-hydroxy-L-lysine + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Q811A3
hydroxylation of lysine residues collagen causes cross-linking with pyrolidine
-
-
?
procollagen L-lysine + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
procollagen 5-hydroxy-L-lysine + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
hydroxylation of lysine residues in collagenous sequences
-
-
?
procollagen L-lysine + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
procollagen 5-hydroxy-L-lysine + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
isozyme LH2b directs the collagen cross-linking pathways, lysine hydroxylation as post-translational modification critical for collagen cross-linking and glycosylation, isozyme LH2 modulates the cross-linking pattern
-
-
?
procollagen L-lysine + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
procollagen 5-hydroxy-L-lysine + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
O00469
some hydroxylated L-lysine residues are precursors for the cross-link formation essential for the tensile strength of collagen, the 2 splicing variants exhibit different specificity for hydroxylation of either telopeptide or helical collagen domain lysine residues, so that their relative expression level determines the type of cross-links formed and affecting collagen strength
-
-
?
L-lysine-[U2AF65] + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
5-hydroxy-L-lysine-[U2AF65] + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
U2AF65 is the splicing factor U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein auxiliary factor 65-kDa subunit, which undergoes posttranslational lysyl-5-hydroxylation catalyzed by the Fe2+ and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase Jumonji domain-6 protein Jmjd6, a nuclear protein that has an important role in vertebrate development and is a human homologue of the HIF asparaginyl-hydroxylase
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VIA patients show highly reduced enzyme activity
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
O00469
the long splicing variant of isozyme LH2 is the major ubiquitously-expressed form that is spliced into the short form, which is expressed together with the long form only in some tissues, e.g. kidney, spleen, liver, and placenta, alternative splicing can be regulated by both cell density and cycloheximide, regulation of LH2long transcript and of expression of both splicing variants in kidney via cycloheximide that suppress a factor taht inhibits exclusion of exon 13A thereby promoting expression of LH2short, and vice versa also via cycloheximide in fibroblasts, overview, perturbation of LH2 regulation can influence the stability of the extracellular matrix and contribute to connective tissue disorders
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
1,25(OH)2D3 directly regulates collagen cross-linking in MC3T3-E1 cells likely by upregulating gene expression of specific lysyl hydroxylase and lysine oxidase enzymes, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
Jmjd6 changes alternative RNA splicing of some, but not all, of the endogenous and reporter genes, supporting a specific role for Jmjd6 in the regulation of RNA splicing, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
LH3 is responsible for hydroxylysine formation and also for hydroxylysine glycosylations in polypeptides, enzyme mutations cause a severe phenotype, detailed overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
O60568
lysyl hydroxylase catalyzes the posttranslational formation of hydroxylysines in -X-Lys-Gly- sequences in collagens and other proteins with collagen-like domains
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme is responsible for the hydroxylation of collagen telopeptides
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q6NYC1
JMJD6 catalyses the iron- and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent hydroxylation of lysyl residues in arginine-serine-rich domains of RNAsplicing-related proteins. It catalyses C5 hydroxylation rather than Nepsilon demethylation
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
bifunctional lysyl hydroxylase and glycosyltransferase enzyme, mimivirus L230 is capable of hydroxylating lysine and glycosylating the resulting hydroxylysine residues in a native mimivirus collagen acceptor substrate. In contrast to other animals, the mimivirus L230 enzyme transfers glucose instead of galactose to hydroxylysine in collagen
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
JMJD6 undergoes self-hydroxylation in the presence of Fe(II) and 2-oxoglutarate, in absence of substrate or in presence of substrates like U2AF65, resulting in production of (5S)<-hydroxylysine residues. JMJD6 in human cells is hydroxylated
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
