Information on EC 1.1.1.21 - aldehyde reductase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota, Bacteria

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
1.1.1.21
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
aldehyde reductase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
alditol + NAD(P)+ = aldose + NAD(P)H + H+
show the reaction diagram
reaction mechanism
-
alditol + NAD(P)+ = aldose + NAD(P)H + H+
show the reaction diagram
reaction mechanism
-
alditol + NAD(P)+ = aldose + NAD(P)H + H+
show the reaction diagram
mechanism, proton is donated by Tyr48 hydroxyl to the substrate
-
alditol + NAD(P)+ = aldose + NAD(P)H + H+
show the reaction diagram
the ordered bi-bi kinetic mechanism is controlled by hinges and latches of enzyme structure, residues R268, G213, and S226 are involved
-
alditol + NAD(P)+ = aldose + NAD(P)H + H+
show the reaction diagram
reaction mechanism, catalytic residues are Tyr48, Lys77, and His110, C-terminal loop residues Ala299, Leu300, Leu301, Ser302, Cys303 are involved in substrate and inhibitor binding
-
alditol + NAD(P)+ = aldose + NAD(P)H + H+
show the reaction diagram
after the catalytic event, a rearrangement of a bound ligand can trigger the opening of the safety-belt loop of G213-S226, initiating the release of the oxidized cofactor
-
alditol + NAD(P)+ = aldose + NAD(P)H + H+
show the reaction diagram
after the hydride donation step, the positive charge in the nicotinamide head stabilizes the neutral bridge between residues D43 and L77, allowing the relaxation of the tyrosine geometry toward the substrate head and the subsequent proton donation. After this last step, Y48 recoils to a locked geometry where the D43-L77 salt bridge is formed again and completes a tight four-charge sandwich involving the D(-), L(+), Y(-), and nicotinamide(+) head
-
alditol + NAD(P)+ = aldose + NAD(P)H + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
oxidation
-
-
-
-
reduction
-
-
-
-
PATHWAY
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
Fructose and mannose metabolism
-
galactose degradation IV
-
Galactose metabolism
-
Glycerolipid metabolism
-
L-arabinose degradation II
-
Metabolic pathways
-
Pentose and glucuronate interconversions
-
Pyruvate metabolism
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
alditol:NAD(P)+ 1-oxidoreductase
Has wide specificity.
SYNONYMS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
17betaHSD5
P42330
-
20-alpha-HSD
-
-
-
-
20-alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase
-
-
-
-
AKR1B1
P15121
-
AKR1B10
-
-
AKR1B10
O60218
-
AKR1B3
-
-
AKR1B3
P45376
-
AKR1C3
P42330
-
AKR4C7
A2T1W7
-
aldehyde reductase
-
-
-
-
aldehyde reductase
-
-
aldehyde reductase
-
-
aldehyde reductase
Rattus norvegicus Sprague-Dawley
-
-
-
alditol/NADP+ oxidoreductase
-
-
alditol: NADP+ 1-oxidoreductase
-
-
alditol:NAD(P)+1oxidoreductase
-
-
alditol:NADP 1-oxidoreductase
-
-
-
-
alditol:NADP oxidoreductase
-
-
-
-
aldo-keto reductase
-
-
aldo-keto reductase family 1 member B7
-
-
-
-
aldoketo reductase 1C3
P42330
-
aldose reductase
P15121
-
aldose reductase
-
-
aldose reductase
-
-
aldose reductase
-
-
aldose reductase
Rattus norvegicus Sprague-Dawley
-
-
-
aldose reductase
Rattus norvegicus Wistar
-
;
-
aldose reductase
-
-
aldose reductase
-
-
-
aldose reductase
Q5DD64
-
aldose reductase
-
-
aldose reductase
A2T1W7
-
aldose reductase 2
-
-
aldose reductase-like protein
O60218
-
aldose reductase-like protein
-
-
aldose xylose reductase
-
-
-
-
ALR1
-
-
ALR1
Rattus norvegicus Sprague-Dawley, Rattus norvegicus Wistar
-
-
-
ALR2
-
-
-
-
ALR2
P15121
-
ALR2
Rattus norvegicus Sprague-Dawley, Rattus norvegicus Wistar
-
-
-
ALR2
-
-
Fibroblast growth factor regulated protein
-
-
-
-
FR-1 protein
-
-
-
-
HRAR
-
-
MVDP
-
-
-
-
NADPH-aldopentose reductase
-
-
-
-
NADPH-aldose reductase
-
-
-
-
polyol dehydrogenase (NADP2)
-
-
-
-
TPN-polyol dehydrogenase
-
-
-
-
VAS deferens androgen-dependent protein
-
-
-
-
YqhD
-
YqhD contributes significantly to the isobutyraldehyde reductase activity in Escherichia coli
isobutyraldehyde reductase
-
-
additional information
-
aldose reductase, ALR2 or AKR1B1, and AKR1B10, an aldehyde reductase, belong to aldo-keto reductase, AKR, superfamily
additional information
-
the enzyme belongs to the NADPH-dependent aldo-keot reductase family
additional information
-
the enzyme is a member of the aldo-keto reductase family
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY
9028-31-3
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SEQUENCE CODE
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
2 enzymes AR I (ALR 1) and AR II (ALR 2)
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
2 enzymes AR I (ALR 1) and AR II (ALR 2); calf
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
ox, low-KM enzyme subtype
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
2 isoenzymes ALR 1 und ALR 2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain Y-1632
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Candida shehatae Y-1632
strain Y-1632
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain VGI-II
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Candida silvanorum VGI-II
strain VGI-II
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain Y-456
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Candida tropicalis Y-456
strain Y-456
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Euonymus sp.
distribution in various species
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
ALR2
Swissprot
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
ALR2 and AKR1B10
Swissprot
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
expressed in transgenic mice
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
female and male
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform ALR2
Swissprot
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform hALR2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
recombinant enzyme
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
recombinant protein
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain Y-488
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Kluyveromyces marxianus Y-488
strain Y-488
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isolate 2001-S
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
growth in pretreated sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
growth in sugar cane bagasse hydrolysare
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain Y-1017
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Meyerozyma guilliermondii Y-1017
strain Y-1017
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
apolipoprotein E-null mice
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
8-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
; male sprague-dawley rats
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
diabetic rats
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Fischer 344 rats
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Sprague-Dawley rats
Uniprot
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Sprague-Dawley rats
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Wistar rats
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Rattus norvegicus Sprague-Dawley
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Rattus norvegicus Wistar
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain BY4741
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Torulopsis molishiama
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
malfunction
-
enzyme inhibition prevents human colon cancer cell growth in culture as well as in nude mice xenografts. Inhibition of the enzyme also prevents angiogenic factors-induced invasion and migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells and angiogenic factors-induced secretion/expression of ICAM, VCAM, MMP2, MMP9 and IL-6 in the cells, mechanisms, overview
malfunction
-
aldose reductase inhibition prevents hypoxia-induced increase in hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha and vascular endothelial growth factor by regulating 26 S proteasome-mediated protein degradation in colon cancer cells, molecular mechanism, overview. Inhibition of hypoxia-induced HIF-1 protein accumulation by enzyme inhibition is abolished in the presence of MG132, a potent inhibitor of the 26 S proteasome. Enzyme inhibition also prevents the hypoxia-induced inflammatory molecules such as Cox-2 and PGE2 and expression of extracellular matrix proteins such as MMP2, vimentin, uPAR, and lysyl oxidase 2, overview
metabolism
-
aldose reductase, ALR2, and aldehyde reductase, ALR1, catalyse two following steps in the polyol pathway, overview
metabolism
P15121
aldose reductase ALR2 acts in the polyol metabolic pathway
metabolism
P15121
ALR2 is the first and rate-limiting enzyme in the polyol pathway and reduces glucose to sorbitol utilizing NADPH as a cofactor. Sorbitol is then metabolized to fructose by sorbitol dehydrogenase
metabolism
-
aldose reductase is the first enzyme in the polyol pathway and reduces glucose to sorbitol utilizing NADPH as a cofactor. Sorbitol is then metabolized to fructose by sorbitol dehydrogenase
metabolism
-
aldose reductase plays key roles in the polyol pathway
metabolism
-
aldose reductase is the key enzyme in the polyol pathway
metabolism
-
the enzyme catalyzes the first step in the polyol pathway of glucose metabolism
metabolism
-
the enzyme is the first and rate-limiting enzyme in the polyol pathway where it catalyzes the reduction of glucose to sorbitol
physiological function
-
the enzyme and AGE-RAGE pathways, involving advanced glycation endproducts and their a soluble form of the chief signal transduction receptors, play central roles in the pathogenesis of vascular dysfunction in aging rats. Significant increases in aldose reductase expression and activity in aged rat vasculature linked to endothelial dysfunction may be mitigated, at least in part, via aldose reductase inhibitors and that aging-linked increased flux via aldose reductase generates advanced glycation endproducts, species which transduce endothelial injury consequent to their interaction with RAGE, the soluble form of the chief signal transduction receptors of advanced glycation products
physiological function
-
high sugar levels found in diabetic cataract cause the opacification of lenses by osmotic changes induced via the aldose reductase-mediated polyol pathway
physiological function
-
aldose reductase metabolizes both free and phospholipid aldehydes and exacerbates atherosclerotic lesion formation, increase in lesion area attributable to inhibition of the enzyme or deletion of the gene encoding the enzyme occurs in both male and female mice, phenotype of enzyme-deficient male and female mice with increases in arterial lesions, macrophage accumulation and interstitial fibrosis, and decreases smooth muscle cell content of arterial lesions, detailed overview
physiological function
-
aldose reductase is involved in the polyol pathway, and regulates vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by modulating G1/S phase transition of cell cycle. It prevents high glucose- or TNFalpha-induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by accumulating the cells in the G1 phase
physiological function
-
aldose reductase inhibition reduces sorbitol accumulation and cell death in ischemia-reperfusion injury in the retina, phenotype, overview
physiological function
-
the aldose reductase polyol pathway contributes to microvascular complications since the enzyme mediates vascular damage in response to hyperglycemia. Inhibition of AR reverses hyperglycemic suppression of RUNX2, and it also negatively regulates RUNX2-dependent vascular remodeling in an endothelial cell wounded monolayer assay, which is reversed by specific AR inhibition in hyperglycemia. RUNX2 and aldose reductase regulate glucose-activated endothelial cell wound healing
physiological function
-
ALR2 is an enzyme of the polyol pathway, and of primary importance in the development of degenerative complications of diabetes mellitus, through its ability to reduce excess glucose into sorbitol with concomitant conversion of NADPH to NADP+
physiological function
-
inhibition of aldose reductase prevents growth factor-induced G1-S phase transition through the AKT/phosphoinositide 3-kinase/E2F-1 pathway in colon cancer cells. Inhibition of aldose reductasee prevents EGF- and bFGF-induced DNA binding activity and expression of E2F-1 in colon cancer cells, overview
physiological function
-
the enzyme is involved in oxidative stress signaling, it mediates colon cancer cell growth and proliferation involving angiogenic factors, such as VEGF- and FGF, overview
physiological function
-
the enzyme is involved in sorbitol accumulation in red blood cells after peroxide, e.g. 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) hydrochloride and tert-butyl hydroperoxide, induced hemolysis, overview
physiological function
-
the enzyme in involved in the hypoxia-induced colon cancer cells growth and invasion, overview
physiological function
Rattus norvegicus Wistar
-
the enzyme is involved in sorbitol accumulation in red blood cells after peroxide, e.g. 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) hydrochloride and tert-butyl hydroperoxide, induced hemolysis, overview
-
metabolism
Rattus norvegicus Wistar
-
the enzyme catalyzes the first step in the polyol pathway of glucose metabolism
-
additional information
-
inhibition of the enzyme prevents 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal-and glutathione-4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal-induced E2F-1 expression
additional information
-
inverse relationship between RUNX2 activity and AR expression, which is induced by hyperglycemia and supports a role for AR in the suppression of RUNX2 activity under hyperglycemic conditions
additional information
Q5DD64, -
recombinant enzyme protein displays a significant level of antigenicity in BALB/c mice
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                      
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
(1S)-camphorquinone + NADPH + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
(3R,4S/3S,4R)-3,4-(cis)acetate-beta-lactam + NADPH + H+
(3R,4S/3S,4R)-3-hydroxy-4-phenyl-beta-lactam + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
screening of 19 individual yeast reductases for their effciency and enantioselectivity, overview
stereochemistry of products of the different enzymes, detailed overview
-
?
(S)-1-indanol + NADPH + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
(S)-1-teralol + NADPH + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
1-butanal + NADPH + H+
1-butanol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
1-butanal + NADPH + H+
butanol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
O60218
-
-
-
?
1-decanal + NADPH + H+
1-decanol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
1-decanol + NADP+
decanal + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
O60218
-
-
-
?
1-dodecanal + NADPH + H+
dodecanol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
O60218
-
-
-
?
1-heptanal + NADPH + H+
heptanol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
O60218
-
-
-
?
1-hexanal + NADPH + H+
1-hexanol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
1-hexanal + NADPH + H+
hexanol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
O60218
-
-
-
?
1-hydroxynonen-4-one + NADPH
1,4-dihydroxynon-2-ene + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
1-nonanal + NADPH + H+
1-nonanol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
1-nonanal + NADPH + H+
nonanol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
O60218
-
-
-
?
1-nonanol + NADP+
nonanal + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
O60218
-
-
-
?
1-palmitoyl-2-(5-oxovaleryl)sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + NADPH
1-palmitoyl-2-(5-hydroxyvaleryl)sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
1-palmitoyl-2-(5-oxovaleryl)sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + NADPH + H+
? + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
P15121
ALR2
-
-
?
1-propanal + NADPH + H+
1-propanol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
1-tetradecanol + NADP+
tetradecanal + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
O60218
-
-
-
?
11-deoxyisocorticosterone + NAD(P)H
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
16-ketoestrone + NADPH + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2,3-bornanedione + NAD(P)H
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2,3-butanedione + NADPH + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2,3-heptanedione + NADPH + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2,3-hexanedione + NADPH + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2,3-hexanedione + NADPH + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
O60218
-
-
-
?
2,3-pentanedione + NADPH + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2,4-decadienal + NADPH + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2,4-nonadienal + NADPH + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-D-deoxy-2-fluoro-galactose + NADPH
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
2-D-deoxygalactose + NADPH
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-D-deoxygalactose + NADPH
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
2-D-deoxygalactose + NADPH
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
2-decenal + NADPH + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-deoxyribose + NADPH
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
2-hexenal + NADPH + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-nonenal + NADPH + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-phenyl-2-propenal + NADPH + H+
2-phenyl-1-propanol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
20-isocortisol + NAD(P)H
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
20alpha-hydroxyprogesterone + NADPH + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
O60218
-
-
-
?
20alpha-isocorticosterone + NAD(P)H
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
20alpha-isocorticosterone + NAD(P)H
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
21-dehydrocortisol + NADPH + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
21-dehydrocortisol + NADPH + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
O60218
-
-
-
?
3,4-hexanedione + NADPH + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3-deoxyglucosone + NADPH + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3-deoxyglucosone + NADPH + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
O60218
-
-
-
?
4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal + NADPH + H+
1,4-dihydroxynonane + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-hydroxynonenal + NADPH + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde + NAD(P)H
4-hydroxyphenylethyl alcohol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-hydroxyphenylglycolaldehyde + NAD(P)H
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-nitrobenzaldehyde + NAD(P)H
4-nitrobenzyl alcohol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-nitrobenzaldehyde + NAD(P)H
4-nitrobenzyl alcohol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-nitrobenzaldehyde + NAD(P)H
4-nitrobenzyl alcohol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-nitrobenzaldehyde + NAD(P)H
4-nitrobenzyl alcohol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-nitrobenzaldehyde + NADPH + H+
4-nitrobenzyl alcohol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-oxonon-2-enal + NADPH
1-hydroxynonen-4-one + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
5-pregnene-3beta,20alpha-diol + NADPH
?
show the reaction diagram
O60218
-
-
-
?
