Information on EC 1.1.1.219 - dihydrokaempferol 4-reductase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Spermatophyta

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
1.1.1.219
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
dihydrokaempferol 4-reductase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
cis-3,4-leucopelargonidin + NADP+ = (+)-dihydrokaempferol + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
oxidation
-
-
-
-
oxidation
-
-
redox reaction
-
-
-
-
reduction
-
-
-
-
PATHWAY
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
-
Flavonoid biosynthesis
-
leucodelphinidin biosynthesis
-
leucopelargonidin and leucocyanidin biosynthesis
-
Metabolic pathways
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
cis-3,4-leucopelargonidin:NADP+ 4-oxidoreductase
Also acts, in the reverse direction, on (+)-dihydroquercetin and (+)-dihydromyricetin; each dihydroflavonol is reduced to the corresponding cis-flavan-3,4-diol. NAD+ can act instead of NADP+, but more slowly. Involved in the biosynthesis of anthocyanidins in plants.
SYNONYMS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
DFR
-
-
-
-
DFR
Q9S787
-
DFR
O24607
-
DFR
Q9AVB8
-
DFR
Rosa hybrid cultivar Kardinal
Q41158
-
-
DFR
A5Z0G1
-
DFR1
B9GRL5
-
DFR2
B9H4D5
-
DHM reductase
-
-
-
-
DHQ reductase
-
-
-
-
dihydroflavanol 4-reductase
-
-
-
-
dihydroflavanol 4-reductase
A9ZMJ4
-
dihydroflavonol 4-reductase
Q84L22
-
dihydroflavonol 4-reductase
P51102
-
dihydroflavonol 4-reductase
-
-
dihydroflavonol 4-reductase
Q5DNA6
-
dihydroflavonol 4-reductase
P51103
-
dihydroflavonol 4-reductase
Q9S787
-
dihydroflavonol 4-reductase
Q9S787
-
dihydroflavonol 4-reductase
-
-
dihydroflavonol 4-reductase
P51104
-
dihydroflavonol 4-reductase
-
-
dihydroflavonol 4-reductase
O22617
-
dihydroflavonol 4-reductase
P51105
-
dihydroflavonol 4-reductase
O24607
-
dihydroflavonol 4-reductase
Q9AVB8
-
dihydroflavonol 4-reductase
-
-
dihydroflavonol 4-reductase
-
-
dihydroflavonol 4-reductase
Q6TQT0
-
dihydroflavonol 4-reductase
Q41158
-
dihydroflavonol 4-reductase
Rosa hybrid cultivar Kardinal
Q41158
-
-
dihydroflavonol 4-reductase
A5Z0G1
-
dihydroflavonol 4-reductase
P51107
-
dihydroflavonol 4-reductase
-
-
dihydroflavonol 4-reductase
-
-
dihydroflavonol reductase
-
-
dihydroflavonol-4-reductase
Q6TQT0
-
Dihydrokaempferol 4-reductase
-
-
-
-
dihydromyricetin reductase
-
-
-
-
dihydroquercetin reductase
-
-
-
-
NADPH-dihydromyricetin reductase
-
-
-
-
reductase, dihydromyricetin
-
-
-
-
reductase, dihydroquercetin
-
-
-
-
TRANSPARENT TESTA 3 protein
-
-
-
-
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY
83682-99-9
-
98668-58-7
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SEQUENCE CODE
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
line N89-53 and line YN01-429 (a yellow-seeded canola-quality germplasm)
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
chinese cabbage
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
line 101
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck, cultivars Tarocco, Navel and Ovale
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cv.'kumotoshi', japanese cedar
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
v. Terra Regina
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
hybrid, cv. Star Gazer
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gillyflower
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
line 10
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozyme MtDFR1; cv. Jemalong, 2 isozymes MtDFR1 and MtDFR2
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozyme MtDFR2; cv. Jemalong, 2 isozymes MtDFR1 and MtDFR2
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
no activity in Escherichia coli
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
no activity in Nicotiana tabacum
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
no activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
sainfoin, cv. Melrose
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Oryza sativa L. 'Nipponbare'
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Oryza sativa L. cv. Nipponbare
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform DFR1
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform DFR2
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cv. minirose
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Kardinal
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Rosa hybrid cultivar Kardinal
Kardinal
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene SmDFR; putative
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
line 19
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
evolution
A5Z0G1, -
the enzyme belongs to the plant DFR superfamily, phylogenetic analysis
metabolism
A9ZMJ4
part of flavonoid biosynthetic pathway
metabolism
-
key regulatory enzyme of the flavonoid pathway
metabolism
A5Z0G1, -
the DFR gene is a key gene late in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway, overview. The enzyme is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of anthocyanidins, proanthocyanidins, and other flavonoids, and also possesses flavanone 4-reductase activity
physiological function
Q9S787
catechins accumulation in tea leaves are regulated by the mRNA accumulation of genes involved in the biosynthesis, which are PAL, CHS, F3H, DFR, and LCR