lysyl hydroxylase 3 is a multifunctional enzyme of collagen biosynthesis, with glycosyltransferase activity and lysyl hydroxylase activity
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q9R0E1
lysyl hydroxylase 3 is the multifunctional collagen-modifying enzyme possessing lysyl hydroxylase, hydroxylysine galactosyltransferase, and galactosylhydroxylysine-glucosyltransferase activities, lysyl hydroxylase 3 glucosylates galactosylhydroxylysine residues in type I collagen
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Acanthamoeba polyphaga Mimivirus L230
-
bifunctional lysyl hydroxylase and glycosyltransferase enzyme, mimivirus L230 is capable of hydroxylating lysine and glycosylating the resulting hydroxylysine residues in a native mimivirus collagen acceptor substrate. In contrast to other animals, the mimivirus L230 enzyme transfers glucose instead of galactose to hydroxylysine in collagen
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Mus musculus CRL-2593
Q9R0E1
lysyl hydroxylase 3 is the multifunctional collagen-modifying enzyme possessing lysyl hydroxylase, hydroxylysine galactosyltransferase, and galactosylhydroxylysine-glucosyltransferase activities, lysyl hydroxylase 3 glucosylates galactosylhydroxylysine residues in type I collagen
-
-
-
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
ascorbate
-
-
ascorbate
-
-
ascorbate
-
required
ascorbate
-
required
ascorbate
-
-
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
Fe2+
-
-
Fe2+
-
required, Km: 0.001-0.005 mM
Fe2+
-
required, Km: 0.001-0.005 mM
Fe2+
-
a peptide fold in the iron-binding site, within the 40 amino acid residues at the C-terminus, is responsible for KDEL-receptor-independent localization in the endoplasmic reticulum
Fe2+
-
-
Fe2+
-
activates
Fe2+
Q6NYC1
dependent on, binding site structure, overview
Fe2+
-
dependent on
NaCl
-
reduces the activity of the isozymes LH1, LH2a, LH2b, and LH3 with most of the synthetic nonpeptide substrates tested, in some cases the isozyme is activated or completely inhibited, overview
Ni2+
Q6NYC1
can substitute for Fe2+
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
Adrenochrome
-
slight
catechol
-
-
dehydroascorbate
-
-
DL-Serine 2-[(2,3,4-trihydroxyphenyl)methyl]hydrazide
-
most potent
dopamine
-
-
Ephedrine
-
slight
epinephrine
-
-
homogentisic acid
-
-
Hydroxylysine-rich peptides
-
-
iodoacetamide
-
-
malaoxon
-
mechanism of inhibition
malathion
-
mechanism of inhibition
minoxidil
-
0.4 mM inhibits LH1 completely, 1 mM inhibits LH2b and LH3 incompletely
N-ethylmaleimide
-
-
NaCl
-
reduces the activity of the isozymes LH1, LH2a, LH2b, and LH3 with most of the synthetic nonpeptide substrates tested, in some cases the isozyme is activated or completely inhibited, overview
nitroblue tetrazolium
-
-
norepinephrine
-
-
p-chloromercuribenzoate
-
-
p-mercuribenzoate
-
-
phenylalanine
-
slight
Phenylephedrine
-
slight
-
Pyridine 2,4-dicarboxylate
-
-
Pyridine 2,5-dicarboxylate
-
-
pyridine 2-carboxylate
-
-
pyrogallol
-
most potent
succinate
-
-
tyrosine
-
slight
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
2-amino-4-hydroxy-6,7-dimethyltetrahydropteridine
-
can replace ascorbate
2-mercaptoethanol
-
can replace ascorbate
ascorbic acid
-
activates
ascorbic acid
Q6NYC1
-
Bovine serum albumin
-
activation
-
Bovine serum albumin
-
activation
-
Bovine serum albumin
-
-
-
catalase
-
activation
-
catalase
-
-
-
dithiothreitol
-
can replace ascorbate
dithiothreitol
-
-
dithiothreitol
-
no indication
dithiothreitol
-
-
DTT
Q6NYC1
-
L-cysteine
-
can replace ascorbate
lysolecithin
-
activation
Triton X-100
-
activation
KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.4
(IKG)3
-
wild-type enzyme and mutant T604I
5
(IKG)3
-
above, mutant G597V; above, mutant R594H
0.31
(Ile-Lys-Gly)3
-
isozyme LH2, at 37C
0.34
(Ile-Lys-Gly)3
-
isozyme LH3, at 37C
0.4
(Ile-Lys-Gly)3
-
lysyl hydroxylase 1
0.47
(Ile-Lys-Gly)3
-
isozyme LH1, at 37C
0.7
(Ile-Lys-Gly)3
-
lysyl hydroxylase 1
0.8
(Ile-Lys-Gly)3
-
lysyl hydroxylase 3
0.43
(L-Ile-L-Lys-Gly)3
-
lysyl hydroxylase 3
0.2
(Pro-Pro-Gly)4-Ala-Arg-Gly-Met-Lys-Gly-His-Arg-Gly-(Pro-Pro-Gly)4
-
-
0.025
2-oxoglutarate
-
wild-type enzyme
0.05
2-oxoglutarate
-
-
0.09 - 0.12
2-oxoglutarate
-
-
0.1
2-oxoglutarate
-
lysyl hydroxylases 1 and 3
0.1
2-oxoglutarate
-
lysyl hydroxylase 3
0.106
2-oxoglutarate
-
-
0.12
2-oxoglutarate
-
lysyl hydroxylase 1
0.25
2-oxoglutarate
-
mutant T604I
0.4
Ala-Arg-Gly-Ile-Lys-Gly-Ile-Arg-Gly-Phe-Ser-Gly
-
-
0.5
Ala-Arg-Gly-Ile-Lys-Gly-Ile-Arg-Gly-Phe-Ser-Gly
-
lysyl hydroxylase 1
0.6
Ala-Arg-Gly-Ile-Lys-Gly-Ile-Arg-Gly-Phe-Ser-Gly
-
lysyl hydroxylase 3
0.2
Ala-Arg-Gly-Met-Lys-Gly-His-Arg-Gly-(Pro-Pro-Gly)4
-
-
0.05
ascorbate
-
-
0.122
ascorbate
-
-
0.19 - 0.22
ascorbate
-
-
0.3
ascorbate
-
lysyl hydroxylase 3
0.35
ascorbate
-
lysyl hydroxylase 1
0.04 - 0.05
O2
-
-
0.1