5alpha-pregnan-20alpha-ol-3-one + NADPH + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
O60218
-
-
-
?
5alpha-pregnane-3beta,20alpha-diol + NADPH + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
O60218
-
-
-
?
8-acetyl-2,3,5,6-tetrahydro-1H,4H-11-oxa-3a-aza-benzo[de]anthracen-10-one + NADPH + H+
? + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
P42330
fluorogenic synthetic substrate
-
-
?
acetaldehyde + NAD(P)H + H+
ethanol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetaldehyde + NAD(P)H + H+
ethanol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetaldehyde + NADPH + H+
ethanol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetol + NADPH
propane-1,2 diol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acrolein + NADPH
2-propen-1-ol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acrolein + NADPH + H+
2-propen-1-ol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
alditol + NAD(P)+
aldose + NAD(P)H
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
alditol + NAD(P)+
aldose + NAD(P)H
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
alditol + NAD(P)+
aldose + NAD(P)H
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
alditol + NAD(P)+
aldose + NAD(P)H
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
alditol + NAD(P)+
aldose + NAD(P)H
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
alditol + NAD(P)+
aldose + NAD(P)H
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
alditol + NAD(P)+
aldose + NAD(P)H
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
alditol + NAD(P)+
aldose + NAD(P)H
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
alditol + NAD(P)+
aldose + NAD(P)H
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
alditol + NAD(P)+
aldose + NAD(P)H
show the reaction diagram
-
10% oxidation activity compared to reduction reaction
-
-
r
aldose + NAD(P)H
alditol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
aldose + NAD(P)H
alditol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
aldose + NAD(P)H
alditol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
aldose + NAD(P)H
alditol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
aldose + NAD(P)H
alditol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
aldose + NAD(P)H
alditol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
aldose + NAD(P)H
alditol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
wide specificity
-
-
-
aldose + NAD(P)H
alditol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
wide specificity
-
-
r
aldose + NAD(P)H
alditol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
wide specificity
-
-
r
aldose + NAD(P)H
alditol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
wide specificity
-
-
r
aldose + NAD(P)H
alditol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
wide specificity
-
-
r
aldose + NAD(P)H
alditol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
wide specificity
-
-
-
aldose + NADPH + H+
alditol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
aldose + NADPH + H+
alditol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
aldose + NADPH + H+
alditol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
aldose + NADPH + H+
alditol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
aldose + NADPH + H+
alditol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
first and rate-limiting step in the polyol pathway
-
-
?
aldose + NADPH + H+
alditol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
first and rate-limiting step in the polyol pathway, in which reduction of glucose to sorbitol is coupled with NADPH oxidation
-
-
?
aldose + NADPH + H+
alditol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
first and rate-limiting step in the polyol pathway, in which reduction of glucose to sorbitol is coupled with NADPH oxidation, the enzyme activity is negatively regulated by nitric oxide in the eye lens
-
-
?
aldose + NADPH + H+
alditol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
first and rate-limiting step in the polyol pathway, in which reduction of glucose to sorbitol is coupled with NADPH oxidation, the enzyme activity is negatively regulated by nitric oxide in the eye lens, the activity in diabetic rat lens is increased due to reduced NO concentration, overview
-
-
?
aldose + NADPH + H+
alditol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
first and rate-limiting step in the polyol pathway, pathway network overview
-
-
?
aldose + NADPH + H+
alditol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
increased enzyme activity and oxidative or nitrosative stress are involved in pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy, overview
-
-
?
aldose + NADPH + H+
alditol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme mediates the lipopolysaccharide-induced release of inflammatory mediators in macrophages, overview, inhibition of the aldehyde-metabolizing enzyme modulates NF-kappaB-dependent activation of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in mouse serum, liver, heart, and spleen, overview
-
-
?
aldose + NADPH + H+
alditol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme prevents lipid aldehyde-induced cytotoxicity leading to apoptosis in cultured lens epithelial cells, effects of diverse saturated and unsaturated aldehydes, overview
-
-
?
aldose + NADPH + H+
alditol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
upregulation of the enzyme by homocysteine in type II alveolar epithelial cells can lead to cell damage and pulmonary disease, overview
-
-
?
benzaldehyde + NAD(P)H
benzyl alcohol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
benzaldehyde + NAD(P)H
benzyl alcohol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
benzaldehyde + NADPH + H+
benzyl alcohol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
benzaldehyde + NADPH + H+
benzyl alcohol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
O60218
-
-
-
?
benzyl alcohol + oxidized 3-acetylpyridine adenine dinucleotide + H+
benzaldehyde + reduced 3-acetylpyridine adenine dinucleotide
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
benzyl alcohol + oxidized 3-acetylpyridine adenine dinucleotide + H+
benzaldehyde + reduced 3-acetylpyridine adenine dinucleotide
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
butyraldehyde + NAD(P)H
butanol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
butyraldehyde + NAD(P)H
butanol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
butyraldehyde + NAD(P)H
butanol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
D-arabinose + NADPH
arabitol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
D-arabinose + NADPH + H+
arabitol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
D-erythrose + NAD(P)H
erythritol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
D-erythrose + NAD(P)H
erythritol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
D-erythrose + NAD(P)H
erythritol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
D-erythrose + NAD(P)H
erythritol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
D-fructose + NAD(P)H + H+
D-arabino-hexitol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
D-fructose + NAD(P)H + H+
D-arabino-hexitol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
D-fucose + NADPH
fucitol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
D-galactose + NAD(P)H
dulcitol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
D-galactose + NAD(P)H
dulcitol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
D-galactose + NAD(P)H
dulcitol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
D-galactose + NAD(P)H
dulcitol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
D-galactose + NAD(P)H
dulcitol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
D-galactose + NAD(P)H
dulcitol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
D-galactose + NADPH
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
D-galactose + NADPH + H+
D-galactitol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
GRE3 is responsible for about 55% of the total galactose reductase activity in the wild type strain
-
-
?
D-glucose + NAD(P)H
sorbitol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
D-glucose + NAD(P)H
sorbitol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
D-glucose + NAD(P)H
sorbitol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
D-glucose + NAD(P)H
sorbitol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
D-glucose + NAD(P)H
sorbitol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
D-glucose + NAD(P)H
sorbitol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
D-glucose + NAD(P)H
sorbitol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
D-glucose + NAD(P)H
sorbitol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
D-glucose + NAD(P)H
sorbitol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
D-glucose + NAD(P)H
sorbitol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
D-glucose + NAD(P)H
sorbitol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
not
-
-
-
D-glucose + NAD(P)H
sorbitol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
low activity
-
-
r
D-glucose + NADPH + H+
sorbitol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
D-glucose + NADPH + H+
sorbitol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
D-glucose + NADPH + H+
sorbitol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
P15121
-
-
-
?
D-glucose + NADPH + H+
sorbitol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
D-glucose + NADPH + H+
sorbitol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
D-glucose + NADPH + H+
sorbitol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
D-glucose + NADPH + H+
sorbitol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
the aldose reductase pathway has been demonstrated to be a key component of myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury, inhibition of AR protects the ischemic myocardium and is associated with improved energy metabolism, overview, pharmacological inhibition of the enzyme or sorbitol dehydrogenase blocks JAK2 and STAT5 activation and is associated with lower lactate/pyruvate ratio and lower protein kinase C activity, mechanism, overview
-
-
?
D-glucose + NADPH + H+
sorbitol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
the aldose reductase polyol pathway pathway and advanced glycation end products, AGEs, are involved in myocardial ischemic injury in diabetis, mechanism, AGE interacts with its receptor, RAGE, resulting in cardiac dysfunction, overview, genetic polymorphisms associated with the human aldose reductase gene have been found to be associated with diabetic complications, mechanisms implicated in polyol pathwaylinked functional abnormalities include myoinositol depletion and associated impaired phosphatidylinositol metabolism, osmotic imbalance due to accumulation of sorbitol, and decreased availability of NADPH
-
-
?
D-glucose + NADPH + H+
sorbitol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
the aldose reductase polyol pathway pathway and advanced glycation end products, AGEs, are involved in myocardial ischemic injury in diabetis, mechanisms implicated in polyol pathwaylinked functional abnormalities include myoinositol depletion and associated impaired phosphatidylinositol metabolism, osmotic imbalance due to accumulation of sorbitol, and decreased availability of NADPH
-
-
?
D-glucose + NADPH + H+
sorbitol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
aldose reductase, ALR2
-
-
?
D-glucose + NADPH + H+
sorbitol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
aldose reductase, ALR2
-
-
?
D-glucose + NADPH + H+
sorbitol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
P15121
ALR2
-
-
?
D-glucose + NADPH + H+
D-sorbitol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
D-glucose + NADPH + H+
D-sorbitol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
low affinity for D-glucose
-
-
?
D-glucose + NADPH + H+
D-sorbitol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Rattus norvegicus Wistar
-
-
-
-
?
D-glucuronate + NAD(P)H
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
D-glucuronate + NAD(P)H
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
D-glucuronate + NAD(P)H
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
D-glucuronate + NAD(P)H
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
D-glucuronate + NADPH
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
D-glucuronate + NADPH
? + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Rattus norvegicus, Rattus norvegicus Sprague-Dawley
-
substrate of aldehyde reductase ALR1
-
-
?
D-glucuronolactone + NADPH
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
D-glucuronolactone + NADPH
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
D-glyceraldehyde + NAD(P)H
glycerol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
D-glyceraldehyde + NAD(P)H
glycerol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
D-glyceraldehyde + NAD(P)H
glycerol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
D-lactaldehyde + NADPH + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
O60218
-
-
-
?
D-lactoaldehyde + NADPH + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
D-lyxose + NADPH
arabitol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
D-lyxose + NADPH
arabitol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
D-mannose NAD(P)H
mannitol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
D-mannose NAD(P)H
mannitol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
D-ribose + NAD(P)H
ribitol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
D-ribose + NAD(P)H
ribitol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
D-ribose + NAD(P)H
ribitol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
D-ribose + NAD(P)H
ribitol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
D-ribose + NAD(P)H
ribitol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
not
-
-
-
D-ribose + NADPH
adonitol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
D-ribose + NADPH + H+
D-ribitol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
D-ribose 5-phosphate + NADPH
D-ribitol 5-phosphate + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
D-tagatose + NADPH
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
D-xylose + NAD(P)H
xylitol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
D-xylose + NAD(P)H
xylitol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
D-xylose + NAD(P)H
xylitol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
D-xylose + NAD(P)H
xylitol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
D-xylose + NAD(P)H
xylitol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
D-xylose + NAD(P)H
xylitol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
D-xylose + NAD(P)H
xylitol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
D-xylose + NAD(P)H
xylitol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
D-xylose + NAD(P)H
xylitol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
low activity
-
-
r
D-xylose + NADPH
xylitol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
D-xylose + NADPH
xylitol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Meyerozyma guilliermondii, Candida tropicalis, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Pachysolen tannophilus, Candida parapsilosis, Scheffersomyces stipitis, Candida shehatae, Candida intermedia, Candida diddensiae, Candida silvanorum, Torulopsis molishiama, Kluyveromyces marxianus Y-488, Candida silvanorum VGI-II, Meyerozyma guilliermondii Y-1017, Candida diddensiae F-3, Candida shehatae Y-1632, Candida tropicalis Y-456, Torulopsis molishiama 55, Scheffersomyces stipitis Y-2160
-
-
-
-
?
D-xylose + NADPH
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
D-xylose + NADPH + H+
xylitol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
D-xylose + NADPH + H+
D-xylitol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
D-xylose 5-phosphate + NADPH
D-xylitol 5-phosphate + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
D-xylulose + NADPH + H+
D-xylitol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
decanal + NAD(P)H
decanol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
dihydroxyacetone + NAD(P)H
glycerol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
DL-glyceraldehyde + NAD(P)H
glycerol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
DL-glyceraldehyde + NAD(P)H
glycerol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
DL-glyceraldehyde + NAD(P)H
glycerol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
DL-glyceraldehyde + NAD(P)H
glycerol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
DL-glyceraldehyde + NAD(P)H
glycerol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
DL-glyceraldehyde + NAD(P)H
glycerol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
DL-glyceraldehyde + NAD(P)H
glycerol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
DL-glyceraldehyde + NADPH
glycerol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
DL-glyceraldehyde + NADPH
glycerol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
DL-glyceraldehyde + NADPH
glycerol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Q5DD64, -
-
-
-
?
DL-glyceraldehyde + NADPH
glycerol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
substrate of aldose reductase ALR2
-
-
?
DL-glyceraldehyde + NADPH
glycerol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
substrate of aldose reductase ALR2
-
-
?
DL-glyceraldehyde + NADPH
glycerol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Rattus norvegicus Sprague-Dawley
-
substrate of aldose reductase ALR2
-
-
?
DL-glyceraldehyde + NADPH
glycerol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
DL-glyceraldehyde + NADPH + H+
glycerol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
DL-glyceraldehyde + NADPH + H+
glycerol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
DL-glyceraldehyde + NADPH + H+
glycerol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
DL-glyceraldehyde + NADPH + H+
glycerol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
P07943
-
-
-
?
DL-glyceraldehyde + NADPH + H+
glycerol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
DL-glyceraldehyde + NADPH + H+
glycerol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
DL-glyceraldehyde + NADPH + H+
glycerol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
DL-glyceraldehyde + NADPH + H+
DL-glycerol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
DL-glyceraldehyde + NADPH + H+
DL-glycerol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
DL-glyceraldehyde + NADPH + H+
DL-glycerol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
DL-glyceraldehyde + NADPH + H+
DL-glycerol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
P15121
AKR1B10
-
-
?
farnesal + NADPH + H+
trans,trans-farnesol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
O60218
specific substrate
-
-
?
geraniol + NADP+
geranial + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
O60218
-
-
-
?
geranylgeranial + NADPH + H+
geranylgeraniol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
O60218
specific substrate
-
-
?
glucose + NADPH
sorbitol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
glutathione-4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal + NADPH + H+
glutathione-1,4-dihydroxynonane + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
glutathione-S-4-oxonon-2-enal + NADPH
S-(1-hydroxy-4-oxonona-3-yl)glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
glyceraldehyde + NADPH + H+
glycerol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
glyceraldehyde + NADPH + H+
glycerol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
glyceraldehyde + NADPH + H+
glycerol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
glycoaldehyde + NADPH
ethylene glycol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
glycoaldehyde + NADPH + H+
ethylene glycol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
glycolaldehyde + NADPH + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
O60218
-
-
-
?
glyoxal + NADPH
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
glyoxal + NADPH + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
glyoxal + NADPH + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
O60218
-
-
-
?
hexanal + NADPH + H+
hexanol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
hexanal + NADPH + H+
hexanol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
indole-3-acetaldehyde + NAD(P)H
indole-3-ethanol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
isatin + NADPH + H+
3-hydroxyisatin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
O60218
specific substrate
-
-
?
isatin + NADPH + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
isobutyraldehyde + NADPH + H+
isobutanol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
isobutyraldehyde + NADPH + H+
isobutanol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
isocaproaldehyde + NADPH + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
O60218
-
-
-
?