physiological function
-
DFR plays a key role in determining intensity and pigment coloration because its specificity and activities dictate the type and amount of the colorless leucoanthocyanidins
physiological function
P51102
DFR plays a key role in determining intensity and pigment coloration because its specificity and activities dictate the type and amount of the colorless leucoanthocyanidins
physiological function
O22617
DFR plays a key role in determining intensity and pigment coloration because its specificity and activities dictate the type and amount of the colorless leucoanthocyanidins
physiological function
O24607
DFR plays a key role in determining intensity and pigment coloration because its specificity and activities dictate the type and amount of the colorless leucoanthocyanidins
physiological function
Q9AVB8
DFR plays a key role in determining intensity and pigment coloration because its specificity and activities dictate the type and amount of the colorless leucoanthocyanidins
physiological function
Q41158
DFR plays a key role in determining intensity and pigment coloration because its specificity and activities dictate the type and amount of the colorless leucoanthocyanidins
physiological function
-
commits phenolics to proanthocyanidin synthesis
physiological function
Q5DNA6
DFR expression induces and is correlated with anthocyanin accumulation in the petals, induced anthocyanins are primarily cyanidin, along with a small amount of pelargonidin
physiological function
-
synthesis of(+)-catechin by leucoanthocyanidin reductase may be tied to regulation of DFR
physiological function
Q8LL92
DFR can fully complement the potato locus R, both in terms of tuber color and anthocyanin composition
physiological function
A5Z0G1, -
the enzyme is of importance in plant development
physiological function
B9GRL5, B9H4D5, -
overexpressing isoform DFR2 in Populus tomentosa Carr improves condensed tannin accumulations; overexpression in Nicotiana tabacum leads to color change in flowers, giving much darker pink flowers. Transgenic plants show a significantly higher accumulation of anthocyanins. Overexpressing isofrm DFR1 in Populus tomentosa Carr results in a higher accumulation of both anthocyanins and condensed tannins
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                      
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
(+)-2,3-dihydrokaempferol + NADPH
cis-3,4-leucopelargonidin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
(+)-2,3-dihydrokaempferol + NADPH
cis-3,4-leucopelargonidin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-, Q6TQT0, Q6TQT1
-
-
-
?
(+)-2,3-dihydrokaempferol + NADPH
cis-3,4-leucopelargonidin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-, Q6TQT0, Q6TQT1
low activity
-
-
?
(+)-dihydrokaempferol + NADPH
cis-3,4-leucopelargonidin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
(+)-dihydrokaempferol + NADPH
cis-3,4-leucopelargonidin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
30% as active as dihydroquercetin
-
-
(+)-dihydrokaempferol + NADPH + H+
cis-3,4-leucopelargonidin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
A5Z0G1, -
-
-
-
?
(+)-dihydromyricetin + NADPH
cis-3,4-leucodelphinidin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. 5'-hydroxy-dihydroquercetin
i.e. 5,7,4'-trihydroxyflavan-3,4-cis-diol
?
(+)-dihydromyricetin + NADPH
cis-3,4-leucodelphinidin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. 5'-hydroxy-dihydroquercetin
i.e. 5,7,4'-trihydroxyflavan-3,4-cis-diol
-
(+)-dihydromyricetin + NADPH
cis-3,4-leucodelphinidin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. 5'-hydroxy-dihydroquercetin
i.e. 5,7,4'-trihydroxyflavan-3,4-cis-diol, configuration 2R,3S-trans-3S,4S-cis-leucodelphinidin
-
(+)-dihydroquercetin + NADPH
cis-3,4-leucocyanidin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
(+)-dihydroquercetin + NADPH
cis-3,4-leucocyanidin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
(+)-dihydroquercetin + NADPH
cis-3,4-leucocyanidin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
(+)-dihydroquercetin + NADPH
cis-3,4-leucocyanidin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
i.e. 5,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavan-3,4-cis-diol, 2,3-trans-configuration retained
-
(+)-dihydroquercetin + NADPH
cis-3,4-leucocyanidin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
i.e. 5,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavan-3,4-cis-diol, 2,3-trans-configuration retained
-
(+)-dihydroquercetin + NADPH
cis-3,4-leucocyanidin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
best substrate
-
-
(+)-dihydroquercetin + NADPH + H+
cis-3,4-leucocyanidin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Q6DT40, Q9S787
-
-
-
?
(+)-dihydroquercetin + NADPH + H+
cis-3,4-leucocyanidin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
A5Z0G1, -
-
-
-
?
(+)-dihydroquercetin + NADPH + H+
cis-3,4-leucocyanidin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze
Q6DT40
-
-
-
?
(+/-)-fustin + NADPH
?
show the reaction diagram
-, Q6TQT0, Q6TQT1
preference for (-)-isomer
-
-
?
(+/-)-taxifolin + NADPH
? + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
(-)-fustin + NADPH
?
show the reaction diagram
-, Q6TQT0, Q6TQT1
stereospecific for (-)-isomer
-
-
?