Protocollagen
-
-
-
0.4 - 0.5
Protocollagen
-
-
-
0.4 - 0.5
Protocollagen
-
-
-
0.08
type I procollagen
-
isozyme LH3, at 37C
-
0.1
type I procollagen
-
isozyme LH2, at 37C
-
0.23
type I procollagen
-
isozyme LH1, at 37C
-
0.04
type IV procollagen
-
isozyme LH2, at 37C
-
0.05
type IV procollagen
-
isozyme LH3, at 37C
-
0.3
type IV procollagen
-
isozyme LH1, at 37C
-
0.35
ascorbate
-
lysyl hydroxylases 1 and 3
additional information
additional information
-
comparison of Km of 2-oxoglutarate, ascorbate, Fe2+ and type I, type II and type IV protocollagen as substrate with type I, type II and type IV enzyme
-
additional information
additional information
-
Km of recombinant isozymes LH1, LH2a, LH2b, and LH3 for diverse synthetic nonpeptide substrates, overview
-
TURNOVER NUMBER [1/s]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
2.6 - 4.2
lysine
-
in synthetic peptides
additional information
additional information
-
-
-
Ki VALUE [mM]
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.015
catechol
-
-
0.047
malaoxon
-
-
0.059
malathion
-
-
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
additional information
-
assay methods
additional information
-
-
additional information
-
-
additional information
-
-
additional information
-
specific activity of the recombinant enzyme three-fold higher than the specific activity of native enzyme
additional information
-
-
additional information
-
specific activity of the recombinant enzyme three-fold higher than the specific activity of native enzyme
additional information
Q811A3
-
additional information
-
-
pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
7.5
Q6NYC1
assay at
8 - 8.4
-
-
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
37
Q6NYC1
assay at
additional information
-
-
pI VALUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
5.8
A5A6S1, A5A6S2, A5A6S3
isozyme LH1, sequence calculation
6.1
A5A6S1, A5A6S2, A5A6S3
isozyme LH3, sequence calculation
6.2
A5A6S1, A5A6S2, A5A6S3
isozyme LH2a, sequence calculation
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SOURCE
O00469
expression only of LH2long
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q811A3
stem marrow cell, no expression of isozymes LH3 and LH2b
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
O00469
expression of LH2long and LH2short
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
O00469
expression only of LH2long
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
tendons and sterna
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
homogenates and cartilage
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
tissue expression profiles of the three isozymes are different, quantitative expression analysis, in situ localizations, overview
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Canis lupus familiaris Madin-Darby
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
O00469
from fibrotic skin of patients with systemic sclerosis
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
O00469
of skin, expression only of LH2long
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
synovial osteoarthritic
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mus musculus C57BL/6
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
O00469
expression of LH2long and LH2short
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
O00469
expression of LH2long and LH2short
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
intracellular localization
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Canis lupus familiaris Madin-Darby
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
A5A6S1, A5A6S2, A5A6S3
in the hatching larvae, LH1 is expressed in the pectoral fin bud
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
A5A6S1, A5A6S2, A5A6S3
in the hatching larvae, LH3 is expressed in the pectoral fin bud
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
O00469
expression of LH2long and LH2short
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
extracellular localization
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
O00469
expression only of LH2long
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
different clones, osteoblastic cell line, expression of splicing vaiant 2b of isozyme LH2, but not of splicing variant 2a, expression analysis of the 3 isozymes in MC3T3-E1 cells and comparison of collagen cross-linking activities, overview
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
a clonal osteoblast-like calvarial cell line
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mus musculus CRL-2593
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Canis lupus familiaris Madin-Darby
-
polarized
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
ordinary and dark
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
A5A6S1, A5A6S2, A5A6S3