L-arabinose + NAD(P)H
L-arabitol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
L-arabinose + NAD(P)H
L-arabitol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
L-arabinose + NAD(P)H
L-arabitol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
L-arabinose + NAD(P)H
L-arabitol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
L-arabinose + NADPH
arabitol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
L-fucose + NADPH
fucitol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
L-lyxose + NADPH
arabitol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
L-rhamnose + NADPH
L-rhamnitol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
L-ribose + NADPH
adonitol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
L-sorbose + NADPH
L-sorbitol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
L-xylose + NAD(P)H
L-xylitol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
L-xylose + NAD(P)H
L-xylitol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
L-xylose + NAD(P)H
L-xylitol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
methylglyoxal + NADPH
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
methylglyoxal + NADPH
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
methylglyoxal + NADPH
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. pyruvaldehyde
-
-
?
methylglyoxal + NADPH + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
n-pentanal + NAD(P)H + H+
n-pentanol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
n-pentanal + NAD(P)H + H+
n-pentanol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
nerol + NADPH + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
O60218
-
-
-
?
octanal + NADPH + H+
1-octanol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
octanal + NADPH + H+
octanol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
O60218
-
-
-
?
pentose + NADPH
pentitol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
pentose + NADPH
pentitol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
pentose + NADPH
pentitol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
with hexoses and sugar phosphates as substrate the activity was only 5-10% of that with pentoses
-
-
r
pentose + NADPH + H+
pentiol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
with hexoses and sugar phosphates as substrate the activity is 5-10% of that with pentoses, D-isoforms of pentoses show less than 10% activity compared to the L-isoforms
-
-
r
phenyl-1,2-propanedione + NADPH + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phenylglyoxal + NAD(P)H
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phenylglyoxal + NAD(P)H
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phenylglyoxal + NADPH + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
propanal + NADPH + H+
n-propanol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
propionaldehyde + NAD(P)H
propanol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
propionaldehyde + NAD(P)H
propanol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
propionaldehyde + NAD(P)H
propanol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
pyridine-3-aldehyde + NAD(P)H
3-hydroxypyridine + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
pyridine-3-aldehyde + NAD(P)H
3-hydroxypyridine + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
low-KM enzyme subtype
-
-
r
pyridine-3-aldehyde + NADPH + H+
3-hydroxypyridine + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
pyridine-3-aldehyde + NADPH + H+
3-hydroxypyridine + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
O60218
-
-
-
?
pyridine-3-methanol + NADP+
?
show the reaction diagram
O60218
-
-
-
?
pyridine-3-methanol + NADPH + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
pyridine-4-aldehyde + NAD(P)H
4-hydroxypyridine + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
pyridine-4-aldehyde + NADPH + H+
4-hydroxypyridine + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
pyridinecarboxaldehyde + NAD(P)H
pyridylmethanol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
2-, 3- and 4-pyridinecarboxaldehyde
-
-
?
pyridinecarboxaldehyde + NAD(P)H
pyridylmethanol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
2-, 3- and 4-pyridinecarboxaldehyde
-
-
?
sorbitol + NAD+
D-fructose + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
aldehyde reductase, ALR1
-
-
?
sorbitol + NAD+
D-fructose + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
aldehyde reductase, ALR1
-
-
?
succinic semialdehyde + NADH + H+
4-hydroxybutyrate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
succinic semialdehyde + NADH + H+
4-hydroxybutyrate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
succinic semialdehyde + NADH + H+
4-hydroxybutyrate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
trans-2-buten-1-al + NADPH + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
O60218
-
-
-
?
trans-2-decen-1-al + NADPH + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
O60218
-
-
-
?
trans-2-hexen-1-al + NADPH + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
O60218
-
-
-
?
trans-2-nonen-1-al + NADPH + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
O60218
-
-
-
?
xylitol + NAD(P)+
D-xylose + NAD(P)H + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
xylitol + NAD(P)+
D-xylose + NAD(P)H + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
xylitol + NAD(P)+
D-xylose + NAD(P)H + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
xylitol + NAD(P)+
D-xylose + NAD(P)H + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
xylitol + NAD(P)+
D-xylose + NAD(P)H + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
xylitol + NAD(P)+
D-xylose + NAD(P)H + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
xylitol + NAD(P)+
D-xylose + NAD(P)H + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
methylglyoxal + NADPH + H+
acetol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
specific for NADPH
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
oxidation of polyols to polyolaldehydes by NADP+ proceeds very slowly
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
requirement for a free aldehyde group
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
oxidation of alcohols by NADP+ is negligible at 25C, measurable at 37C, enzyme involved in metabolism of corticosteroids
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
enzyme of sorbitol (polyol) pathway
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
enzyme is a critical regulator of TNF-alpha-induced apoptotic signaling in endothelial cells
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
protective role of enzyme against methylglyoxal induced cell damage
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
protective role of enzyme against methylglyoxal induced cell damage, cytotoxic effect of methylglyoxal is enhanced in presence of ponalrestat
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
reduction occurs first at aldehyde group and then at ketone site
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
uses both NADH and NADPH
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme is involved in pathogenesis of diabetic disease
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme may serve as an extrahepatic detoxification enzyme against endogenous and xenobiotic aldehydes in various tissues or cells
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme reduces toxic lipid aldehydes and their conjugates with glutathione, besides reducing aldo-sugars efficiently, inhibition of AR prevents growth factor-induced COX-2 activity, reduces COX-2 protein and mRNA, and significantly decreases activation of nuclear factor-KB and protein kinase C, and phosphorylation of PKC-B2 as well as progression of Caco-2 cell growth but has no effect on COX-1 activity, reduces PGE2 synthesis and lipid-adehyde signaling, e.g. by 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme regulates high-glucose-induced growth and contributes to diabetic hyperproliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells, inhibition of the enzyme also increases vascular oxidative stress, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme regulates TGF-beta1-induced production of fibronectin and type IV collagen, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme shows increased activity and is redox activated in ischemic heart
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of aldehydes, xenobiotic aldehydes, ketones, trioses, and triose phosphates
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
aldose reductase plays an important role in the regulation of hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha phosphorylation and activity and lipid homeostasis
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
aldose reductase can mediate the transforming growth factor-beta1-induced fibronectin production, which may associate with activator protein-1 activation
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
aldose reductase regulates high glucose-induced ectodomain shedding of tumor necrosis factor-alpha via protein kinase C-delta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha converting enzyme in vascular smooth muscle cells
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
O60218
AKR1B10 does not reduce D-glucose
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
exhibits low NADP+-linked dehydrogenase activity towards aliphatic and aromatic alcohols, no NADH-linked reductase activity is observed
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme catalyzes the reduction of a wide range of substances, including prostaglandin H2, phospholipid aldehydes, lipid peroxidation products, environmental pollutants and their glutathione conjugates
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Candida shehatae Y-1632
-
uses both NADH and NADPH
-
-
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal + NADPH + H+
1,4-dihydroxynonane + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
aldose + NAD(P)H
alditol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
aldose + NAD(P)H
alditol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
aldose + NAD(P)H
alditol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
aldose + NAD(P)H
alditol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
aldose + NAD(P)H
alditol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
aldose + NAD(P)H
alditol + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
wide specificity
-
-
r
aldose + NADPH + H+
alditol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
aldose + NADPH + H+
alditol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
first and rate-limiting step in the polyol pathway
-
-
?
aldose + NADPH + H+
alditol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
first and rate-limiting step in the polyol pathway, in which reduction of glucose to sorbitol is coupled with NADPH oxidation
-
-
?
aldose + NADPH + H+
alditol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
first and rate-limiting step in the polyol pathway, in which reduction of glucose to sorbitol is coupled with NADPH oxidation, the enzyme activity is negatively regulated by nitric oxide in the eye lens
-
-
?
aldose + NADPH + H+
alditol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
first and rate-limiting step in the polyol pathway, in which reduction of glucose to sorbitol is coupled with NADPH oxidation, the enzyme activity is negatively regulated by nitric oxide in the eye lens, the activity in diabetic rat lens is increased due to reduced NO concentration, overview
-
-
?
aldose + NADPH + H+
alditol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
first and rate-limiting step in the polyol pathway, pathway network overview
-
-
?
aldose + NADPH + H+
alditol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
increased enzyme activity and oxidative or nitrosative stress are involved in pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy, overview
-
-
?
aldose + NADPH + H+
alditol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme mediates the lipopolysaccharide-induced release of inflammatory mediators in macrophages, overview, inhibition of the aldehyde-metabolizing enzyme modulates NF-kappaB-dependent activation of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in mouse serum, liver, heart, and spleen, overview
-
-
?
aldose + NADPH + H+
alditol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme prevents lipid aldehyde-induced cytotoxicity leading to apoptosis in cultured lens epithelial cells, effects of diverse saturated and unsaturated aldehydes, overview
-
-
?
aldose + NADPH + H+
alditol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
upregulation of the enzyme by homocysteine in type II alveolar epithelial cells can lead to cell damage and pulmonary disease, overview
-
-
?
D-galactose + NADPH
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
D-glucose + NADPH + H+
sorbitol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
D-glucose + NADPH + H+
sorbitol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
P15121
-
-
-
?
D-glucose + NADPH + H+
sorbitol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
D-glucose + NADPH + H+
sorbitol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
D-glucose + NADPH + H+
sorbitol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
the aldose reductase pathway has been demonstrated to be a key component of myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury, inhibition of AR protects the ischemic myocardium and is associated with improved energy metabolism, overview, pharmacological inhibition of the enzyme or sorbitol dehydrogenase blocks JAK2 and STAT5 activation and is associated with lower lactate/pyruvate ratio and lower protein kinase C activity, mechanism, overview
-
-
?
D-glucose + NADPH + H+
sorbitol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
the aldose reductase polyol pathway pathway and advanced glycation end products, AGEs, are involved in myocardial ischemic injury in diabetis, mechanism, AGE interacts with its receptor, RAGE, resulting in cardiac dysfunction, overview, genetic polymorphisms associated with the human aldose reductase gene have been found to be associated with diabetic complications, mechanisms implicated in polyol pathwaylinked functional abnormalities include myoinositol depletion and associated impaired phosphatidylinositol metabolism, osmotic imbalance due to accumulation of sorbitol, and decreased availability of NADPH
-
-
?
D-glucose + NADPH + H+
sorbitol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
the aldose reductase polyol pathway pathway and advanced glycation end products, AGEs, are involved in myocardial ischemic injury in diabetis, mechanisms implicated in polyol pathwaylinked functional abnormalities include myoinositol depletion and associated impaired phosphatidylinositol metabolism, osmotic imbalance due to accumulation of sorbitol, and decreased availability of NADPH
-
-
?
D-glucose + NADPH + H+
sorbitol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
aldose reductase, ALR2
-
-
?
D-glucose + NADPH + H+
sorbitol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
aldose reductase, ALR2
-
-
?
D-glucose + NADPH + H+
D-sorbitol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Rattus norvegicus, Rattus norvegicus Wistar
-
-
-
-
?
DL-glyceraldehyde + NADPH + H+
glycerol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
DL-glyceraldehyde + NADPH + H+
DL-glycerol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
DL-glyceraldehyde + NADPH + H+
DL-glycerol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
pentose + NADPH + H+
pentiol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
with hexoses and sugar phosphates as substrate the activity is 5-10% of that with pentoses, D-isoforms of pentoses show less than 10% activity compared to the L-isoforms
-
-
r
sorbitol + NAD+
D-fructose + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
aldehyde reductase, ALR1
-
-
?
sorbitol + NAD+
D-fructose + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
aldehyde reductase, ALR1
-
-
?