(2R,3R)-(+)-dihydrokaempferol + NADPH
(2R,3S,4R)-cis-3,4-leucopelargonidin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
(2R,3R)-(+)-dihydrokaempferol + NADPH
(2R,3S,4R)-cis-3,4-leucopelargonidin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
P51105
-
-
-
?
(2R,3R)-(+)-dihydrokaempferol + NADPH
(2R,3S,4R)-cis-3,4-leucopelargonidin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
P51104
-
-
-
?
(2R,3R)-(+)-dihydrokaempferol + NADPH
(2R,3S,4R)-cis-3,4-leucopelargonidin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
P51103
-
-
-
?
(2R,3R)-dihydromyricetin + NADPH
(2R,3S,4R)-cis-3,4-leucodelphinidin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
(2R,3R)-dihydromyricetin + NADPH
(2R,3S,4R)-cis-3,4-leucodelphinidin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
P51105
-
-
-
?
(2R,3R)-dihydromyricetin + NADPH
(2R,3S,4R)-cis-3,4-leucodelphinidin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
P51104
-
-
-
?
(2R,3R)-dihydromyricetin + NADPH
(2R,3S,4R)-cis-3,4-leucodelphinidin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Q41158
-
-
-
?
(2R,3R)-dihydromyricetin + NADPH
(2R,3S,4R)-cis-3,4-leucodelphinidin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
P51107
-
-
-
?
(2R,3R)-dihydromyricetin + NADPH
(2R,3S,4R)-cis-3,4-leucodelphinidin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
P51103
-
-
-
?
(2R,3R)-dihydromyricetin + NADPH
(2R,3S,4R)-cis-3,4-leucodelphinidin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Rosa hybrid cultivar Kardinal
Q41158
-
-
-
?
(2R,3R)-dihydroquercetin + NADPH
(2R,3S,4R)-leucocyanidin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
(2R,3R)-dihydroquercetin + NADPH
(2R,3S,4R)-leucocyanidin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
P51105
-
-
-
?
(2R,3R)-dihydroquercetin + NADPH
(2R,3S,4R)-leucocyanidin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
P51104
-
-
-
?
(2R,3R)-dihydroquercetin + NADPH
(2R,3S,4R)-leucocyanidin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Q41158
-
-
-
?
(2R,3R)-dihydroquercetin + NADPH
(2R,3S,4R)-leucocyanidin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
P51107
-
-
-
?
(2R,3R)-dihydroquercetin + NADPH
(2R,3S,4R)-leucocyanidin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
P51103
-
-
-
?
(2R,3R)-dihydroquercetin + NADPH
(2R,3S,4R)-leucocyanidin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Rosa hybrid cultivar Kardinal
Q41158
-
-
-
?
2,3-dihydromyricetin + NADPH
cis-3,4-leucodelphinidin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-, Q6TQT0, Q6TQT1
low activity
-
-
?
2,3-dihydroquercetin + NADPH
cis-3,4-leucocyanidin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-, Q6TQT0, Q6TQT1
i.e. (+)-taxifolin, stereospecific for (+)-isomer
-
-
?
2,3-dihydrorobinetin + NADPH
?
show the reaction diagram
-, Q6TQT0, Q6TQT1
-
-
-
?
7-hydroxyflavanone + NADPH + H+
2,4-cis-7-hydroxyflavan-4-ol + 2,4-trans-7-hydroxyflavan-4-ol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Q84L22
-
-
-
?
dihydroflavonol + NADPH
flavan-3,4-diol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
dihydrokaempferol + NADPH
cis-3,4-leucopelargonidin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
dihydrokaempferol + NADPH + H+
leucopelargonidin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Q41158
-
-
-
?
dihydrokaempferol + NADPH + H+
leucopelargonidin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
P51102
-
-
-
?
dihydrokaempferol + NADPH + H+
leucopelargonidin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Q5DNA6
-
-
-
?
dihydrokaempferol + NADPH + H+
leucopelargonidin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
O22617
-
-
-
?
dihydrokaempferol + NADPH + H+
leucopelargonidin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
O24607
-
-
-
?
dihydrokaempferol + NADPH + H+
leucopelargonidin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Q84L22
-
highest pelargonidin concentration derived from the E-color culture harboring the Anthurium andraeanum DFR
-
?
dihydromyricetin + NADPH
cis-3,4-leucodelphinidin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
dihydromyricetin + NADPH
leucodelphinidin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
dihydromyricetin + NADPH + H+
leucodelphinidin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Q41158
-
-
-
?
dihydromyricetin + NADPH + H+
leucodelphinidin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
P51102
-
-
-
?
dihydromyricetin + NADPH + H+
leucodelphinidin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Q84L22
-
-
-
?
dihydromyricetin + NADPH + H+
leucodelphinidin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Q9AVB8
-
-
-
?
dihydromyricetin + NADPH + H+
leucodelphinidin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
O22617
-
-
-
?
dihydromyricetin + NADPH + H+
leucodelphinidin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
O24607
-
-
-
?
dihydroquercetin + NADPH
cis-3,4-leucocyanidin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
dihydroquercetin + NADPH
cis-3,4-leucocyanidin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
dihydroquercetin + NADPH
cis-3,4-leucocyanidin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
dihydroquercetin + NADPH
leucocyanidin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
dihydroquercetin + NADPH
?