ordinary and dark, high expression of lysine hydroxylase 1
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mus musculus CRL-2593
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
A5A6S1, A5A6S2, A5A6S3
high expression of lysine hydroxylase 3
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
O00469
expression of LH2long and LH2short
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
fibroblasts
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
O00469
expression only of LH2long
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
O00469
fibrotic skin from patients with systemic sclerosis
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
O00469
expression of LH2long and LH2short
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
collagen type-specific isoenzymes
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
existence of isoforms
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
Q811A3
isozymes LH1 and LH2a are expressed in all tissues, isozymes LH2b and LH3 are expressed in almost all tissues, no tissue specificity
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
the 3 isozymes are expressed in almost all tissues, no tissue specificity
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
O00469
the long splicing variant of isozyme LH2 is the major ubiquitously-expressed form that is spliced into the short form, which is expressed together with the long form only in some tissues, e.g. kidney, cartilage, spleen, liver, and placenta, not in skin, lung, aorta, and dura
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
developmental expression patterns of dPlod RNA and protein during embryogenesis,overview. dPlod is highly expressed in type-IV collagen-producing cells, particularly the hemocytes and fat body
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
O60568
LH3 found on the cell surface bypasses the Golgi complex
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
O60568
associated with membranes in the lumen
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
O60568
LH3 is the only secreted LH isoform, LH3 is secreted by two pathways, one through the Golgi complex leading to EndoH resistant LH3, and the other by-passing the Golgi complex and leading to EndoH sensitive LH3
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
LH3 is the only secreted LH isoform, secretion of LH3 into the cell medium occurs through both the apical and basolateral plasma membranes of epithelial MDCK cells
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Canis lupus familiaris Madin-Darby
-
LH3 is the only secreted LH isoform, secretion of LH3 into the cell medium occurs through both the apical and basolateral plasma membranes of epithelial MDCK cells
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
enzyme binds to membrane via weak electrostatic interactions
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
a peptide fold in the iron-binding site, within the 40 amino acid residues at the C-terminus, is responsible for KDEL-receptor-independent localization in the endoplasmic reticulum
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
A5A6S1, A5A6S2, A5A6S3
isozyme LH1 contains a signal peptide comprising residues Met1-Cys20
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
A5A6S1, A5A6S2, A5A6S3
isozyme LH2a contains a signal peptide comprising residues Met1-Ser19
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
A5A6S1, A5A6S2, A5A6S3
isozyme LH3 contains a signal peptide comprising residues Met1-Ala21
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
LH3 secretory pathways leading to both surfaces of the cells and the non-polarized secretion of LH3 in MDCK cells
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
O60568
while the lysyl hydroxylase active site mediates retention of LH3 in the endoplasmic reticulum, the glucosyltransferase active site is required for the secretion of LH3 into the extracellular space
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
Canis lupus familiaris Madin-Darby
-
LH3 secretory pathways leading to both surfaces of the cells and the non-polarized secretion of LH3 in MDCK cells
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
80000
-
value about, Western blot
695440
85000
O60568
SDS-PAGE
699120
86000
-
SDS-PAGE
675031
86000
-
LH3, SDS-PAGE
675766
89000
-
LH2, SDS-PAGE
675766
97000
-
SDS-PAGE, V5-tagged LH2b
674991
150000
-
gel filtration
439163
180000
-
gel filtration, isoforms 1-3
439166
200000
-
-
439148, 439149
200000
-
gel filtration
439154, 439160
220000
-
gel filtration, peak 1
439157
550000
-
gel filtration, peak 2
439157, 439160
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
?
-
x * 70000 + x * 115000, SDS-PAGE
?
Q63321
x * 85000, SDS-PAGE and Western blotting
?
Q6NYC1
x * 42000, recombinant His-tagged catalytic domain of JMJD6, residues 1-343
?