glutathione-4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal + NADPH + H+
glutathione-1,4-dihydroxynonane + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
enzyme involved in metabolism of corticosteroids
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
enzyme of sorbitol (polyol) pathway
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
enzyme is a critical regulator of TNF-alpha-induced apoptotic signaling in endothelial cells
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
protective role of enzyme against methylglyoxal induced cell damage
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
protective role of enzyme against methylglyoxal induced cell damage, cytotoxic effect of methylglyoxal is enhanced in presence of ponalrestat
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme is involved in pathogenesis of diabetic disease
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme may serve as an extrahepatic detoxification enzyme against endogenous and xenobiotic aldehydes in various tissues or cells
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme reduces toxic lipid aldehydes and their conjugates with glutathione, besides reducing aldo-sugars efficiently, inhibition of AR prevents growth factor-induced COX-2 activity, reduces COX-2 protein and mRNA, and significantly decreases activation of nuclear factor-KB and protein kinase C, and phosphorylation of PKC-B2 as well as progression of Caco-2 cell growth but has no effect on COX-1 activity, reduces PGE2 synthesis and lipid-adehyde signaling, e.g. by 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme regulates high-glucose-induced growth and contributes to diabetic hyperproliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells, inhibition of the enzyme also increases vascular oxidative stress, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme regulates TGF-beta1-induced production of fibronectin and type IV collagen, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme shows increased activity and is redox activated in ischemic heart
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
aldose reductase plays an important role in the regulation of hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha phosphorylation and activity and lipid homeostasis
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
aldose reductase can mediate the transforming growth factor-beta1-induced fibronectin production, which may associate with activator protein-1 activation
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
aldose reductase regulates high glucose-induced ectodomain shedding of tumor necrosis factor-alpha via protein kinase C-delta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha converting enzyme in vascular smooth muscle cells
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme catalyzes the reduction of a wide range of substances, including prostaglandin H2, phospholipid aldehydes, lipid peroxidation products, environmental pollutants and their glutathione conjugates
-
-
-
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
NADH
-
10% of the NADPH-dependent activity
NADH
-
used in vivo
NADP+
-
NADP(H) dependent, no activity with NAD(H) in either directions
NADP+
-
2.2fold higher activity than with NAD+
NADPH
-
NADPH-specific, pro-4R hydrogen is transferred from the nicotinamide ring of the coenzyme to the substrate
NADPH
-
NADPH-specific, pro-4R hydrogen is transferred from the nicotinamide ring of the coenzyme to the substrate
NADPH
-
ALR 1 strictly specific for NADPH
NADPH
-
5.3fold higher activity than with NAD(H)
NADPH
-
uses both NADH and NADPH
NADPH
Torulopsis molishiama
-
specific for NADPH
NADPH
-
dependent on
NADPH
-
dependent on, several factors act to stabilize the NADPH-holding loop in either the open or closed conformation, residues R268, G213, and S226 are involved, loop movement, overview
NADPH
-
dependent on
NADPH
-
dependent on
NADPH
-
strict coenzyme specificity for NADPH
NADPH
-
dependent on
NADPH
-
dependent on
additional information
-
no activity with dinucleotide cofactors
-
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
Li2SO4
-
0.4 M: essential for full expression of enzyme activity
Li2SO4
-
200 mM: inhibition
Li2SO4
-
stimulation
Li2SO4
-
0.1 M activation wild type and recombinant from E. coli
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
((1-(2H-tetrazol-5-yl)methyl)-1H-pyrrol-3-yl)(phenyl)-methanone
-
40% inhibition
-
(1,1-dihydroxy-3-oxo-1,3-dihydro-2H-1,2-benzisothiazol-2-yl)acetic acid
P07943
i.e. BiT, 1,1-dioxide-benzo[d]isothiazol-3-one alkanoic acid derivatives
(1,3,3-trioxo-1,2-dihydronaphtho[1,2-d]isothiazol-2-yl)acetic acid
P07943
IC50: 0.010 mM
(1,3,3-trioxo-1,2-dihydronaphtho[1,2-d]isothiazol-2-yl)acetic acid ethyl ester
P07943
-
(1,3,3-trioxo-2,3-dihydronaphtho[2,3-d]isothiazol-2-yl)acetic acid ethyl ester
P07943
-
(1-(2-(2H-tetrazol-5-yl)ethyl)-1H-pyrrol-3-yl)(phenyl)-methanone
-
6% inhibition
-
(1-(2H-tetrazole-5-yl)-1H-pyrrol-2-yl)(phenyl)-methanone
-
-
-
(1-(2H-tetrazole-5-yl)-1H-pyrrol-3-yl)(phenyl)-methanone
-
-
-
(1-(3-(2H-tetrazol-5-yl)propyl)-1H-pyrrol-3-yl)(phenyl)-methanone
-
41% inhibition
-
(2,4-dioxo-5-[(6,8-dimethyl-4-oxo-4H-chromen-3-yl)methylene]-1,3-thiazolidine-3-yl) acetic acid
-
-
(2,4-dioxo-5-[(6-isopropyl-4-oxo-4H-chromen-3-yl)methylene]-1,3-thiazolidine-3-yl) acetic acid
-
-
(2,4-dioxo-5-[(6-methyl-4-oxo-4H-chromen-3-yl)methylene]-1,3-thiazolidine-3-yl)acetic acid
-
-
(2,4-dioxo-5-[(6-nitro-4-oxo-4H-chromen-3-yl)methylene]-1,3-thiazolidine-3-yl)acetic acid
-
-
-
(2-benzyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-pyrido[4,3-b]indol-8-yl)-acetic acid
-
an aldose reductase inhibitor and antioxidant of zwitterionic nature
-
(2-benzyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole-8-yl)-acetic acid
-
; uncompetitive with both D,L-glyceraldehyde and NADPH
(2-phenethyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole-8-yl)-acetic acid
-
; uncompetitive with both D,L-glyceraldehyde and NADPH
(2-[(4-bromo-2-fluorobenzyl)carbamoyl]-5-chlorophenoxy)acetic acid
-
thermodynamic binding data for isoform ALR2 and mutants
(2E)-3-[4-hydroxy-2-methoxy-5-(2-methylbut-3-en-2-yl)phenyl]-1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one
-
-
(2R)-1-[(benzyloxy)carbonyl]-2,3-dihydro-1H-indole-2-carboxylic acid
-
CC-13401
(2R,4S)-6-fluoro-2',5'-dioxospiro-[chroman-4,4'-imidazoline]-2-carboxamide
-
IC50: 570 nM, mechanism, active site binding modeling, the stereochemistry of the exocyclic amide group influences the affinity for the enzyme
(2S)-2'-methoxykurarinone
-
potent inhibitor of rat lens aldose reductase
(2S)-3beta,7,4'-trihydroxy-5-methoxy-8-(gamma,gamma-dimethylallyl)-flavanone
-
-
(2S)-7,4'-dihydroxy-5-methoxy-8-(gamma,gamma-dimethylallyl)-flavanone
-
potent inhibitor of recombinant human aldose reductase
(2Z)-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-[(4-methylphenyl)carbonyl]prop-2-enoic acid
-
-
(2Z)-3-(3-methoxyphenyl)-2-[(4-methylphenyl)carbonyl]prop-2-enoic acid
-
-
(3,3-dihydroxy-1-oxo-1,3-dihydro-2H-3lambda4-naphtho[1,2-d]isothiazol-2-yl)acetic acid
P07943
i.e. NiT
(3-benzothiazol-2-yl-pyrrol-1-yl)acetic acid
-
50% inhibition at 49 nM
(3-[(5-chloro-1,3-benzothiazol-2-yl)methyl]-2,4-dioxo-3,4-dihydropyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)acetic acid
-
thermodynamic binding data for isoform ALR2 and mutants
(4-benzothiazol-2-yl-2-benzoylpyrrol-1-yl)acetic acid
-
50% inhibition at 45 nM
(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)acetonitrile
-
IC50: 0.0244 mM
(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)methamine
-
IC50: 0.0634 mM
(4-hydroxyphenyl)(6-hydroxypyrazin-2-yl)methanone
-
isolated from red ascidian Botryllus leachi, pyrazine derivative, IC50: 0.0414 mM
(4-hydroxyphenyl)[4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1H-imidazol-2-yl]methanone
-
isolated from red ascidian Botryllus leachi, imidazole derivative, IC50: 0.0214 mM
(5-biphenyl-4-ylmethyl-2,4-dioxothiazolidin-3-yl)acetic acid
-
IC50: 0.0017 mM
(5-biphenyl-4-ylmethyl-2,4-dioxothiazolidin-3-yl)acetic acid methyl ester
-
15% inhibition of ALR2 at 0.05 mM
(5-biphenyl-4-ylmethylene-2,4-dioxothiazolidin-3-yl)-acetic acid
-
IC50: 0.00026 mM
(5-biphenyl-4-ylmethylene-2,4-dioxothiazolidin-3-yl)-acetic acid methyl ester
-
35% inhibition of ALR2 at 0.05 mM
(5-chloro-2-[(3-nitrobenzyl)carbamoyl]phenoxy)acetic acid
-
thermodynamic binding data for isoform ALR2 and mutants
(5-chloro-2-[(4-cyanobenzyl)carbamoyl]phenoxy)acetic acid
-
-
(5-methylIndoleDs)1-(3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-3-(5-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)propanoyl)-4-(5-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)piperidin-2-one
-
-
-
(5-methylIndoleMs)1-(3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-3-(5-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)propanoyl)-5,6-dihydropyridin-2(1H)-one
-
-
-
(5-naphthalen-1-ylmethylene-2,4-dioxothiazolidin-3-yl)acetic acid
-
IC50: 0.00017 mM
(5-naphthalen-1-ylmethylene-2,4-dioxothiazolidin-3-yl)acetic acid methyl ester
-
12% inhibition of ALR2 at 0.05 mM
(5E)-5-[4-(4-oxo-4H-chromen-2-yl)benzylidene]-1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione
-
-
(5Z)-3-chloro-4-(3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxyphenyl)-5-[(3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxyphenyl)methylidene]furan-2(5H)-one
-
isolated from ascidians Ritterella rubra and Synoicum blochmanni, IC50: 0.019 mM
(5Z)-3-chloro-5-[(3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxyphenyl)methylidene]-4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)furan-2(5H)-one
-
isolated from ascidians Ritterella rubra and Synoicum blochmanni, IC50: 0.0008 mM
(5Z)-4-(3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxyphenyl)-5-[(3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxyphenyl)methylidene]furan-2(5H)-one
-
isolated from ascidians Ritterella rubra and Synoicum blochmanni, IC50: 0.020 mM
(5Z)-4-(3-bromo-4-hydroxyphenyl)-3-chloro-5-[(3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxyphenyl)methylidene]furan-2(5H)-one
-
isolated from ascidians Ritterella rubra and Synoicum blochmanni, IC50: 0.013 mM
(5Z)-4-(3-bromo-4-hydroxyphenyl)-5-[(3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxyphenyl)methylidene]furan-2(5H)-one
-
isolated from ascidians Ritterella rubra and Synoicum blochmanni, IC50: 0.048 mM
(5Z)-4-(3-bromo-4-hydroxyphenyl)-5-[(3-bromo-4-hydroxyphenyl)methylidene]-3-chlorofuran-2(5H)-one
-
isolated from ascidians Ritterella rubra and Synoicum blochmanni, IC50: 0.017 mM
(5Z)-5-(3-aminobenzylidene)-1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione
-
pIC50 is 4.69
(5Z)-5-(3-fluorobenzylidene)-1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione
-
pIC50 is 5.04
(5Z)-5-(3-hydroxybenzylidene)-1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione
-
pIC50 is 4.97
(5Z)-5-(3-methoxybenzylidene)-1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione
-
pIC50 is 4.88
(5Z)-5-(3-methylbenzylidene)-1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione
-
pIC50 is 5.03
(5Z)-5-(3-phenoxybenzylidene)-1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione
-
pIC50 is 5.21
(5Z)-5-(3-{(E)-[(4-hydroxyphenyl)imino]methyl}benzylidene)-1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione
-
pIC50 is 5.73
(5Z)-5-(4-fluorobenzylidene)-1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione
-
pIC50 is 5.09
(5Z)-5-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene)-1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione
-
pIC50 is 4.93
(5Z)-5-(4-hydroxybenzylidene)-1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione
-
pIC50 is 5.05
(5Z)-5-(4-methoxybenzylidene)-1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione
-
pIC50 is 4.39
(5Z)-5-(4-{(E)-[(4-hydroxyphenyl)imino]methyl}benzylidene)-1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione
-
pIC50 is 4.64
(5Z)-5-(naphthalen-1-ylmethylidene)-1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione
-
pIC50 is 4.97
(5Z)-5-[(3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxyphenyl)methylidene]-4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)furan-2(5H)-one
-
isolated from ascidians Ritterella rubra and Synoicum blochmanni, IC50: 0.057 mM
(5Z)-5-[(3-bromo-4-hydroxyphenyl)methylidene]-3-chloro-4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)furan-2(5H)-one
-
isolated from ascidians Ritterella rubra and Synoicum blochmanni, IC50: 0.046 mM
(5Z)-5-[(4-oxo-2-phenyl-4H-chromen-6-yl)methylidene]-1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione
-
-