show the reaction diagram
-
assay at 25C, pH 7.5
-
-
?
dihydroquercetin + NADPH + H+
leucocyanidin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
dihydroquercetin + NADPH + H+
leucocyanidin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Q41158
-
-
-
?
dihydroquercetin + NADPH + H+
leucocyanidin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
P51102
-
-
-
?
dihydroquercetin + NADPH + H+
leucocyanidin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Q5DNA6
-
-
-
?
dihydroquercetin + NADPH + H+
leucocyanidin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Q6DT40, Q9S787
-
-
-
?
dihydroquercetin + NADPH + H+
leucocyanidin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Q84L22
-
-
-
?
dihydroquercetin + NADPH + H+
leucocyanidin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Q9AVB8
-
-
-
?
dihydroquercetin + NADPH + H+
leucocyanidin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
O22617
-
-
-
?
dihydroquercetin + NADPH + H+
leucocyanidin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
O24607
-
-
-
?
dihydroquercetin + NADPH + H+
leucocyanidin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
A5Z0G1, -
-
-
-
?
dihydroquercetin + NADPH + H+
leucocyanidin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
maximum detected levels of extracellular leucocyanidin produced from Escherichia coli strains BL21StarTM (DE3), BLDELTApgi, BLDELTApgiDELTAppc, BLDELTApgiDELTApldADELTAppc and BLDELTApgiDELTApldBDELTAppc expressing DFR
-
-
r
eriodictyol + NADPH + H+
luteoferol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Q41158
-
-
-
?
eriodictyol + NADPH + H+
luteoferol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Q84L22
-
-
-
?
eriodictyol + NADPH + H+
luteoferol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Q9AVB8
-
-
-
?
eriodictyol + NADPH + H+
luteoferol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
O22617
-
-
-
?
naringenin + NADPH + H+
apiferol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Q41158
-
-
-
?
naringenin + NADPH + H+
apiferol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Q84L22
-
-
-
?
naringenin + NADPH + H+
apiferol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
O22617
-
-
-
?
naringenin + NADPH + H+
apiferol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
O24607
-
-
-
?
eriodictyol + NADPH + H+
luteoferol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
O24607
-
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
no substrates: (+)-dihydromorin, i.e. 3,5,7,2',4'-pentahydroxyflavanone, and pinobanksin, i.e. 3,5,7-trihydroxyflavanone
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
P51103
stereospecific reaction
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
biosynthesis of proanthocyanidin polymers (condensed tannins)
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
reaction in anthocyanidin biosynthesis in plants
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
enzyme is involved in production of leucoanthocyanidins, i.e flavan-3,4-diols, and in reduction of flavanones to flavan-4-ols which are important intermediates in the 3-deoxyflavonoid pathway
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
P51105
enzyme is involved in production of leucoanthocyanidins, i.e flavan-3,4-diols, and in reduction of flavanones to flavan-4-ols which are important intermediates in the 3-deoxyflavonoid pathway
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
P51104
enzyme is involved in production of leucoanthocyanidins, i.e flavan-3,4-diols, and in reduction of flavanones to flavan-4-ols which are important intermediates in the 3-deoxyflavonoid pathway
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q41158
enzyme is involved in production of leucoanthocyanidins, i.e flavan-3,4-diols, and in reduction of flavanones to flavan-4-ols which are important intermediates in the 3-deoxyflavonoid pathway
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
P51107
enzyme is involved in production of leucoanthocyanidins, i.e flavan-3,4-diols, and in reduction of flavanones to flavan-4-ols which are important intermediates in the 3-deoxyflavonoid pathway
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
P51103
enzyme is involved in production of leucoanthocyanidins, i.e flavan-3,4-diols, and in reduction of flavanones to flavan-4-ols which are important intermediates in the 3-deoxyflavonoid pathway
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-, Q6TQT0, Q6TQT1
key enzyme in flux control in biosynthetic branched pathways leading to anthocyanins and condensed tannins
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q41158
no activity with (+)-dihydrokaempferol
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
P51107
no activity with (+)-dihydrokaempferol
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-, Q6TQT0, Q6TQT1
stereospecific enzyme, no activity with substances lacking the the hydroxyl group at the 3-position or with a double bond present between C2 and C3, e.g. quercetin, apigenin, eriodictyol, and kaempferol
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the key enzyme in flavonoid biosynthesis catalyzes a late step in the biosynthesis of anthocyanins and condensed tannins, two flavonoid classes of importance to plant survival and human nutrition, overview, the specific residue at position 133, Asn or Asp, is involved in controling of the substrate recognition and recognition of the B-ring hydroxylation pattern of dihydroflavonols, structure-function relationship, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q84L22
can not reduce hesperetin or 5,7-dimethoxyflavanone
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q9AVB8
does not catalyze dihydrokaempferol and naringenin
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
P51102
does not catalyze naringenin
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
A5Z0G1, -
the enzyme catalyzes the reduction of dihydroflavonols to leucoanthocyanins. But SmDFR also possesses flavanone 4-reductase (FNR) activity and can catalyze the conversion of eridictyol to luteoforol, EC 1.1.1.234
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
A5Z0G1, -
no activity in reduction of dihydromyricetin
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
A5Z0G1, -
no substrate: dihydromyricetin. enzyme additionally shows flavanone-4-reductase activity, EC 1.1.1.234
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Rosa hybrid cultivar Kardinal
Q41158
enzyme is involved in production of leucoanthocyanidins, i.e flavan-3,4-diols, and in reduction of flavanones to flavan-4-ols which are important intermediates in the 3-deoxyflavonoid pathway, no activity with (+)-dihydrokaempferol
-
-
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
dihydrokaempferol + NADPH
cis-3,4-leucopelargonidin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
dihydromyricetin + NADPH
leucodelphinidin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
dihydroquercetin + NADPH
leucocyanidin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
additional information
?