A5A6S1, A5A6S2, A5A6S3
x * 84385, isozyme LH1, sequence calculation
?
A5A6S1, A5A6S2, A5A6S3
x * 84558, isozyme LH3, sequence calculation
?
A5A6S1, A5A6S2, A5A6S3
x * 85063, isozyme LH2a, sequence calculation
dimer
-
2 * 83000-85000, SDS-PAGE
dimer
-
localization of the region responsible for the dimerization of lysyl hydroxylase 3, to a sequence of amino acids between the glycosyltransferase activity and the lysyl hydroxylase activity domains. This area is covered by amino acids 541-547 and contains no cysteine residues
homodimer
O00469
2 * 88000 or 97000 SDS-PAGE, recombinant enzymes: isoform 2, possibly two forms are due to variation in the glycosylation of enzymes
homodimer
-
2 * 82380, calculation from amino acid sequence, recombinant enzyme: isoform 3
homodimer
-
2 * 80000-85000, SDS-PAGE, isoforms 1-3
additional information
Q6NYC1
structure of the catalytic domain of recombinant His-tagged JMJD6 and active site structure, overview
POSTTRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
side-chain modification
-
-
glycoprotein
-
-
side-chain modification
-
hydroxylation of lysyl residue in -X-Lys-Gly
side-chain modification
-
hydroxylation of lysyl residue in -X-Lys-Gly
side-chain modification
-
hydroxylation of lysyl residue in -X-Lys-Gly
glycoprotein
A5A6S1, A5A6S2, A5A6S3
isozyme LH1 contains 4 glycosylation sites
glycoprotein
A5A6S1, A5A6S2, A5A6S3
isozyme LH2a contains 7 glycosylation sites
glycoprotein
A5A6S1, A5A6S2, A5A6S3
isozyme LH3 contains 4 glycosylation sites
glycoprotein
-
-
additional information
-
posttranslational hydroxylation in both the cytoplasm and the nucleoplasm is ubiquitous
Crystallization/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
purified recombinant His-tagged SeMet-derivatised and wild-type JMJD61-343, at both 20C and 4C by the sitting drop vapour diffusion method, X-ray diffraction structure determination and analysis at 1.75-2.0 A resolution
Q6NYC1
GENERAL STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
enzyme formes aggregates in low ionic strength buffer
-
inactivation by freezing/thawing
-
labile in tissue extracts
-
loss of activity during concentration
-
stabilization by detergents, NaCl
-
stabilization by glycine
-
inactivation by freezing/thawing
-
labile in tissue extracts
-
loss of activity during concentration
-
stabilization by detergents, NaCl
-
STORAGE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
-20C, enzyme purified by collagen-agarose column-chromatography stable, enzyme from Bio-gel column unstable
-
Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
recombinant His10-tagged enzyme from Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3) by nickel affinity chromatography
-
two alternative procedures
-
Ni-NTA-agarose
O60568
ProBond metal chelate affinity resin chromatography and Chelating Sepharose fast flow column chromatography
-
recombinant His-tagged full-length JMJD6 and JMJD61-343 from Escherichia coli strain Rosetta by nickel affinity chromatography
Q6NYC1
recombinant His-tagged isozymes LH1-3 from Sf9 insect cells by nickel affinity chromatography
-
recombinant wild-type and mutant enzymes from Sf9 insect cells by chelating affinity chromatography
-
three recombinant isoenzymes
-
recombinant V5/His-tagged LH3 protein from HEK-293 cells by nickel affinity chromatography, dialysis, and ultrafiltration
Q9R0E1
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
expression in Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 cells using the baculovirus transfection system, and functional expression of N-terminally His10-tagged enzyme in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3)
-
expression in Escherichia coli, isoform 3 gene product possesses the collagen glycosyltransferase activity, but not isoform 1 and 2
-
gene dPlod or CG6199, maps to cytological position 68B1 on the left arm of the third chromosome, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, sequence comparisons
-
all 3 isozymes LH1-3, LH2 in 2 splicing variants, are expressed in as His-tagged proteins in Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 cells via baculovirus infection system with the signal peptide at the N-terminus in isozymes LH2a and b and LH3 being exchanged for the signal peptide of isozyme LH1
-
DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis of mutant DNA from an Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IVA patient, expression of mutant enzyme W446G in an insect cell system via baculovirus infection