(5Z)-5-[3-(trifluoromethyl)benzylidene]-1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione
-
pIC50 is 4.89
(5Z)-5-[4-(trifluoromethyl)benzylidene]-1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione
-
pIC50 is 4.50
(6-amino-1,3,3-trioxo-1,2-dihydronaphtho[1,2-d]isothiazol-2-yl)acetic acid
P07943
IC50: 0.10 mM
(6-amino-1,3,3-trioxo-1,2-dihydronaphtho[1,2-d]isothiazol-2-yl)acetic acid ethyl ester
P07943
-
(6-nitro-1,3,3-trioxo-1,2-dihydronaphtho[1,2-d]isothiazol-2-yl)acetic acid
P07943
IC50: 0.180 mM
(6-nitro-1,3,3-trioxo-1,2-dihydronaphtho[1,2-d]isothiazol-2-yl)acetic acid ethyl ester
P07943
-
(9-amino-1,3,3-trioxo-1,2-dihydronaphtho[1,2-d]isothiazol-2-yl)acetic acid
P07943
IC50: 0.10 mM
(9-amino-1,3,3-trioxo-1,2-dihydronaphtho[1,2-d]isothiazol-2-yl)acetic acid ethyl ester
P07943
-
(9-nitro-1,3,3-trioxo-1,2-dihydronaphtho[1,2-d]isothiazol-2-yl)acetic acid
P07943
IC50: 0.190 mM
(9-nitro-1,3,3-trioxo-1,2-dihydronaphtho[1,2-d]isothiazol-2-yl)acetic acid ethyl ester
P07943
-
(E)-1-(3-(1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)acryloyl)-5,6-dihydropyridin-2(1H)-one
-
-
-
(E)-1-(3-(2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)acryloyl)-5,6-dihydropyridin-2(1H)-one
-
-
-
(E)-1-(3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)acryloyl)piperidin-2-one
-
-
-
(E)-1-(3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)acryloyl)pyrrolidin-2-one
-
-
-
(E)-1-(3-(3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)acryloyl)-5,6-dihydropyridin
-
-
-
(E)-1-(3-(3-methyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)acryloyl)-5,6-dihydropyridin-2(1H)-one
-
-
-
(E)-1-(3-(3-phenoxyphenyl)acryloyl)-5,6-dihydropyridin-2(1H)-one
-
-
-
(E)-1-(3-(4-bromophenyl)acryloyl)-5,6-dihydropyridin-2(1H)-one
-
-
-
(E)-1-(3-(4-chlorophenyl)acryloyl)-5,6-dihydropyridin-2(1H)-one
-
-
-
(E)-1-(3-(benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl)acryloyl)-5,6-dihydropyridin-2(1H)-one
-
-
-
(E)-1-(3-(furan-2-yl)acryloyl)-5,6-dihydropyridin-2(1H)-one
-
-
-
(E)-1-(3-(naphthalen-2-yl)acryloyl)-5,6-dihydropyridin-2(1H)-one
-
-
-
(E)-1-(3-(pyridin-2-yl)acryloyl)-5,6-dihydropyridin-2(1H)-one
-
-
-
(E)-1-(3-(thiophen-2-yl)acryloyl)-5,6-dihydropyridin-2(1H)-one
-
-
-
(E)-1-(3-mesitylacryloyl)-5,6-dihydropyridin-2(1H)-one
-
-
-
(E)-1-(4-benzylpiperazin-1-yl)-3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one
-
-
-
(E)-1-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one
-
-
-
(E)-1-(4-phenylpiperazin-1-yl)-3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one
-
-
-
(E)-1-(piperidin-1-yl)-3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl) prop-2-en-1-one
-
-
-
(E)-1-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)-3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one
-
-
-
(E)-2-(3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)acryloyl)benzo[d]isothiazol-3(2H)-one
-
-
-
(E)-2-(3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)acryloyl)isoindolin-1-one
-
-
-
(E)-3-((4-chlorophenyl)(hydroxy)methyl)-1-(3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)acryloyl)-5,6-dihydropyridin-2(1H)-one
-
-
-
(E)-3-((4-fluorophenyl)(hydroxy)methyl)-1-(3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)acryloyl)-5,6-dihydropyridin-2(1H)-one
-
-
-
(E)-3-(3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)acryloyl)benzo[d]oxazol-2(3H)-one
-
-
-
(E)-3-(5-(3-nitrophenyl)furan-2-yl)acrylic acid
-
-
(E)-3-(hydroxy(2-nitrophenyl)methyl)-1-(3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)acryloyl)-5,6-dihydropyridin-2(1H)-one
-
-
-
(E)-3-(hydroxy(4-nitrophenyl)methyl)-1-(3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)acryloyl)-5,6-dihydropyridin-2(1H)-one
-
-
-
(E)-3-(hydroxy(naphthalen-2-yl)methyl)-1-(3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)acryloyl)-5,6-dihydropyridin-2(1H)-one
-
-
-
(E)-3-(hydroxy(p-tolyl)methyl)-1-(3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)acryloyl)-5,6-dihydropyridin-2(1H)-one
-
-
-
(E)-3-(hydroxy(phenyl)methyl)-1-(3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)acryloyl)-5,6-dihydropyridin-2(1H)-one
-
-
-
(E)-3-(hydroxy(pyridin-2-yl)methyl)-1-(3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)acryloyl)-5,6-dihydropyridin-2(1H)-one
-
-
-
(E)-3-(hydroxy(thiophen-2-yl)methyl)-1-(3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)acryloyl)-5,6-dihydropyridin-2(1H)-one
-
-
-
(E)-4-(hydroxy(2-oxo-1-(3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)acryloyl)-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridin-3-yl)methyl)benzonitrile
-
-
-
(E)-methyl 3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)acrylate
-
-
-
(E)-N-ethanethioyl-3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)acrylamide
-
-
-
(E,E)-5[2-methyl-3-phenyl-2-propenylidene-4-oxo-2-thioxo-3-thiazolidine]acetic acid
-
-
(E,E)-5[2-methyl-3-phenyl-2-propenylidene-4-oxo-2-thioxo-3-thiazolidine]acetic acid
-
recombinant from baculovirus system in Spodoptera frugiperda cells
(NH4)2SO4
-
0.05 mM: slight inhibition, 400 mM: activation
(NH4)2SO4
-
0.05 mM: slight inhibition, 400 mM: activation
(S)-6-fluorospiro[chroman-4,5'-imidazolidine]-2',4'-dione
-
-
(S)-6-fluorospiro[chroman-4,5'-imidazolidine]-2',4'-dione
-
-
(S)-6-fluorospiro[chroman-4,5'-imidazolidine]-2',4'-dione
-
wild type and recombinant from E. coli
(S)-6-fluorospiro[chroman-4,5'-imidazolidine]-2',4'-dione
-
recombinant from baculovirus system in Spodoptera frugiperda cells
(Z)-2-(5-biphenyl-4-ylmethylene-2,4-dioxothiazolidin-3-yl)-N-hydroxyacetamide
-
-
(Z)-2-(5-biphenyl-4-ylmethylene-2,4-dioxothiazolidin-3-yl)acetamide
-
18% inhibition at 0.0125 mM
(Z)-2-(5-naphthalen-1-ylmethylene-2,4-dioxothiazolidin-3-yl)acetamide
-
32% inhibition at 0.0125 mM
(Z)-2-(5-naphthalen-2-ylmethylene-2,4-dioxothiazolidin-3-yl)acetamide
-
3% inhibition at 0.0125 mM
(Z)-2-[2,4-dioxo-5-(3-phenoxybenzylidene)thiazolidin-3-yl]acetamide
-
8% inhibition at 0.0125 mM
(Z)-2-[5-(3-hydroxybenzylidene)-2,4-dioxothiazolidin-3-yl]acetamide
-
16% inhibition at 0.0125 mM
(Z)-2-[5-(3-methoxybenzylidene)-2,4-dioxothiazolidin-3-yl]acetamide
-
10% inhibition at 0.0125 mM
(Z)-2-[5-(4-benzyloxybenzylidene)-2,4-dioxothiazolidin-3-yl]-N-hydroxyacetamide
-
-
(Z)-2-[5-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene)-2,4-dioxothiazolidin-3-yl]acetamide
-
-
(Z)-2-[5-(4-hydroxybenzylidene)-2,4-dioxothiazolidin-3-yl]acetamide
-
31% inhibition at 0.0125 mM
(Z)-5-(naphthalen-1-ylmethylidene)-3-(3,3,3-trifluoro-2-oxopropyl)-2,4-thiazolidinedione
-
52% inhibition at 0.025 mM
-
(Z)-5-(naphthalen-2-ylmethylidene)-3-(3,3,3-trifluoro-2-oxopropyl)-2,4-thiazolidinedione
-
59% inhibition at 0.025 mM
-
(Z)-5-[(3-hydroxyphenyl)methylidene]-3-(3,3,3-trifluoro-2-oxopropyl)-2,4-thiazolidinedione
-
-
-
(Z)-5-[(3-methoxyphenyl)methylidene]-3-(3,3,3-trifluoro-2-oxopropyl)-2,4-thiazolidinedione
-
-
-
(Z)-5-[(3-phenoxyphenyl)methylidene]-3-(3,3,3-trifluoro-2-oxopropyl)-2,4-thiazolidinedione
-
64% inhibition at 0.025 mM
-
(Z)-5-[(4-hydroxyphenyl)methylidene]-3-(3,3,3-trifluoro-2-oxopropyl)-2,4-thiazolidinedione
-
-
-
(Z)-5-[(4-methoxyphenyl)methylidene]-3-(3,3,3-trifluoro-2-oxopropyl)-2,4-thiazolidinedione
-
-
-
(Z)-5-[(4-phenoxyphenyl)methylidene]-3-(3,3,3-trifluoro-2-oxopropyl)-2,4-thiazolidinedione
-
-
-
(Z)-5-[(4-phenylphenyl)methylidene]-3-(3,3,3-trifluoro-2-oxopropyl)-2,4-thiazolidinedione
-
45% inhibition at 0.025 mM
-
(Z)-N-hydroxy-2-(5-naphthalen-1-ylmethylene-2,4-dioxothiazolidin-3-yl)acetamide
-
-
(Z)-N-hydroxy-2-(5-naphthalen-2-ylmethylene-2,4-dioxothiazolidin-3-yl)acetamide
-
39% inhibition at 0.025 mM
(Z)-N-hydroxy-2-[2,4-dioxo-5-(3-phenoxybenzylidene)-thiazolidin-3-yl]acetamide
-
-
(Z)-N-hydroxy-2-[2,4-dioxo-5-(4-phenoxybenzylidene)-thiazolidin-3-yl]acetamide
-
-
(Z)-N-hydroxy-2-[5-(4-hydroxybenzylidene)-2,4-dioxothiazolidin-3-yl]acetamide
-
-
([2-[(4-methoxy-1-methyl-1H-indazol-3-yl)amino]-2-oxoethyl]sulfanyl)acetic acid
-
HTS-03834
([5-(5-nitrofuran-2-yl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl]sulfanyl)acetic acid
-
crystallization data
1,1-dioxidenaphtho[2,3-d]isothiazole-3(2H)-one
P07943
-
1,10-phenanthroline
-
-
1,2,7-trihydroxy-3,8-dimethoxy-6-methylanthracene-9,10-dione 2-O-beta-D-glucoside
-
-
1,3,3-trioxo-1,2-dihydronaphtho[1,2-d]isothiazole-4-carboxylic acid
P07943
-
1,3,7-trihydroxy-2,8-dimethoxy-6-methylanthracene-9,10-dione
-
-
1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methylanthracene-9,10-dione
-
-
1,5-bis(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-1,4-pentadiene-3-one
-
IC50: 0.0034 mM
1,5-bis(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,4-pentadiene-3-one
-
31.0% inhibition at 0.1 mM
1,5-bis(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-1,4-pentadiene-3-one
-
IC50: 0.0253 mM
1,5-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,4-pentadiene-3-one
-
IC50: 0.0359 mM
1,5-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,4-pentadiene-3-one
-
IC50: 0.0331 mM
1-((2E,4E)-5-(benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl)penta-2,4-dienoyl)-5,6-dihydropyridin-2(1H)-one
-
-
-
1-((2E,4E,6E)-7-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)hepta-2,4,6-trienoyl)-5,6-dihydropyridin-2(1H)-one
-
-
-
1-(2-chlorobenzoyl)-5,6-dihydropyridin-2(1H)-one
-
-
-
1-(2-iodobenzoyl)-5,6-dihydropyridin-2(1H)-one
-
-
-
1-(3-(1-benzyl-1H-indol-3-yl)-3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)propanoyl)-4-(1-benzyl-1H-indol-3-yl)piperidin-2-one
-
-
-
1-(3-(1-benzyl-1H-indol-3-yl)-3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)propanoyl)-5,6-dihydropyridin-2(1H)-one
-
-
-
1-(3-(1H-indol-3-yl)-3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)propanoyl)-4-(1H-indol-3-yl)piperidin-2-one
-
-
-
1-(3-(1H-indol-3-yl)-3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)propanoyl)-5,6-dihydropyridin-2(1H)-one
-
-
-
1-(3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-3-(1-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)propanoyl)-4-(1-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)piperidin-2-one
-
-
-
1-(3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-3-(1-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)propanoyl)-5,6-dihydropyridin-2(1H)-one
-
-
-
1-(3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-3-(2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)propanoyl)-4-(2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)piperidin-2-one
-
-
-
1-(3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-3-(2-phenyl-1H-indol-3-yl)propanoyl)-4-(2-phenyl-1H-indol-3-yl)piperidin-2-one
-
-
-
1-(3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-3-(5-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)propanoyl)-4-(5-methoxy-1H-indol-3-yl)piperidin-2-one
-
-
-
1-(3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-3-(5-nitro-1H-indol-3-yl)propanoyl)-4-(5-nitro-1H-indol-3-yl)piperidin-2-one
-
-
-
1-(3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-3-(5-nitro-1H-indol-3-yl)propanoyl)-5,6-dihydropyridin-2(1H)-one
-
-
-
1-(3-(5-bromo-1H-indol-3-yl)-3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)propanoyl)-4-(5-bromo-1H-indol-3-yl)piperidin-2-one
-
-
-
1-(3-(5-bromo-1H-indol-3-yl)-3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)propanoyl)-5,6-dihydropyridin-2(1H)-one
-
-
-
1-(3-(5-fluoro-1H-indol-3-yl)-3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)propanoyl)-4-(5-fluoro-1H-indol-3-yl)piperidin-2-one
-
-
-
1-(3-(5-fluoro-1H-indol-3-yl)-3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)propanoyl)-5,6-dihydropyridin-2(1H)-one
-
-
-
1-(3-(5-iodo-1H-indol-3-yl)-3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)propanoyl)-4-(5-iodo-1H-indol-3-yl)piperidin-2-one
-
-
-
1-(3-(5-iodo-1H-indol-3-yl)-3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)propanoyl)-5,6-dihydropyridin-2(1H)-one
-
-
-
1-(3-(5-methoxy-1H-indol-3-yl)-3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)propanoyl)-5,6-dihydropyridin-2(1H)-one
-
-
-
1-(4-fluorobenzoyl)-5,6-dihydropyridin-2(1H)-one
-
-
-
1-(4-nitrobenzoyl)-5,6-dihydropyridin-2(1H)-one
-
-
-
1-butyl-2-[[(4-oxo-3,4-dihydroquinazolin-2-yl)methyl]sulfanyl]-1H-benzimidazole-5-sulfonamide
P42330
classical competitive mechanism. No significant influence on 11beta-HSD activities
1-cinnamoyl-5,6-dihydropyridin-2(1H)-one
-
-
-
1-[3-(2-phenyl-1H-indol-3-yl)-3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)propanoyl]-5,6-dihydropyridin-2(1H)-one
-
-
-
17alpha-estradiol
O60218
-
17beta-estradiol
O60218
-
2,1,3-benzoxadiazol-5-yl 5-chlorothiophene-2-sulfonate
-
KM-07100
2,2'-dipyridyl
-
-
2,2'-[sulfonylbis(benzene-4,1-diyliminomethylylidene)]dipropanedinitrile
-
BTB-06667
2,3-dihydrospiro[4H-thiopyrano[2,3-b]pyridin-4,4'imidazolidine]-2',5'-dione
-
50% inhibition at 0.0034 mM