-
-
biosynthesis of proanthocyanidin polymers (condensed tannins)
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
reaction in anthocyanidin biosynthesis in plants
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
enzyme is involved in production of leucoanthocyanidins, i.e flavan-3,4-diols, and in reduction of flavanones to flavan-4-ols which are important intermediates in the 3-deoxyflavonoid pathway
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
P51105
enzyme is involved in production of leucoanthocyanidins, i.e flavan-3,4-diols, and in reduction of flavanones to flavan-4-ols which are important intermediates in the 3-deoxyflavonoid pathway
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
P51104
enzyme is involved in production of leucoanthocyanidins, i.e flavan-3,4-diols, and in reduction of flavanones to flavan-4-ols which are important intermediates in the 3-deoxyflavonoid pathway
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q41158
enzyme is involved in production of leucoanthocyanidins, i.e flavan-3,4-diols, and in reduction of flavanones to flavan-4-ols which are important intermediates in the 3-deoxyflavonoid pathway
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
P51107
enzyme is involved in production of leucoanthocyanidins, i.e flavan-3,4-diols, and in reduction of flavanones to flavan-4-ols which are important intermediates in the 3-deoxyflavonoid pathway
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
P51103
enzyme is involved in production of leucoanthocyanidins, i.e flavan-3,4-diols, and in reduction of flavanones to flavan-4-ols which are important intermediates in the 3-deoxyflavonoid pathway
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-, Q6TQT0, Q6TQT1
key enzyme in flux control in biosynthetic branched pathways leading to anthocyanins and condensed tannins
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the key enzyme in flavonoid biosynthesis catalyzes a late step in the biosynthesis of anthocyanins and condensed tannins, two flavonoid classes of importance to plant survival and human nutrition, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
A5Z0G1, -
the enzyme catalyzes the reduction of dihydroflavonols to leucoanthocyanins. But SmDFR also possesses flavanone 4-reductase (FNR) activity and can catalyze the conversion of eridictyol to luteoforol, EC 1.1.1.234
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Rosa hybrid cultivar Kardinal
Q41158
enzyme is involved in production of leucoanthocyanidins, i.e flavan-3,4-diols, and in reduction of flavanones to flavan-4-ols which are important intermediates in the 3-deoxyflavonoid pathway
-
-
-
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
NADH
-
half as effective as NADPH
NADH
-
cannot replace NADPH
NADH
-
cannot replace NADPH
NADH
-
reduced activity compared to NADPH
NADP+
-
binding site structure, overview
NADPH
-, Q6TQT0, Q6TQT1
-
NADPH
O24607
-
NADPH
Q9AVB8
-
NADPH
-
conversion of dihydroquercetin by DFR is likely dependent on the [NADPH]/[NADP+] ratio and less so on the absolute value of NADPH within the cell
NADPH
Q6DT40, Q9S787
-
NADPH
A5Z0G1, -
-
NADPH
B9GRL5, B9H4D5, -
seuence shows a putative NADPH-binding site; seuence shows a putative NADPH-binding site
additional information
-
FMN, FAD or 6,7-dimethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterine cannot replace NADPH
-
additional information
-
ascorbate cannot replace NADPH, the reaction occurs equally well anaerobically
-
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
abscisic acid
Q6DT40, Q9S787
decreases expression
Cu2+
-
strong inhibitor
diethyldithiocarbamate
-
50% inhibition at 2 mM
dithiothreitol
-
50% inhibition at 5 mM
myricetin
-
flavonol that can be an inhibitor of the activity of DFR towards dihydroflavonols
quercetin
-
flavonol that can be an inhibitor of the activity of DFR towards dihydroflavonols
iodoacetate
-
to some extent
additional information
-
no inhibition with PCMB, EDTA, Mg2+, Co2+, Fe2+, Ca2+, Mn2+, Zn2+
-
additional information
Q6DT40, Q9S787
is unaffected by gibberellic acid treatment
-
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
S-methyl 1,2,3-benzothiadiazole-7-carbothioate
-
treatment of fruits
additional information
-
enzyme expression is increased with time during a 24 h exposure to UV-A irradiation, but not by irradiation with red, blue, UV-B, and a combination of blue with red light
-
KM VALUE [mM]
KM VALUE [mM] Maximum
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.037
-
(+)-dihydroquercetin
-
estimation
0.048
-
(+)-dihydroquercetin
-
-
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
0.000012
-
-
pigmented cultivar Tarocco in 0.05 M Tris-HCl pH 7.5, l M dihydroquercetin, 2 mM NADPH, 1 U glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 6 mM glucose-6-phosphate and enzyme extract at 25C
0.00002
-
P51102
with dihydrokaempferol as substrate
0.0003
-
O24607
with dihydrokaempferol as substrate; with naringenin as substrate
0.0004
-
Q41158
with dihydrokaempferol as substrate; with naringenin as substrate
0.0005
-
O22617
with naringenin as substrate
0.0006
-
P51102
with eriodictyol as substrate
0.0006
-
O22617
with eriodictyol as substrate
0.0006
-
O24607
with eriodictyol as substrate