-
endogenous LH2 alternate splicing pattern and conservation analysis of LH2 genomic sequence., overview. Construction and expression of a functional LH2 minigene in HEK-293 cells, human neonatal skin fibroblasts, and mouse embryonic fibroblasts. The TIA proteins play a role in the regulation of the alternative splicing of LH2, overview
-
expressed in H5 insect cells
-
expression in insect cells using a baculovirus vector
-
expression in insect cells using a baculovirus vector; expression in various human tissues
-
expression of 40 amino acid residues of the C-terminal end of isozyme LH1 fused to human cathepsin D and c-Myc-tagged and 2 mutant variants thereof in COS-7 cells
-
expression of a synthetic gene encoding LH3, SEQ ID, in Nicotiana tabacum leaves. Co-expression of the human genes encoding recombinant heterotrimeric collagen type I, rhCOL1, the human prolyl-4-hydroxylase, and the lysyl hydroxylase 3, all responsible for key posttranslational modifications of collagen. Plants coexpressing all five vacuole-targeted proteins generate intact procollagen yields ofabout 2% of the extracted total soluble protein, overview
-
expression of GFP-tagged Jmjd6 in HEK-293 cells, GFP pulldown interaction analysis with U2AF65, overview
-
expression of His-tagged full-length JMJD6 and JMJD61-343 in Escherichia coli strain Rosetta
Q6NYC1
expression of wild-type and mutantenzymes in Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 cells using the baculovirus transfection method
-
gene PLOD2, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis
O00469
gene PLOD2, encoding for splice variants LH2a and LH2b, quantitative expression analysis of LH2b
-
gene PLOD3, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, quantitative expression analysis
O60568
gene PLOD3, expression in COS-7 and HT-1080 cells, the enzyme is secreted into the culture medium, expression of enzyme mutants in COS-7 cells
O60568
genes PLOD1 and PLOD2, real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR
-
genomic structure of isozyme LH2, expression analysis of the 2 splicing variants of isozyme LH2
O00469
overexpression in HT-1080 cells, expression of fragments in Escherichia coli
O60568
expression of active LH2b and of antisense construct in MC3T3-E1 cells, the latter suppresses the endogenous enzyme
-
gene Plod3, expression of recombinant V5/His-tagged LH3 protein in HEK-293 cells
Q9R0E1
quantitative LH gene expression analysis by realtime PCR, genes LH2a and LH2b DNA and amino acid sequence analysis using RT-PCR
-
cloning of 3 isozymes LH1-3, with 2 splicing variants of isozyme LH2, LH2a and LH2b, stable and functional expression in CHO-K1 cells; cloning of 3 isozymes LH1-3, with 2 splicing variants of isozyme LH2, LH2a and LH2b, stable and functional expression in CHO-K1 cells
Q811A3
expression in insect cells using a baculovirus vector
Q63321
gene encoding isozyme LH1, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, quantitative expression analysis; gene encoding isozyme LH2a, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, quantitative expression analysis; gene encoding isozyme LH3, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, quantitative expression analysis
A5A6S1, A5A6S2, A5A6S3
EXPRESSION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
reduction of TIA protein levels in mous embryonic fibroblasts and HEK-293 cells leads to a corresponding decrease in the LH2(long) spliced product in both the minigene and the endogenous gene
-
LH activity of LH3 is not reduced by mutations of this DXD motif
O60568
overexpression of the TIA proteins in HEK-293 cells leads to an increase in levels of the LH2(long) spliced product in the minigene
-
hypoxia-inducible factor 1 activates transcription of the PLOD1 and PLOD2 genes in hypoxic breast cancer cells, knockdown of HIF-1a expression blocks PLOD1 and PLOD2 induction under hypoxic conditions
-
in osteoarthritic human synovial fibroblasts, the enzyme expression is induced by TGF-beta via kinase ALK5, not ALK1, and Smad2/3P
-
gene expressions of isozymes LH1, LH2b and LOXL2 are significantly upregulated by 1,25(OH)2D3, the active form of vitamin D
-
ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
D250A
-
site-directed mutagenesis, the mutant shows unaltered lysyl hydroxylase activity, although reduced collagen glucosyltransferase activity, compared to the wild-type enzyme
D97A/D99A
-
site-directed mutagenesis, the mutant cannot be expressed in Escherichia coli