2,3-dihydrospiro[4H-thiopyrano[2,3-b]pyridin-4,4'imidazolidine]-2',5'-dione, sulfone derivative
-
50% inhibition at 0.0014 mM
2,5-bis(3,4-dihydroxybenzylidene)cyclopentanone
-
IC50: 0.0026 mM
2,5-bis(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzylidene)cyclopentanone
-
38.2% inhibition at 0.1 mM
2,5-bis(3-bromo-4-hydroxy-5-methoxybenzylidene)cyclopentanone
-
IC50: 0.0208 mM
2,5-bis(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzylidene)cyclopentanone
-
IC50: 0.0234 mM
2,5-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene)cyclopentanone
-
IC50: 0.0258 mM
2,5-bis(4-hydroxybenzylidene)cyclopentanone
-
IC50: 0.0274 mM
2,5-dihydrobenzoic acid
-
-
2,6-bis(3,4-dihydroxybenzylidene)cyclohexanone
-
IC50: 0.0029 mM
2,6-bis(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzylidene)cyclohexanone
-
35.8% inhibition at 0.1 mM
2,6-bis(3-bromo-4-hydroxy-5-methoxybenzylidene)cyclohexanone
-
IC50: 0.021 mM
2,6-bis(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzylidene)cyclohexanone
-
IC50: 0.0249 mM
2,6-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene)cyclohexanone
-
IC50: 0.0264 mM
2,6-bis(4-hydroxybenzylidene)cyclohexanone
-
IC50: 0.0275 mM
2,6-dichlorophenylacetic acid
-
competitive
2-(2-oxo-3-((3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)amino)quinoxalin-1(2H)-yl)acetic acid
-
-
2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-ethanoic acid
-
IC50: 0.0303 mM
2-(3-((2,4-difluorophenyl)amino)-2-oxoquinoxalin-1(2H)-yl)acetic acid
-
-
2-(3-((4-bromo-2-fluorophenyl)amino)-2-oxoquinoxalin-1(2H)-yl)-acetic acid
-
-
2-(3-((4-bromophenyl)amino)-2-oxoquinoxalin-1(2H)-yl)acetic acid
-
-
2-(3-((4-fluorophenyl)amino)-2-oxoquinoxalin-1(2H)-yl)acetic acid
-
-
2-(3-(4-bromo-2-fluorophenoxy)-2-oxoquinoxalin-1(2H)-yl)acetic acid
-
-
2-(3-(4-bromo-2-fluorophenoxy)-6-chloro-2-oxoquinoxalin-1(2H)-yl)acetic acid
-
-
2-(3-(4-bromo-2-fluorophenoxy)-6-fluoro-2-oxoquinoxalin-1(2H)-yl)acetic acid
-
-
2-(3-(4-bromo-2-fluorophenoxy)-7-chloro-2-oxoquinoxalin-1(2H)-yl)acetic acid
-
-
2-(3-(4-bromo-2-fluorophenoxy)-7-fluoro-2-oxoquinoxalin-1(2H)-yl)acetic acid
-
-
2-(3-(4-bromophenoxy)-2-oxoquinoxalin-1(2H)-yl)acetic acid
-
-
2-(3-(4-bromophenoxy)-6-chloro-2-oxoquinoxalin-1(2H)-yl)acetic acid
-
-
2-(3-(4-bromophenoxy)-6-fluoro-2-oxoquinoxalin-1(2H)-yl)acetic acid
-
-
2-(3-(4-bromophenoxy)-7-chloro-2-oxoquinoxalin-1(2H)-yl)acetic acid
-
-
2-(3-(4-bromophenoxy)-7-fluoro-2-oxoquinoxalin-1(2H)-yl)acetic acid
-
-
2-(3-(4-fluorophenoxy)-2-oxoquinoxalin-1(2H)-yl)acetic acid
-
-
2-(3-benzoyl-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)acetic acid
-
-
-
2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)ethanoic acid
-
derived from ginger rhizom, Zingiber officinale, IC50: 0.0185 mM, suppresses nt only sorbitol accumulation in human erythrocytes
2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)ethanol
-
derived from ginger rhizom, Zingiber officinale, IC50: 0.0192 mM, suppresses sorbitol accumulation in human erythrocytes
2-(6-bromo-3-(4-bromo-2-fluorophenoxy)-2-oxoquinoxalin-1(2H)-yl)acetic acid
-
-
2-(6-bromo-3-(4-bromophenoxy)-2-oxoquinoxalin-1(2H)-yl)acetic acid
-
-
2-(6-bromo-3-(4-fluorophenoxy)-2-oxoquinoxalin-1(2H)-yl)acetic acid
-
-
2-(6-chloro-3-(4-fluorophenoxy)-2-oxoquinoxalin-1(2H)-yl)acetic acid
-
-
2-(6-fluoro-3-(4-fluorophenoxy)-2-oxoquinoxalin-1(2H)-yl)acetic acid
-
-
2-(7-bromo-3-(4-bromo-2-fluorophenoxy)-2-oxoquinoxalin-1(2H)-yl)acetic acid
-
-
2-(7-bromo-3-(4-bromophenoxy)-2-oxoquinoxalin-1(2H)-yl)acetic acid
-
-
2-(7-bromo-3-(4-fluorophenoxy)-2-oxoquinoxalin-1(2H)-yl)acetic acid
-
-
2-(7-chloro-3-(4-fluorophenoxy)-2-oxoquinoxalin-1(2H)-yl)acetic acid
-
-
2-(7-fluoro-3-(4-fluorophenoxy)-2-oxoquinoxalin-1(2H)-yl)acetic acid
-
-
2-(carboxymethyl)-1-oxo-1,2-dihydronaphtho[1,2-d]isothiazole-4-carboxylic acid 3,3-dioxide
-
crystallization data
2-benzyl-1,3,3-trioxo-1,2-dihydronaphtho[1,2-d]isothiazole-4-carboxylic acid
P07943
; IC50: 0.068 mM; IC50: 0.10 mM
2-benzyl-1,3,3-trioxo-1,2-dihydronaphtho[1,2-d]isothiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester
P07943
-
2-bromophenylacetic acid
-
competitive
2-carboxymethyl-1,3,3-trioxo-1,2-dihydronaphtho[1,2-d]isothiazole-4-carboxylic acid
P07943
IC50: 140 nM, binding structure analysis
2-carboxymethyl-1,3,3-trioxo-1,2-dihydronaphtho[1,2-d]isothiazole-4-carboxylic acid carboxymethyl ester
P07943
IC50: 550 nM, binding structure analysis
2-Chlorophenylacetic acid
-
competitive
2-ethoxycarbonyl-1,3,3-trioxo-1,2-dihydronaphtho[1,2-d]isothiazole-4-carboxylic acid ethoxycarbonylmethyl ester
P07943
-
2-hydroxyphenylacetic acid
-
competitive
2-isopropoxycarbonylmethyl-1,3,3-trioxo-1,2-dihydronaphtho[1,2-d]isothiazole-4-carboxylic acid isopropyl ester
P07943
-
2-mercaptoethanol
-
-
2-methyl-1,3,3-trioxo-1,2-dihydronaphtho[1,2-d]isothiazole-4-carboxylic acid
P07943
IC50: 0.088 mM
2-methyl-1,3,3-trioxo-1,2-dihydronaphtho[1,2-d]isothiazole-4-carboxylic acid ethoxycarbonyl methylester
P07943
-
2-methyl-1,3,3-trioxo-1,2-dihydronaphtho[1,2-d]isothiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester
P07943
-
2-napthylacetic acid
-
competitive
2-Oxodecanoate
-
-
2-oxoglutarate
-
-
2-Oxoheptanoate
-
-
2-Oxohexanoate
-
-
2-Oxoisohexanoate
-
-
2-oxoisopentanoate
-
-
2-oxononanoate
-
-
2-oxooctanoate
-
-
2-Oxopentanoate
-
-
2-tert-butylsulfonylnaphthalene-1,3-dicarboxylic acid
P07943
-
2-tert-butylsulfonylnaphthalene-1-carboxylic acid
P07943
-
2-[(4-fluorobenzyl)[(2-fluorophenyl)sulfonyl]amino]-N-[2-(3-fluorophenyl)ethyl]acetamide
P42330
-
2-[2-(carboxymethoxy)-2-oxoethyl]-1-oxo-1,2-dihydronaphtho[1,2-d]isothiazole-4-carboxylic acid 3,3-dioxide
-
crystallization data
2-[5-fluoro-2-methyl-1-p-(methylsulphinyl)benzylidine]indene-3-acetic acid
-
non-competitive
3',3'',5',5''-tetrabromophenolphthalein
-
less than 25% inhibition at 0.1 mM
3,3-dioxidenaphtho[1,2-d]isothiazole-1(2H)-one
P07943
-
3,3-Tetramethylene glutaric acid
-
-
3,3-Tetramethyleneglutaric acid
-
-
3,4-dinitro-2,5-bis(phenylsulfanyl)thiophene
-
SEW-05367
3,5-bis(3,4-dihydroxybenzylidene)-4-piperidone
-
IC50: 0.0049 mM
3,5-bis(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzylidene)-4-piperidone
-
29.2% inhibition at 0.1 mM
3,5-bis(3-bromo-4-hydroxy-5-methoxybenzylidene)-4-piperidone
-
IC50: 0.0208 mM
3,5-bis(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzylidene)-4-piperidone
-
IC50: 0.0223 mM
3,5-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene)-4-piperidone
-
IC50: 0.0299 mM
3,5-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4-piperidone
-
IC50: 0.0311 mM
3,5-dichlorosalicylic acid
-
uncompetitive inhibition
3,6,7-trichloroquinoxalin-2(1H)-one
-
-
-
3,6-dichloroquinoxalin-2(1H)-one
-
-
-
3,7-dichloroquinoxalin-2(1H)-one
-
-
-
3-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-5-hydroxy-7-methoxy-6-(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)-4H-chromen-4-one
-
a gamma,gamma-dimethylallyl type prenylated isoflavonoid
3-(2-phenylthiazole-4-yl)propanoic acid
-
-
3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-3-(2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)propanoic acid
-
-
-
3-(3-benzoyl-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)propanoic acid
-
-
-
3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)propanol
-
IC50: 0.283 mM
3-(4-nitrophenyl)-2-[(phenylsulfonyl)amino]propanoic acid
-
SPB-08302
3-(5-(3-(trifluormethyl)phenyl)thiophene-2-yl)propanoic acid
-
-
3-(5-(3-acetylphenyl)furan-2-yl)propanoic acid
-
-
3-(5-(3-aminophenyl)furan-2-yl)propanoic acid
-
-
3-(5-(3-methoxyphenyl)furan-2-yl)propanoic acid
-
-
3-(5-(3-methoxyphenyl)thiophene-2-yl)propanoic acid
-
-
3-(5-(3-methylphenyl)furan-2-yl)propanoic acid
-
-
3-(5-(3-methylphenyl)thiophene-2-yl)propanoic acid
-
-
3-(5-(3-methylsulfonyl)phenylfuran-2-yl)propanoic acid
-
-
3-(5-(3-nitrophenyl)furan-2-yl)propanoic acid
-
-
3-(5-(3-nitrophenyl)thiophene-2-yl)propanoic acid
-
-
3-(5-(3-trifluormethyl)phenylfuran-2-yl)propanoic acid
-
-
3-(5-phenylfuran-2-yl)propanoic acid
-
-
3-(5-phenylthiophene-2-yl)propanoic acid
-
-
3-(5-pyridine-2-yl-furan-2-yl)propanoic acid
-
-
3-(5-pyridine-3-yl-furan-2-yl)propanoic acid
-
-
3-benzyl-1-methyl-2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinolin-4-yl 4-methylbenzenesulfonate
-
NRB-05245
3-chloro-6-fluoroquinoxalin-2(1H)-one
-
-
-
3-chloro-6-methylquinoxalin-2(1H)-one
-
-
-
3-chloro-6-nitroquinoxalin-2(1H)-one
-
-
-
3-chloro-7-fluoroquinoxalin-2(1H)-one
-
-
-
3-chloro-7-methoxyquinoxalin-2(1H)-one
-
-
-
3-chloro-7-methylquinoxalin-2(1H)-one
-
-
-
3-chloroquinoxalin-2(1H)-one
-
-
-
3-hydroxybutyrate
-
-
3-hydroxybutyrate
-
-
3-hydroxybutyric acid
-
-
3-hydroxycoumarin
-
-
3-morpholino syndnonimine
-
1 mM, 76% inhibition, reversed by incubation with fresh media
3-tert-butylsulfonylnaphthalene-2-carboxylic acid
P07943
-
3-[(4-bromo-2-fluorophenyl)methyl]-3,4-dihydro-4-oxo-1-phthalazineacetic acid
-
recombinant from baculovirus system in Spodoptera frugiperda cells
3-[3,4-dihydroxy-5-(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)phenyl]-5,7-dihydroxy-6-(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)-4H-chromen-4-one
-
a gamma,gamma-dimethylallyl type prenylated isoflavonoid
30-norhederagenin
-
-
4-(3-benzoyl-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)butanoic acid
-
-
-
4-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-butanone
-
IC50: 0.197 mM
4-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)butanol
-
IC50: 0.642 mM
4-(5-(3-methylphenyl)thiophene-2-yl)butanoic acid
-
-
4-(5-biphenyl-4-ylmethylene-2,4-dioxothiazolidin-3-yl)-2-butenoic acid
-
21% inhibition of ALR2 at 0.05 mM
4-(5-biphenyl-4-ylmethylene-2,4-dioxothiazolidin-3-yl)-2-butenoic acid methyl ester
-
6% inhibition of ALR2 at 0.05 mM
4-(5-phenylthiophene-2-yl)butanoic acid
-
-
4-amino-N-(3,5-difluoro-4-hydroxyphenyl)benzenesulfonamide
-
-
4-androsten-17alpha-ol-3-one
O60218
i.e. epitestosterone
4-androsten-17beta-ol-3-one
O60218
i.e. testosterone
4-androstene-3,17-dione
O60218
-
4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenol
-
IC50: 0.273 mM
4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl methanol
-
IC50: 0.0244 mM
4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal
-
-
4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal
-
i.e. HNE, a lipid peroxidation-derived aldehyde, triggers multiple signaling cascades that variably affect cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis, the mitogenic effects of HNE, but not GS-HNE or GSDHN, are abolished by glutathione depletion
4-hydroxybenzoic acid
-
-
4-Hydroxycoumarin
-
-
4-O-butylpaeoniflorin
-
-
4-oxo-4-(5-(3-methylphenyl)thiophene-2-yl)butanoic acid
-
-
4-oxo-4-(5-phenylthiophen-2-yl)butanoic acid
-
-
4-pregenene-21-ol-3,20-dione
O60218
i.e. 11-deoxycorticosterone
4-pregnene-11beta,17alpha,21-triol-3,20-dione
O60218
i.e. cortisol
4-pregnene-11beta,21-diol-3,20-dione
O60218
i.e. corticosterone
4-pregnene-17alpha,21-diol-3,11,20-trione
O60218
i.e. cortisone
4-pregnene-18-al-11beta,21-diol-3,20-dione
O60218
i.e. aldosteron
4-[2,4-dioxo-5-(3-phenoxybenzylidene)thiazolidin-3-yl]-2-butenoic acid
-
19% inhibition of ALR2 at 0.05 mM
4-[2,4-dioxo-5-(3-phenoxybenzylidene)thiazolidin-3-yl]-2-butenoic acid methyl ester
-
25% inhibition of ALR2 at 0.05 mM
4-[2,4-dioxo-5-(4-phenoxybenzylidene)thiazolidin-3-yl]-2-butenoic acid
-
57% inhibition of ALR2 at 0.05 mM
4-[3-(3-nitrophenyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl]butanoic acid
-
crystallization data
4-[3-(5-oxo-2,3-dihydro-5H-[1,3]thiazolo[3,2-a]pyrimidin-6-yl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl]butanoic acid
-
SB-02066; SEW-01456
4-[5,7-dimethoxy-6-(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)-2H-chromen-3-yl]benzene-1,3-diol
-
a gamma,gamma-dimethylallyl type prenylated isoflavonoid
4-[5-(4-benzyloxybenzylidene)-2,4-dioxothiazolidin-3-yl]-2-butenoic acid methyl ester
-
23% inhibition of ALR2 at 0.05 mM
4-[5-(4-hydroxybenzylidene)-2,4-dioxothiazolidin-3-yl]-2-butenoic acid
-
IC50: 0.0042 mM
4-[7-hydroxy-5-methoxy-6-(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)-2H-chromen-3-yl]benzene-1,3-diol
-
a gamma,gamma-dimethylallyl type prenylated isoflavonoid
5,5-Diphenylhydantoin
-
-
5,5-Diphenylhydantoin
-
-
5,6-dihydro-1-((E)-3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)acryloyl)pyridin-2(1H)-one
-
-
-
5-(3-aminobenzylidene)-2,4-thiazolidinedione
-
IC50: 0.0202 mM
5-(3-hydroxybenzylidene)-2,4-thiazolidinedione
-
IC50: 0.0107 mM
5-(3-methoxybenzyl)-2,4-thiazolidinedione
-
16% inhibition of ALR2 at 0.05 mM
5-(3-nitrobenzylidene)-2,4-thiazolidinedione
-
21% inhibition of ALR2 at 0.05 mM
5-(3-phenoxybenzyl)-1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione
-
pIC50 is 4.10
5-(3-phenoxybenzyl)-2,4-thiazolidinedione
-
IC50: 0.0789 mM
5-(4-aminobenzylidene)-2,4-thiazolidinedione
-
44% inhibition of ALR2 at 0.05 mM
5-(4-benzyloxybenzyl)-2,4-thiazolidinedione
-
IC50: 0.0314 mM
5-(4-benzyloxybenzylidene)-2,4-thiazolidinedione
-
10% inhibition of ALR2 at 0.05 mM
5-(4-hydroxybenzylidene)-2,4-thiazolidinedione
-
IC50: 0.009 mM
5-(4-methoxybenzyl)-2,4-thiazolidinedione
-
21% inhibition of ALR2 at 0.05 mM
5-(4-nitrobenzylidene)-2,4-thiazolidinedione
-
37% inhibition of ALR2 at 0.05 mM
5-(4-phenoxybenzyl)-1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione
-
pIC50 is 4.39
5-(4-phenoxybenzyl)-2,4-thiazolidinedione
-
IC50: 0.0404 mM
5-(biphenyl-4-ylmethyl)-1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione
-
pIC50 is 4.18
5-androsten-3beta-ol-17-one
O60218
i.e. dehydroepiandrosterone
5-biphenyl-4-ylmethyl-2,4-thiazolidinedione
-
IC50: 0.0658 mM
5-biphenyl-4-ylmethylene-2,4-thiazolidinedione
-
20% inhibition of ALR2 at 0.05 mM
5-cholenic acid-3beta-ol
O60218
-
5-hydroxy-3S-hydroxymethyl-6-methyl-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran
-
-
5-naphthalen-1-ylmethylene-2,4-thiazolidinedione
-
IC50: 0.0107 mM
5-oxo-3-phenyl-5-(quinolin-2-ylamino)pentanoic acid
-
HTS-06058
5-[(4-oxo-2-phenyl-4H-chromen-6-yl)methyl]-1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione
-
-
5-[(6-isopropyl-4-oxo-4H-chromen-3-yl)methylene]thiazolidine-2,4-dione
-
-
5-[(6-methyl-4-oxo-4H-chromen-3-yl)methylene]thiazolidine-2,4-dione
-
-
5-[3-(4-oxo-4H-chromen-2-yl)benzyl]-1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione
-
-
5-[4-(4-oxo-4H-chromen-2-yl)benzyl]-1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione
-
-
5-[4-(benzyloxy)benzyl]-1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione
-
pIC50 is 4.50
5alpha-Androstan-17alpha-ol-3-one
O60218
-
5alpha-androstan-17beta-ol-3-one
O60218
i.e. 5alpha-dehydrotestosterone
5alpha-Androstan-3alpha-ol-17-one
O60218
-
5alpha-Androstan-3beta-ol-17-one
O60218
competitive inhibition with respect to geraniol
5alpha-androstane-3,17-dione
O60218
competitive inhibition with respect to geraniol
5alpha-androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol
O60218
-
5alpha-Androstane-3beta,17beta-diol
O60218
-
5alpha-cholanic acid-3beta-ol
O60218
-
5alpha-pregnan-3beta-ol-20-one
O60218
-
5alpha-pregnane-21-ol-3,20-dione
O60218
-
5alpha-pregnane-3,20-dione
O60218
competitive inhibition with respect to geraniol
5beta-androstan-17beta-ol-3-one
O60218
-
5beta-Androstan-3alpha-ol-17-one
O60218
-
5beta-androstan-3beta-ol-17-one
O60218
-
5beta-androstane-3,17-dione
O60218
-
5beta-androstane-3beta,17beta-diol
O60218
-
5beta-cholan-24-ol
O60218
-
5beta-cholanic acid
O60218
competitive inhibition with respect to geraniol
5beta-cholanic acid methyl ester
O60218
-
5beta-cholanic acid-3-one
O60218
-
5beta-cholanic acid-3alpha,12alpha-diol
O60218
i.e. chenodeoxycholic acid
5beta-cholanic acid-3alpha,6alpha-diol
O60218
i.e. hyodeoxycholic acid
5beta-cholanic acid-3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-triol
O60218
i.e. cholic acid
5beta-cholanic acid-3alpha,7alpha-diol
O60218
i.e. deoxycholic acid
5beta-cholanic acid-3alpha,7beta-diol
O60218
i.e. ursodeoxycholic acid
5beta-cholanic acid-3alpha-ol
O60218
i.e. lithocholic acid
5beta-cholanic acid-3beta-ol
O60218
i.e. isolithocholic acid
5beta-Pregnan-3alpha-ol-20-one
O60218
-
5beta-Pregnan-3beta-ol-20-one
O60218
-
5beta-pregnane-3,20-dione
O60218
-
6',6''-dinitrorosmarinic acid
P15121
docking structure with ALR2, overview
6'-nitrorosmarinic acid
P15121
docking structure with ALR2, overview
6,7-dichloro-3-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)quinoxalin-2(1H)-one
-
-
-
6,7-dihydroxy-4-methylcoumarin
-
-
6,7-dihydroxy-4-phenylcoumarin
-
binds to ALR2 in a different manner from epalrestat, molecular docking, overview. Suppresses galactitol accumulation
6,7-dihydroxycoumarin
-
-
6-(2,3-dichlorobenzenesulfonyl)-2H-pyridazin-3-one
-
IC50: 55 nM
6-(2,3-dichlorophenylmethanesulfonyl)-2H-pyridazin-3-one
-
IC50: 35 nM
6-(2,3-difluorobenzenesulfonyl)-2H-pyridazin-3-one
-
IC50: 390 nM
6-(2,3-difluorophenylmethanesulfonyl)-2H-pyridazin-3-one
-
IC50: 257 nM
6-(2,4-dichlorobenzenesulfonyl)-2H-pyridazin-3-one
-
IC50: 190 nM
6-(2,4-dichlorophenylsulfonyl)-2H-pyridazin-3-one
-
-
6-(2,4-difluorobenzenesulfonyl)-2H-pyridazin-3-one
-
IC50: 870 nM
6-(2,5-dichlorobenzenesulfonyl)-2H-pyridazin-3-one
-
IC50: 73 nM
6-(2,6-dichlorobenzenesulfonyl)-2H-pyridazin-3-one
-
IC50: 50 nM
6-(2,6-dichlorophenylmethanesulfonyl)-2H-pyridazin-3-one
-
IC50: 52 nM
6-(2-bromobenzenesulfonyl)-2H-pyridazin-3-one
-
IC50: 210 nM
6-(2-chloro-4-fluorobenzenesulfonyl)-2H-pyridazin-3-one
-
IC50: 280 nM
6-(2-chloro-6-fluorophenylmethanesulfonyl)-2H-pyridazin-3-one
-
IC50: 26 nM
6-(2-chlorobenzenesulfonyl)-2H-pyridazin-3-one
-
IC50: 170 nM
6-(2-chlorophenylmethanesulfonyl)-2H-pyridazin-3-one
-
IC50: 118 nM
6-(2-fluoro-3-chlorophenylmethanesulfonyl)-2H-pyridazin-3-one
-
IC50: 54 nM
6-(2-fluoro-3-trifluoromethylphenylmethanesulfonyl)-2H-pyridazin-3-one
-
IC50: 44 nM
6-(2-fluoro-4-bromophenylmethanesulfonyl)-2H-pyridazin-3-one
-
IC50: 667 nM
6-(2-fluorobenzenesulfonyl)-2H-pyridazin-3-one
-
IC50: 540 nM
6-(2-fluorophenylmethanesulfonyl)-2H-pyridazin-3-one
-
IC50: 422 nM
6-(2-trifluoromethylphenylmethanesulfonyl)-2H-pyridazin-3-one
-
IC50: 500 nM
6-(3,4-dichlorobenzenesulfonyl)-2H-pyridazin-3-one
-
-
6-(3,5-dichlorobenzenesulfonyl)-2H-pyridazin-3-one
-
-
6-(3,5-dimethylbenzofuran-2-sulfonyl)-2H-pyridazin-3-one
-
IC50: 13 nM
6-(3-chlorobenzenesulfonyl)-2H-pyridazin-3-one
-
IC50: 240 nM
6-(3-methylbenzofuran-2-sulfonyl)-2H-pyridazin-3-one
-
IC50: 140 nM
6-(3-phenylbenzofuran-2-sulfonyl)-2H-pyridazin-3-one
-
IC50: 23 nM
6-(3-trifluoromethylbenzenesulfonyl)-2H-pyridazin-3-one
-
IC50: 175 nM
6-(3-trifluoromethylphenylmethanesulfonyl)-2H-pyridazin-3-one
-
IC50: 72 nM
6-(3-[4-fluorophenyl]benzofuran-2-sulfonyl)-2H-pyridazin-3-one
-
IC50: 49 nM
6-(4-bromo-2-fluorobenzenesulfonyl)-2H-pyridazin-3-one
-
IC50: 140 nM
6-(4-bromobenzenesulfonyl)-2H-pyridazin-3-one
-
IC50: 350 nM
6-(4-chlorobenzenesulfonyl)-2H-pyridazin-3-one
-
IC50: 380 nM
6-(4-fluorobenzenesulfonyl)-2H-pyridazin-3-one
-
IC50: 474 nM
6-(4-methoxybenzenesulfonyl)-2H-pyridazin-3-one
-
IC50: 0.002 mM
6-(4-trifluoromethylbenzenesulfonyl)-2H-pyridazin-3-one
-
IC50: 360 nM
6-(5,6-methylenedioxyindole-2-sulfonyl)-2H-pyridazin-3-one
-
IC50: 0.0038 mM
6-(5,7-dichlorobenzofuran-2-sulfonyl)-2H-pyridazin-3-one
-
IC50: 87 nM
6-(5,7-dichloroindole-2-sulfonyl)-2H-pyridazin-3-one
-
IC50: 200 nM
6-(5-chloro-3-ethylbenzofuran-2-sulfonyl)-2H-pyridazin-3-one
-
IC50: 6 nM
6-(5-chloro-3-isopropylbenzofuran-2-sulfonyl)-2H-pyridazin-3-one
-
IC50: 92 nM
6-(5-chloro-3-methylbenzofuran-2-sulfonyl)-2H-pyridazin-3-one
-
IC50: 0.001 mM
6-(5-chloro-3-methylbenzothiophene-2-sulfonyl)-2H-pyridazin-3-one
-
IC50: 55 nM
6-(5-chloro-3-phenylbenzofuran-2-sulfonyl)-2H-pyridazin-3-one
-
IC50: 34 nM
6-(5-chlorobenzofuran-2-sulfonyl)-2H-pyridazin-3-one
-
IC50: 25 nM
6-(5-chloroindole-2-sulfonyl)-2H-pyridazin-3-one
-
IC50: 0.0011 mM
6-(5-fluoro-3-methylbenzofuran-2-sulfonyl)-2H-pyridazin-3-one
-
IC50: 3 nM
6-(5-methoxybenzofuran-2-sulfonyl)-2H-pyridazin-3-one
-
IC50: 230 nM
6-(5-methylbenzothiophene-2-sulfonyl)-2H-pyridazin-3-one
-
IC50: 160 nM
6-(5-trifluoromethyl-3-methylbenzofuran-2-sulfonyl)-2H-pyridazin-3-one
-
IC50: 5 nM
6-(6-chloro-3-methylbenzofuran-2-sulfonyl)-2H-pyridazin-3-one
-
IC50: 190 nM
6-(6-chloroindole-2-sulfonyl)-2H-pyridazin-3-one
-
IC50: 645 nM
6-(6-fluoroindole-2-sulfonyl)-2H-pyridazin-3-one
-
IC50: 0.0014 mM
6-(7-chloroindole-2-sulfonyl)-2H-pyridazin-3-one
-
IC50: 450 nM
6-(alpha-naphthylmethylbenzenesulfonyl)-2H-pyridazin-3-one
-
IC50: 150 nM
6-(benzofuran-2-sulfonyl)-2H-pyridazin-3-one
-
IC50: 150 nM
6-(benzothiazole-2-sulfonyl)-2H-pyridazin-3-one
-
IC50: 450 nM
6-(benzothiophene-2-sulfonyl)-2H-pyridazin-3-one
-
IC50: 180 nM
6-(beta-naphthylmethylbenzenesulfonyl)-2H-pyridazin-3-one
-
IC50: 360 nM
6-(biphenyl-2-sulfonyl)-2H-pyridazin-3-one
-
IC50: 0.0022 mM
6-(indole-2-sulfonyl)-2H-pyridazin-3-one
-
IC50: 590 nM
6-bromo-3-chloroquinoxalin-2(1H)-one
-
-
-
6-hydroxy-7-methoxycoumarin
-
-
6-hydroxycoumarin
-
-
6-methoxypaeoniflorigenone
-
-
6-[(5-chloro-3-methyl-1-benzofuran-2-yl)sulfonyl]pyridazin-3(2H)-one
-
binding structure, inhibition mechanism, residues Trp111, His110, Thr113, Tyr48, Trp20, and Phe122, and the residues of the C-terminal loop Ala299, Leu300, Leu301, Ser302, Cys303 are involved, overview
6-[[(di(2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)methylidene)amino]oxy]hexanoic acid
-
-
6-[[(di(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)methylidene)amino]oxy]hexanoic acid
-
-
6-[[(di(4-methoxy-3-methylphenyl)methylidene)amino]oxy]hexanoic acid
-
-
7-bromo-3-chloroquinoxalin-2(1H)-one
-
-
-
7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin
-
-
7-Hydroxy-4-oxo-4H-chromen-2-carboxylic acid
-
-
7-hydroxy-4-phenylcoumarin
-
-
7-hydroxy-6-methoxycoumarin
-
-
7-hydroxycoumarin
-
-
7-hydroxylcoumarin-4-acetic acid
-
-
7-hydroxylcoumarinyl-4-acetic acid
-
-
7-methoxycoumarin
-
-
7-methyl-2,3-dihydrospiro[4H-thiopyrano[2,3-b]pyridin-4,4'imidazolidine]-2',5'-dione
-
50% inhibition at 0.0011 mM
8-bromo-4,4a-5,6-tetrahydrothieno[2,3-h]cinnolinone-N2-alkanoic acid
-
4fold decreased inhibitory potency compared to the nonsubstituted parent compound
8-chloro-4,4a-5,6-tetrahydrothieno[2,3-h]cinnolinone-N2-alkanoic acid
-
4fold decreased inhibitory potency compared to the nonsubstituted parent compound
8-lavandulylkaempferol
-
potent inhibitor of recombinant human aldose reductase
8-lavandulylkaempferol
-
potent inhibitor of rat lens aldose reductase
8-methyl-4,4a-5,6-tetrahydrothieno[2,3-h]cinnolinone-N2-alkanoic acid
-
2fold decreased inhibitory potency compared to the nonsubstituted parent compound
8-O-benzoylpaeonidanin
-
-
8-phenylsulfonylphthalazin-2H-3-one
-
IC50: 55 nM
acetoacetate
-
-
alpha-benzoyloxypaeoniflorin
-
-
Alrestatin
-
1,3-dioxo-1H-benz[de]isoquinoline-2-(3H)acetic acid
Alrestatin
-
1,3-dioxo-1H-benz[de]isoquinoline-2-(3H)acetic acid
Alrestatin
-
-
Alrestatin
-
inhibits aldose reductase, does not appear to affect RUNX2 activation in cells exposed to euglycemia
ammonium acetate
-
-
apiopaeonoside
-
-
Barbital
-
26% inhibition
Barbital
-
less than 25% inhibition at 0.5 mM
benzbromarone
-
-
benzoylpaeoniflorin
-
-
berberine chloride
-
50% inhibition at 13.98 nM
berberine iodide
-
50% inhibition at 32.84 nM
berberine sulfate
-
50% inhibition at 13.45 nM
beta-benzoyloxypaeoniflorin
-
-
bezafibrate
-
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.003 mM, recombinant enzyme
bisdemethoxycurcumin
-
i.e. 1,7-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione, extracted from Curcuma longa roots, IC50: 0.0137 mM
butein
-
89.9% inhibition at 0.002 mM
c-3',5'-AMP
-
-
Ca2+
-
10 mM inhibits complex formation of ALR 2 with alpha-crystallin
chlorogenic acid
-
-
Cibacron blue F3GA
O60218
competitive inhibition with respect to NADP+, noncompetitive inhibition with respect to geraniol
ciprofibrate
-
competitive, IC50: 0.00086 mM, recombinant enzyme
citrate
-
inhibition is pH-dependent
Cl-
-
at high ionic strength
Cl-
-
0.2 M, wild type and recombinant from E. coli
Clofibric acid
-
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.0012 mM, recombinant enzyme
coptisine
-
53.85-61.54% inhibition at 0.075 mg/ml
coptisine
-
85.86-86.87% inhibition at 0.05 mg/ml
Cu2+
-
oxidative inactivation of ALR2, ratio Cu2+ to enzyme of 2:1, precipitation of the enzyme occurs at higher Cu2+ concentration, alpha-crystallin stabilizes the enzyme and protects against inactivation and precipitation by Cu2+ with higher efficiency at 37C compared to 25C, overview
CuCl2
-
addition of dithiothreitol or 2-mercaptoethanol recovers activity
CuCl2
-
0.007 mM, 20% residual activity, addition of dithiothreitol recovers activity
curcumin
-
i.e. 1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione, extracted from Curcuma longa roots, IC50: 0.0068 mM
curcumin
P15121
inhibits ALR2 in a non-competitive manner, also inhibits AKR1B10, docking analysis and kinetics, overview. Curcumin is able to suppress sorbitol accumulation in human erythrocytes under high glucose conditions
delphinidin 3-O-beta-galactopyranoside
-
most potent inhibitor
delphinidin 3-O-beta-galactopyranoside-3',5'-di-O-beta-glucopyranoside
-
-
demethoxycurcumin
-
i.e. 1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-7-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione, extracted from Curcuma longa roots, IC50: 0.0159 mM
desmethylanhydroicaritin
-
potent inhibitor of recombinant human aldose reductase