0.0006
-
Q9AVB8
with eriodictyol as substrate
0.0007
-
-
with naringenin as substrate
0.0007
-
Q41158
with eriodictyol as substrate
0.0008
-
-
with eriodictyol as substrate
0.001
-
P51102
with dihydromyricetin as substrate
0.001
-
Q41158
with dihydroquercitin as substrate
0.0012
-
O22617
with dihydroquercitin as substrate
0.0012
-
Q9AVB8
with dihydromyricetin as substrate
0.0013
-
P51102
with dihydroquercitin as substrate
0.0013
-
O24607
with dihydroquercitin as substrate
0.0013
-
Q9AVB8
with dihydroquercitin as substrate
0.0013
-
Q41158
with dihydromyricetin as substrate
0.0014
-
-
with dihydromyricetin as substrate; with dihydroquercitin as substrate
0.0014
-
O22617
with dihydromyricetin as substrate
0.0015
-
O24607
with dihydromyricetin as substrate
0.014
-
O22617
with dihydrokaempferol as substrate
0.018
-
-
-
0.021
-
-
with dihydrokaempferol as substrate
0.024
-
-
-
0.042
-
-
sample callus control in 25 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.0), 4 mM NADPH and 0.1 mM dihydroquercetin at 25C
0.103
-
-
sample callus L-1 in 25 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.0), 4 mM NADPH and 0.1 mM dihydroquercetin at 25C
0.155
-
-
sample callus L-2 in 25 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.0), 4 mM NADPH and 0.1 mM dihydroquercetin at 25C
0.202
-
-
sample plant control in 25 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.0), 4 mM NADPH and 0.1 mM dihydroquercetin at 25C
0.268
-
-
sample plant L-2 in 25 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.0), 4 mM NADPH and 0.1 mM dihydroquercetin at 25C
0.349
-
-
sample plant L-1 in 25 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.0), 4 mM NADPH and 0.1 mM dihydroquercetin at 25C
42.8
-
Q6DT40, Q9S787
pH 7.0, 25C
156.4
-
-
without any fruit treatment, day 4 of storage at 1C
42850
-
Q6DT40, Q9S787
recombinant protein
additional information
-
-
crude extract 12.1 microgram per h and mg protein
additional information
-
-
measurement of reductase activity during leaf development
additional information
-
-
no specific activity detectable for non-pigmented cultivars Navel and Ovale
pH OPTIMUM
pH MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
5.5
6.5
-
broad optimum
6.2
-
-, Q6TQT0, Q6TQT1
-
7
-
-
broad optimum with Tris buffer, sharp optimum with citric acid-sodium phosphate buffer
7
-
-, Q6TQT0, Q6TQT1
-
7.5
-
P51103
assay at
7.5
-
P51104
assay at
7.5
-
P51105
assay at
7.5
-
-
assay at
7.5
-
Q41158
assay at
7.5
-
P51107
assay at
7.5
-
-
assay at
pH RANGE
pH RANGE MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
5.1
7.2
-
about half-maximal activity at pH 5.1 and 7.2
6
7
-
maximum DFR activities achieved towards dihydroflavonols and flavanones
6
7.5
-
-
6.4
8
-
no significant variations in activity
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
25
-
-
assay at
25
-
-
assay at
30
-
-
assay at
30
-
P51103
assay at
30
-
P51104
assay at
30
-
P51105
assay at
30
-
-
assay at
30
-
Q41158
assay at
30
-
P51107
assay at
30
-
-, Q6TQT0, Q6TQT1
assay at
30
-
-
-
TEMPERATURE RANGE
TEMPERATURE MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
25
30
-
maximum DFR activities achieved towards dihydroflavonols and flavanones
pI VALUE
pI VALUE MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
5.96
-
-
-
6.2
-
Q6DT40, Q9S787
calculated
6.22
-
Q6DT40, Q9S787
sequence analysis
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
cultured from petioles
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
cultured from needles
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
A5Z0G1, -
a red callus line
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-, Q6TQT0, Q6TQT1
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
A5Z0G1, -
; expression in flowers is about 8fold higher compared with leaves and roots
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Rosa hybrid cultivar Kardinal
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-, Q6TQT0, Q6TQT1
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
A9ZMJ4
low amount
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q6DT40, Q9S787
expression is maximal in younger rather than older leaves; expression is maximum in younger rather than older leaves
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
A5Z0G1, -
; expression in flowers is about 8fold higher compared with leaves and roots
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze
-
expression is maximal in younger rather than older leaves
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
flavanone 3-hydroxylase, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase and flavonoid 3',5'-hydrolase are expressed in progeny with colored tuber skin, while dihydroflavonol 4-reductase and flavonoid 3',5'-hydrolase are not expressed, and flavanone 3-hydroxylase is only weakly expressed, in progeny with white tuber skin. Expression is regulated by transcription factor Stan2
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Rosa hybrid cultivar Kardinal
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
B9GRL5, B9H4D5, -
isoform PtrDFR2 transcripts are more than twice as abundant as isoform DFR1 in young petioles and 15 times more abundant in old petioles
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