H80A
-
site-directed mutagenes, the mutant cannot be expressed in Escherichia coli
H825S/D827A
-
site-directed mutagenesis, lysyl hydroxylase inactive mutant, that is still active as collagen glucosyltransferase
L78K
-
site-directed mutagenesis, the mutant cannot be expressed in Escherichia coli
D250A
Acanthamoeba polyphaga Mimivirus L230
-
site-directed mutagenesis, the mutant shows unaltered lysyl hydroxylase activity, although reduced collagen glucosyltransferase activity, compared to the wild-type enzyme
-
D97A/D99A
Acanthamoeba polyphaga Mimivirus L230
-
site-directed mutagenesis, the mutant cannot be expressed in Escherichia coli
-
H80A
Acanthamoeba polyphaga Mimivirus L230
-
site-directed mutagenes, the mutant cannot be expressed in Escherichia coli
-
H825S/D827A
Acanthamoeba polyphaga Mimivirus L230
-
site-directed mutagenesis, lysyl hydroxylase inactive mutant, that is still active as collagen glucosyltransferase
-
L78K
Acanthamoeba polyphaga Mimivirus L230
-
site-directed mutagenesis, the mutant cannot be expressed in Escherichia coli
-
C144I
-
isoform 3, reduces glycosyltransferase activity
L208I
-
isoform 3, reduces glycosyltransferase activity
A1011G
O60568
naturally occuring heterozygous polymorphism in gene PLOD3
A195G
O60568
naturally occuring polymorphism in gene PLOD3
A434G
O60568
naturally occuring polymorphism in gene PLOD3
C882T
O60568
naturally occuring heterozygous polymorphism in gene PLOD3
E542A
-
site-directed mutagenesis
E542A/E547A
-
site-directed mutagenesis
E542A/E547A/E574A/E579A
-
site-directed mutagenesis
E542A/E547A/E574A/E579A/E560A
-
site-directed mutagenesis
E542A/H546L/E547A
-
site-directed mutagenesis
E542A/Q543L/Y544F/E547A/E574A
-
site-directed mutagenesis
E547A
-
site-directed mutagenesis
E579A/E560A
-
site-directed mutagenesis
G597V
-
naturally occuring recessive point mutation, leads to abnormal folding and oligomerization of the mutant enzyme, which shows over 95% reduced activity compared to the wild-type enzyme
K541M
-
site-directed mutagenesis
K541M/E542A
-
site-directed mutagenesis
N223S
O60568
site-directed mutagenesis, the mutant shows 50% reduced lysylhydroxylase activity, while the glycosyltransferase activity is almost abolished
Q543L/Y544F
-
site-directed mutagenesis
R594H
-
naturally occuring recessive point mutation, leads to abnormal folding and oligomerization of the mutant enzyme, which shows over 95% reduced activity compared to the wild-type enzyme
R693Q
-
site-directed mutagenesis, point mutation is introduced in the LH1 part of the expression construct comprising 40 amino acid residues of the C-terminal end of isozyme LH1, responsible for endoplasmic reticulum localization, fused to human cathepsin D and c-Myc-tagged, the exchange of the charged residue and deletion of 8 amino acis of the last 40 residues at the enzymes' C-terminal end has no effect on retention efficiency of the reporter protein, but deletion of the next 8 amino acid residues, leaving 24 residues, increases the secretion level of enzyme from the cell
T604I
-
naturally occuring recessive point mutation, leads 70-92% reduced activity, dependent on the 2-oxoglutarate concentration, compared top the wild-type due to a 10fold increase in the Km for 2-oxoglutarate, the mutant shows unaltered folding and oligomerization. The Km values of the T604I mutant for the peptide substrate, Fe2+, and ascorbate are identical to those of the wild-type
W446G
-
naturally occurring mutation T1360G in a highly conserved region of exon 13 of isozyme LH1 in skin fibroblasts is predicted to lead to the W446G exchange in heterozygous Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IVA, leads to loss of enzyme activity and causes the pathogenic effect probably due to incorect folding of isozyme LH1, structure-function analysis
K694G
-
site-directed mutagenesis, point mutation is introduced in the LH1 part of the expression construct comprising 40 amino acid residues of the C-terminal end of isozyme LH1, responsible for endoplasmic reticulum localization, fused to human cathepsin D and c-Myc-tagged, the exchange of the charged residue and deletion of 8 amino acids of the last 40 residues at the enzymes' C-terminal end has no effect on retention efficiency of the reporter protein, but deletion of the next 8 amino acid residues, leaving 24 residues, increases the secretion level of enzyme from the cell
additional information
O00469
identification of a PLOD2 mutant bearing 2 missense mutations in exon 17 in patients with Buck syndrome caused by a pyrolidine deficiency in bone due to decreased enzyme activity
additional information
O60568
targeted disruption of isoform LH3 by siRNA causes a marked reduction of both glycosyltransferase activities. Overexpression of LH3 increases hydroxylation of lysyl residues and the subsequent galactosylation and glucosylation of hydroxylysyl residues. Treatment of cells in culture medium with a LH3 N-terminal fragment affects the cell behavior, rapidly leading to arrest of growth in a reversible manner
additional information
O60568
glucosyltransferase, GGT, deficiency in heterozygous LH3 knock-out mouse embryonic fibroblasts affects the extracellular matrix deposition and the arrangement of the cytoskeleton, phenotype, overview. LH3 knock-out embryos and embryonic fibroblasts indicate that the loss of hydroxylysine glycosylation prevents the assembly and secretion of type IV and VI collagens, LH mutant mice show ultrastructural alterations in their skin and muscle, glucosyltransferase, GGT, deficiency, e.g. in the Finnish epidermolysis bullosa simplex family, due to a transcriptional defect in one LH3 allele affects the extracellular matrix deposition and the arrangement of the cytoskeleton in skin fibroblasts, phenotype, overview
additional information
-
mutations in the LH3 gene cause connective tissue disorder. Genotype-phenotype analysis of PLOD3 mutations, phenotypes, detailed overview
additional information
-
siRNA knockdowns of TIA-1 and TIAL1 both singly and in combination in HEK293 cells decrease the ratio of LH2 (long) to LH2 (short) splicing variants
additional information
-
A668G, higher apparent molecular mass, reduced collagen galctosyltransferase, EC 2.4.1.50, and reduced glucosyltransferase activity, EC 2.4.1.66, about 50% decreased lysyl hydroxylase activity, delT2071, lower apparent molecular mass, reduced collagen galctosyltransferase, EC 2.4.1.50, and reduced glucosyltransferase activity, EC 2.4.1.66, complete loss of lysyl hydroxylase activity
additional information
O60568
LH-deficient mutant, deficiency of LH3 glycosyltransferase activity decreases cell growth and increases lethality, overexpression of LH3, increased hydroxylation of lysyl residues and increased galactosylation and glucosylation of hydroxylysyl residues
additional information
-
monomerization inactivates the LH activity of LH3, distribution of monomers, dimers, and multimers in mutant enzyme structures, overview. Glycosyltransferase activity of the mutant enzymes, overview
D669A
-
site-directed mutagenesis, inactive mutant
additional information
Q9R0E2
mice with targeted inactivation of the Plod1 gene for lysyl hydroyxylase 1 are flaccid and have gait abnormalities. About 15% of them die because of aortic rupture, and smooth muscle cells in non-ruptured Plod1-/- aortas show degenerative changes. Collagen fibrils in the Plod1-/- aorta and skin have an abnormal morphology. The lysyl hydrolase activity level in the Plod1-/- skin and aorta samples is 35-45% of that in the wild type. The hydroxylysine content is decreased in all the Plod1-/- tissues, ranging from 22% of that in the wild type in the skin to 75% and 86% in the femur and lung, respectively
additional information
-
generation of an LH3 knockout line, the LH32/2 knockout embryonic fibroblasts totally lack the LH3 protein
additional information
Q9R0E1
generation of mouse osteoblastic cell line, MC3T3-E1, stably suppressing Plod3 expresion using short hairpin RNA technology, reduced LH3 protein levels in the Sh clones, phenotype, overview
D669A
Mus musculus C57BL/6
-
site-directed mutagenesis, inactive mutant
-
additional information
Mus musculus C57BL/6
-
generation of an LH3 knockout line, the LH32/2 knockout embryonic fibroblasts totally lack the LH3 protein
-
additional information
Mus musculus CRL-2593
-
generation of mouse osteoblastic cell line, MC3T3-E1, stably suppressing Plod3 expresion using short hairpin RNA technology, reduced LH3 protein levels in the Sh clones, phenotype, overview
-
APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
diagnostics
-
PLOD expression is associated with human breast cancer progression, PLOD2 expression is specifically prognostic in breast cancer
medicine
-
deficiency in enzyme activity causes the Ehler-Danlos syndrome type 6
medicine
-
LH2b is an interesting target to interfere with osteoarthritis-related persistent fibrosis
medicine
-
deficiency in enzyme activity causes the Ehler-Danlos syndrome type 6