A5Z0G1, -
; expression in flowers is about 8fold higher compared with leaves and roots
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
B9GRL5, B9H4D5, -
highest accumulation of transcripts; highest accumulation of transcripts
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-, Q6TQT0, Q6TQT1
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
DFR activity is lower in YN01-429 as compared to N89-53 seed coats. Two copies of the DFR gene, which are both functional in YN01-429, homeoallelic repression or silencing, together they show very low expression levels (17fold fewer transcripts) relative to DFR acitvity in N89-53 seed coats
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q9S787
mRNA accumulation of DFR is higher in the shoots than in the leaves
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Rosa hybrid cultivar Kardinal
-
young
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-, Q6TQT0, Q6TQT1
developmental gene expression pattern
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
spathe
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
A5Z0G1, -
expression level of SmDFR is higher in flowers compared with both leaves and roots
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
B9GRL5, B9H4D5, -
transcripts are found in all tissues examined, but most concentrated in root; transcripts are found in all tissues examined, but most concentrated in root
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
MOLECULAR WEIGHT MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
33500
-
-
his-tagged DFR4b, SDS-PAGE
36600
-
-
his-tagged DFR4a, SDS-PAGE
38010
-
-
calculated from sequence of cDNA
38670
-
Q6DT40, Q9S787
sequence analysis
39900
-
-
his-tagged DFR2, SDS-PAGE
40000
-
-
his-tagged DFR3, SDS-PAGE
40300
-
-
his-tagged DFR1, SDS-PAGE; his-tagged DFR5, SDS-PAGE
133000
-
-
gel filtration with Sephadex G-150
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
?
Q6DT40, Q9S787
x * 38670, calculated, x * 41000, SDS-PAGE of recombinant protein with fusion peptide; x * 41000, SDS-PAGE
?
A5Z0G1, -
x * 38600, SDS-PAGE
?
Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze
-
x * 38670, calculated, x * 41000, SDS-PAGE of recombinant protein with fusion peptide
-
additional information
-
3D structure of the ternary complex, overview
Crystallization/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
DFR-NADP+-flavonol (myricetin and quercetin) complexes, at room temperature, by hanging-drop vapour diffusion method. Complex DFR-NADP+-myricetin belongs to space group P21 (unit-cell parameters a = 47.23, b = 177.96, c = 92.60 A, beta = 104.8). Complex DFR-NADP+-quercetin belongs to space group P6122 (unit-cell parameters a = b = 174.94, c = 290.18 A)
-
purified recombinant enzyme in complex with NADPH and dihydroquercetin, X-ray diffraction structure determination and analysis at 1.8 A resolution
-
STORAGE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
-20C, 20% loss of activity within 2 days, 2-mercaptoethanol protects
-
-20C, 57% loss of activity after 4 months, 2-mercaptoethanol protects
-
1C, after 4 days of storage decrease in enzyme activity
-
-70C, 10% glycerol, crude extract stable for several weeks
-
5C, stable for 36 h
-
Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
on Ni-NTA column
Q6DT40, Q9S787
70% saturated ammonium sulfate precipitation and dialysis
-
recombinanet enzyme from Escherichia coli
-
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
Escherichia coli strains transformed with plasmid pTrcHis2-DFR to only express DFR. Escherichia coli strains harboring plasmid pET-DFR-LAR expressing DFR and leucoanthocyanidin reductase
-
into pTrcHis2-TOPO and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli TOP10F' strain. DFR cDNA cloned into pRSF-FHT and inserted into Escherichia coli BL21Star to create E-color strain
-
into pTrcHis2-TOPO and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli TOP10F' strain. DFR cDNA cloned into pRSF-FHT and inserted into Escherichia coli BL21Star to create E-color strain
P51102
enzyme expression analysis under UV-light irradiation, overview
-
vector pC1-DFR overexpressed in transgenic tobacco plants, having distinctive petal colors, showing some variation in their intensity
Q5DNA6
overexpression in Escherichia coli strain GI724 and in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain INV Sc1
P51103
expression in Escherichia coli; into expression vector pQE-30 UA, and transformed into Escherichia coli M15 pREP-4 competent cells
Q6DT40, Q9S787
overexpression in Escherichia coli strain GI724 and in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain INV Sc1
P51104
into pTrcHis2-TOPO and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli TOP10F' strain. DFR cDNA cloned into pRSF-FHT and inserted into Escherichia coli BL21Star to create E-color strain
O22617
functional expression in tobacco protoplasts via electroporation, subcloning and overexpression in Escherichia coli strain GI724 and in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain INV Sc1, the recombinant Escherichia coli strain shows no enzyme activity
P51105
into pTrcHis2-TOPO and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli TOP10F' strain. DFR cDNA cloned into pRSF-FHT and inserted into Escherichia coli BL21Star to create E-color strain
O24607
into pTrcHis2-TOPO and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli TOP10F' strain. DFR cDNA cloned into pRSF-FHT and inserted into Escherichia coli BL21Star to create E-color strain
Q9AVB8
DFR2, DFR3 and DFR5 were expressed in Escherichia coli
-
overexpression in Escherichia coli strain GI724 and in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain INV Sc1
-
isozyme MtDFR1, from a young seed cDNA library, functional expression in Escherichia coli; isozyme MtDFR2, from a young seed cDNA library, functional expression in Escherichia coli
-, Q6TQT0, Q6TQT1
expression in Nicotiana tabacum; expression in Nicotiana tabacum
B9GRL5, B9H4D5, -
expression in Escherichia coli JM109
A9ZMJ4
into pTrcHis2-TOPO and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli TOP10F' strain. DFR cDNA cloned into pRSF-FHT and inserted into Escherichia coli BL21Star to create E-color strain
Q41158
overexpression in Escherichia coli strain GI724 and in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain INV Sc1
Q41158
expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae; gene SmDFR, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, phylogenetic analysis, quantitative real-time PCR expression analysis, functional expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain INV Sc1
A5Z0G1, -
overexpression in Escherichia coli strain GI724 and in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain INV Sc1
P51107
allele of DFR associated with red color, under the control of a doubled CaMV 35S promoter and tobacco etch virus translational enhancer introduced into the potato cultivar Prince Hairy (genotype dddd rrrr P-), which has white tubers and pale blue flowers
Q8LL92
expression in Escherichia coli
-
EXPRESSION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
expression is down-regulated in response to drought stress and abscisic acid, and unaffected by gibberellic acid treatment; in response to drought stress
Q6DT40, Q9S787
expression is up-regulated in response to wounding, with concomitant modulation of catechins content; in response to wounding, with concomitant modulation of catechins content. Expression is maximum in younger rather than older leaves
Q6DT40, Q9S787
expression is down-regulated in response to drought stress and abscisic acid, and unaffected by gibberellic acid treatment
Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze
-
-
expression is up-regulated in response to wounding, with concomitant modulation of catechins content
Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze
-
-
decrease at stage of pigmentation inititation
A9ZMJ4
flavanone 3-hydroxylase, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase and flavonoid 3',5'-hydrolase are expressed in progeny with colored tuber skin, while dihydroflavonol 4-reductase and flavonoid 3',5'-hydrolase are not expressed, and flavanone 3-hydroxylase is only weakly expressed, in progeny with white tuber skin. Expression is regulated by transcription factor Stan2
-
ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
N133D
-
site-directed mutagenesis,
additional information
-, Q6TQT0, Q6TQT1
overexpression of the isozyme in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi under control of the CaMV35S promotor does not lead to increased anthocyanin production in the flowers; overexpression of the isozyme in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi under control of the CaMV35S promotor leads to increased anthocyanin production in the flowers
APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
agriculture
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flavanone 3-hydroxylase, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase and flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase are expressed in progeny with colored tuber skin, while dihydroflavonol 4-reductase and flavonoid 3,5-hydroxylase are not expressed, and flavanone 3-hydroxylase is only weakly expressed, in progeny with white tuber skin. Expression is regulated by transcription factor Stan2
agriculture
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genetic transformation of Melastoma malabathricum and Tibouchina semidecandra, with sense and antisense dihydroflavonol-4-reductase genes using the Agrobacterium-mediated method. Approximately 4.0% of shoots and 6.7% of nodes for Melastoma malabathricum regenerate after transforming with sense dihydroflavonol-4-reductase gene, whereas only 3.7% of shoots and 5.3% of nodes regenerate with antisense dihydroflavonol-4-reductase gene transformation. For the selection of Tibouchina semidecandra, 5.3% of shoots and 9.3% of nodes regenerate with sense dihydroflavonol-4-reductase gene transformation, while only 4.7% of shoots and 8.3% of nodes regenerate after being transformed with antisense dihydroflavonol-4-reductase gene. The colour changes caused by transformation are observed at the budding stage of putative Tibouchina semidecandra transformants The production of four-petal flowers also indicates another morphological difference of putative Tibouchina semidecandra transformants from the wild type plants which produce five-petal flowers