desmethylanhydroicaritin
-
potent inhibitor of rat lens aldose reductase
Diphenic acid
-
less than 25% inhibition at 0.5 mM
disodium 4,6-dioxo-10-propyl-4H,6H-pyranol[3,2-g-]-quinoline-2,8-dicarboxylate
-
non-competitive
dithiothreitol
-
-
dithiothreitol
-
increased inhibitory effect of sorbinil
dithiothreitol
-
-
DL-dihydrolipoic acid
-
binds very tight to the enzyme, best inhibitor of the investigated, competitive
DL-lipoamide
-
binds three-fold more weakly than D,L-lipoic acid, competitive
DL-lipoic acid
-
is effective in the treatment of diabetic complications, binds tightly to the enzyme, competitive
DTT
-
activates the enzyme in healthy heart slightly, but slightly inhibits the ischemic heart enzyme
Epalrestat
-
orally active inhibitor
Epalrestat
-
85.8% inhibition at 0.0025 mM
Epalrestat
-
full inhibition
Epalrestat
Q5DD64, -
-
epiberberine
-
69.23-76.92% inhibition at 0.075 mg/ml
epiberberine
-
complete inhibition at 0.05 mg/ml
estriol
O60218
i.e. 16alpha-hydroxyestradiol
estrone
O60218
-
Ethosuccinimide
-
-
ethyl 1-benzyl-3-hydroxy-2(5H)-oxopyrrole-4-carboxylate
-
an AR inhibitor, abolishes the accumulation of TPA-treated cells in S phase was almost completely
fenofibrate
-
competitive, IC50: 0.00056 mM, recombinant enzyme
ferulic acid
-
-
fidarestat
-
i.e. inhibitor F, inhibition in vivo and in vitro
fidarestat
-
2S4S-eantiomer, i.e. (2S,4S)-6-fluoro-2',5'-dioxospiro-[chroman-4,4'-imidazoline]-2-carboxamide, IC50: 35 nM, binding site structure, binding to the enzyme does not induce conformational changes in the C-loop region, mechanism, active site binding modeling, the stereochemistry of the exocyclic amide group influences the affinity for the enzyme
fidarestat
-
complex formation with the enzyme
fidarestat
-
thermodynamic binding data for isoform ALR2 and mutants
fidarestat
-
inhibition of enzyme in neural stem cells exposed to high glucose concentration results in decrease of oxidative stress, restoration of cell viability and proliferation, and reduction of apoptotic cell death. Inhibition attenuates the down-regulation of glucose transporter 1 expression
fidarestat
-
-
fidarestat
-
aldose reductase inhibitor, attenuates the increase in growth, but in the absence of angiogenic factors, such as VEGF- and FGF, fidarestat alone does not affect the HUVEC growth
fisetin
-
31.1% inhibition at 0.002 mM
fustin
-
20.1% inhibition at 0.002 mM
Gallic acid
-
-
galloylpaeoniflorin
-
-
gemfibrozil
-
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.0065 mM, recombinant enzyme
glutathionyl-1,4-dihydroxynonene
-
i.e. GS-DHN, the mitogenic effects of HNE, but not GS-HNE or GSDHN, are abolished by glutathione depletion, stimulates protein kinase C, NF-kappaB, and AP-1, and increases cell growth in vascular smooth muscle cells
-
glutathionyl-4-hydroxynonenal
-
i.e. GS-HNE, the mitogenic effects of HNE, but not GS-HNE or GSDHN, are abolished by glutathione depletion, stimulates protein kinase C, NF-kappaB, and AP-1, and increases cell growth in vascular smooth muscle cells
glyceraldehyde
-
substrate inhibition
glycerol
-
uncompetitive to DL-glyceraldehyde
glycochenodeoxycholic acid
O60218
-
glycolithocholic acid
O60218
; competitive inhibition with respect to geraniol
groenlandicine
-
69.23-76.92% inhibition at 0.075 mg/ml
groenlandicine
-
52.38-60.32% inhibition at 0.05 mg/ml
Hexanoic acid
-
competitive
hydroxylamine
-
-
IDD 594
-
binding structure, inhibition mechanism, overview
imirestat
-
-
Indomethacin
-
less than 25% inhibition at 0.1 mM
Indomethacin
-
-
iodoacetamide
-
slight
iodoacetate
-
-
iodoacetate
-
-
Ionic detergents
-
-
-
isolithocholic acid
O60218
uncompetitive inhibition with respect to NADP+, competitive inhibition with respect to geraniol
isorhamnetin 3-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
-
-
isorhamnetin 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside
-
-
-
jateorrhizine
-
12.68-14.08% inhibition at 0.05 mg/ml
kuraridin
-
; potent inhibitor of recombinant human aldose reductase
kurarinol
-
potent inhibitor of rat lens aldose reductase
kurarinone
-
potent inhibitor of rat lens aldose reductase
kushenol E
-
potent inhibitor of recombinant human aldose reductase
kushenol E
-
potent inhibitor of rat lens aldose reductase
Li2SO4
-
200 mM: inhibition
Li2SO4
-
0.4 M: essential for full activity
lidorestat
-
-
lithocholic acid
O60218
competitive inhibition with respect to geraniol
lukianol B
-
IC50: 0.0006 mM
Ly-294002
-
0.05 mM, little decrease in sorbitol-induced activity
magnoflorine
-
18.33-29.85% inhibition at 0.05 mg/ml
malondialdehyde
-
at concentration above 0.8 mM substrate inhibition
Mandelic acid
-
competitive
Medroxyprogesterone acetate
-
less than 25% inhibition at 0.01 mM
methyl 2-(2-oxo-3-((3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)amino)quinoxalin-1(2H)-yl)acetate
-
-
-
methyl 2-(3-((2,4-difluorophenyl)amino)-2-oxoquinoxalin-1(2H)-yl)acetate
-
-
methyl 2-(3-((4-bromo-2-fluorophenyl)amino)-2-oxoquinoxalin-1(2H)-yl)acetate
-
-
methyl 2-(3-((4-bromophenyl)amino)-2-oxoquinoxalin-1(2H)-yl)acetate
-
-
methyl 2-(3-((4-fluorophenyl)amino)-2-oxoquinoxalin-1(2H)-yl)acetate
-
-
methyl 2-(3-(4-bromo-2-fluorophenoxy)-2-oxoquinoxalin-1(2H)-yl)acetate
-
-
methyl 2-(3-(4-bromo-2-fluorophenoxy)-6-chloro-2-oxoquinoxalin-1(2H)-yl)acetate
-
-
methyl 2-(3-(4-bromo-2-fluorophenoxy)-6-fluoro-2-oxoquinoxalin-1(2H)-yl)acetate
-
-
methyl 2-(3-(4-bromo-2-fluorophenoxy)-7-chloro-2-oxoquinoxalin-1(2H)-yl)acetate
-
-
methyl 2-(3-(4-bromo-2-fluorophenoxy)-7-fluoro-2-oxoquinoxalin-1(2H)-yl)acetate
-
-
methyl 2-(3-(4-bromophenoxy)-2-oxoquinoxalin-1(2H)-yl)acetat
-
-
methyl 2-(3-(4-bromophenoxy)-6-chloro-2-oxoquinoxalin-1(2H)-yl)acetate
-
-
methyl 2-(3-(4-bromophenoxy)-6-fluoro-2-oxoquinoxalin-1(2H)-yl)acetate
-
-
methyl 2-(3-(4-bromophenoxy)-7-chloro-2-oxoquinoxalin-1(2H)-yl)acetate
-
-
methyl 2-(3-(4-bromophenoxy)-7-fluoro-2-oxoquinoxalin-1(2H)-yl)acetate
-
-
methyl 2-(3-(4-fluorophenoxy)-2-oxoquinoxalin-1(2H)-yl)acetate
-
-
methyl 2-(6-bromo-3-(4-bromo-2-fluorophenoxy)-2-oxoquinoxalin-1(2H)-yl)acetate
-
-
methyl 2-(6-bromo-3-(4-bromophenoxy)-2-oxoquinoxalin-1(2H)-yl)acetate
-
-
methyl 2-(6-bromo-3-(4-fluorophenoxy)-2-oxoquinoxalin-1(2H)-yl)acetate
-
-
methyl 2-(6-chloro-3-(4-fluorophenoxy)-2-oxoquinoxalin-1(2H)-yl)acetate
-
-
methyl 2-(6-fluoro-3-(4-fluorophenoxy)-2-oxoquinoxalin-1(2H)-yl)acetate
-
-
methyl 2-(7-bromo-3-(4-bromo-2-fluorophenoxy)-2-oxoquinoxalin-1(2H)-yl)acetate
-
-
methyl 2-(7-bromo-3-(4-bromophenoxy)-2-oxoquinoxalin-1(2H)-yl)acetate
-
-
methyl 2-(7-bromo-3-(4-fluorophenoxy)-2-oxoquinoxalin-1(2H)-yl)acetate
-
-
methyl 2-(7-chloro-3-(4-fluorophenoxy)-2-oxoquinoxalin-1(2H)-yl)acetate
-
-
methyl 2-(7-fluoro-3-(4-fluorophenoxy)-2-oxoquinoxalin-1(2H)-yl)acetate
-
-
methyl 3-methyl-2-([2-nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]amino)butanoate
P42330
-
methyl [(5Z)-2,4-dioxo-5-(3-phenoxybenzylidene)-1,3-thiazolidin-3-yl]acetate
-
pIC50 is 5.88
methyl [(5Z)-5-(3-aminobenzylidene)-2,4-dioxo-1,3-thiazolidin-3-yl]acetate
-
pIC50 is 4.41
methyl [(5Z)-5-(3-methoxybenzylidene)-2,4-dioxo-1,3-thiazolidin-3-yl]acetate
-
pIC50 is 5.05
methyl [(5Z)-5-(3-methylbenzylidene)-2,4-dioxo-1,3-thiazolidin-3-yl]acetate
-
pIC50 is 5.00
methyl [(5Z)-5-(4-fluorobenzylidene)-2,4-dioxo-1,3-thiazolidin-3-yl]acetate
-
pIC50 is 4.89
methyl [(5Z)-5-(4-hydroxybenzylidene)-2,4-dioxo-1,3-thiazolidin-3-yl]acetate
-
pIC50 is 5.21
methyl [5-(3-methoxybenzyl)-2,4-dioxo-1,3-thiazolidin-3-yl]acetate
-
pIC50 is 4.68
methyl {(5Z)-2,4-dioxo-5-[3-(trifluoromethyl)benzylidene]-1,3-thiazolidin-3-yl}acetate
-
pIC50 is 4.54
methyl {(5Z)-2,4-dioxo-5-[4-(trifluoromethyl)benzylidene]-1,3-thiazolidin-3-yl}acetate
-
pIC50 is 5.46
Mg2+
-
10 mM inhibits complex formation of ALR 2 with alpha-crystallin, induces ALR 2 aggregation and precipitation
minalrestat
-
cyclic imide inhibitor, mechanism, binds to ALR2 with its isoquinoline ring system located in a hydrophobic pocket formed mainly by the side chains of Trp20, Phe122, and Trp219
minalrestat
-
complex formation with the enzyme
minalrestat
-
uncompetitive inhibition
minalrestat
-
-
Morin hydrate
-
14.1% inhibition at 0.002 mM
mumeflavonoside A
-
-
-
mumeose K
-
-
-
mumeose L
-
-
-
mumeose M
-
-
-
mumeose N
-
-
-
N-(2-phenylethyl)-N-[(2-fluoro-4-bromophenyl)sulfonyl]glycine
-
-
N-(2-phenylethyl)-N-[(3-nitrophenyl)sulfonyl]glycine
-
-
N-(2-phenylethyl)-N-[(4-bromophenyl)sulfonyl]glycine
-
no inhibition of ALR1
N-(2-phenylethyl)-N-[(4-chlorophenyl)sulfonyl]glycine
-
no inhibition of ALR1
N-(2-phenylethyl)-N-[(4-fluorophenyl)sulfonyl]glycine
-
-
N-(2-phenylethyl)-N-[(4-methylphenyl)sulfonyl]glycine
-
no inhibition of ALR1
N-(2-phenylethyl)-N-[(4-nitrophenyl)sulfonyl]glycine
-
no inhibition of ALR1
N-(2-phenylethyl)-N-[(4-trifluoromethylphenyl)sulfonyl]glycine
-
no inhibition of ALR1
N-(2-phenylethyl)-N-{[4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]sulfonyl}glycine
-
-
-
N-(3,5-difluoro-4-hydroxyphenyl)-4-methoxybenzenesulfonamide
-
-
N-(3,5-difluoro-4-hydroxyphenyl)-4-nitrobenzenesulfonamide
-
-
N-(3,5-difluoro-4-hydroxyphenyl)benzenesulfonamide
-
compound exhibits high antioxidant potential. Determination of intestine permeability
N-acetyl-2,3-dihydrospiro[4H-thiopyrano[2,3-b]pyridin-4,4'imidazolidine]-2',5'-dione
-
50% inhibition at 0.050 mM
N-benzyl-N-[(2-fluoro-4-bromophenyl)sulfonyl]glycine
-
-
N-benzyl-N-[(2-napthalenyl)sulfonyl]glycine
-
-
N-benzyl-N-[(3-nitrophenyl)sulfonyl]glycine
-
-
N-benzyl-N-[(4-bromophenyl)sulfonyl]glycine
-
no inhibition of ALR1
N-benzyl-N-[(4-chlorophenyl)sulfonyl]glycine
-
no inhibition of ALR1
N-benzyl-N-[(4-fluorophenyl)sulfonyl]glycine
-
-
N-benzyl-N-[(4-methylphenyl)sulfonyl]glycine
-
no inhibition of ALR1
N-benzyl-N-[(4-nitrophenyl)sulfonyl]glycine
-
no inhibition of ALR1
N-benzyl-N-[(4-trifluoromethylphenyl)sulfonyl]glycine
-
no inhibition of ALR1
N-ethylmaleimide
-
-
N-ethylmaleimide
-
-
N-tert-butyl-2-(2-chloro-6-methoxy-4-([(3-methyl-5-sulfanyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl)amino]methyl)phenoxy)acetamide
P42330
-
N-[2-(2-thienyl)ethyl]-N-[(1,10-biphenyl)-4-sulfonyl]glycine
-
-
N-[2-(2-thienyl)ethyl]-N-[(1-naphthalenyl)sulfonyl]glycine
-
-
N-[2-(2-thienyl)ethyl]-N-[(2-fluoro-4-bromophenyl)sulfonyl]glycine
-
-
N-[2-(2-thienyl)ethyl]-N-[(2-naphthalenyl)sulfonyl]glycine
-
-
N-[2-(2-thienyl)ethyl]-N-[(3-nitrophenyl)sulfonyl]glycine
-
-
N-[2-(2-thienyl)ethyl]-N-[(4-bromophenyl)sulfonyl]glycine
-
-
N-[2-(2-thienyl)ethyl]-N-[(4-chlorophenyl)sulfonyl]glycine
-
no inhibition of ALR1
N-[2-(2-thienyl)ethyl]-N-[(4-fluorophenyl)sulfonyl]glycine
-
-
N-[2-(2-thienyl)ethyl]-N-[(4-nitrophenyl)sulfonyl]glycine
-
-
N-[2-(2-thienyl)ethyl]-N-[(4-trifluoromethylphenyl)sulfonyl]glycine
-
-
N-[2-(2-thienyl)ethyl]-N-[(5-dimethylamino-1 naphthalenyl)sulfonyl]glycine
-
-
N-[2-(2-thienyl)ethyl]-N-[(5-dimethylamino-1-naphthalenyl)sulfonyl]glycine
-
-
N-[[6-methoxy-5(trifluoromethyl)-1-naphthalenyl]thioxomethyl]-N-methylglycine
-
-
N-[[6-methoxy-5(trifluoromethyl)-1-naphthalenyl]thioxomethyl]-N-methylglycine
-
wild type and recombinant from E. coli
N-[[6-methoxy-5(trifluoromethyl)-1-naphthalenyl]thioxomethyl]-N-methylglycine
-
recombinant from baculovirus system in Spodoptera frugiperda cells
N2-(2-methylaminobenzoyl)tetrahydro-1H-pyrido[3,4-b]indol-1-one
-
i.e. rhetsinine, from Evodia rutaecarpa hot water extract. Rhetsinine inhibits sorbitol accumulation by 79.3% at 0.1 mM in erythrocytes
NADP+
-
competitve to NADPH
NADP+
-
competitve to NADPH
naphtho[1,2-d]isothiazole acetic acid derivatives
P07943
-
-
nitazoxanide
-
partial inhibition
nitric oxide
-
from NO donors S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine or S-nitrosoglutathione in vivo and in vitro, leads to increased S-glutathiolation of the enzyme
nudanpinoside H
-
-
Octanoate
-
-
oxaloacetate
-
-
oxypaeoniflorin
-
-
p-Carboxybenzaldehyde
-
substrate inhibition at higher concentration
p-catechuic acid
-
-
p-chloromercuribenzoate
-
complete inhibition
p-coumaric acid
-
-
p-hydroxymercuribenzoate
-
-
p-hydroxymercuribenzoate
-
-
p-hydroxymercuribenzoate
-
-
p-nitrobenzaldehyde
-
at concentration above 2 mM substrate inhibition
paeoniflorigenone
-
-
paeoniflorin
-
-
palmatine iodide
-
50% inhibition at 68 nM
palmatine sulfate
-
50% inhibition at 51.78 nM
PD-98059
-
0.05 mM, decrease of sorbitol-induced activity to control level
pentagalloyl glucose
-
46.6% inhibition at 0.002 mM
Phenobarbital
-
-
Phenobarbital
-
-
Phenobarbital
-
-
Phenobarbitone
-
-
phenylacetic acid
-
competitive
pioglitazone
-
-
piplartine
-
-
-
Ponalrestat
-
-
Ponalrestat
-
wild type and recombinant from E. coli
Ponalrestat
-
cytotoxic effect of methylglyoxal is enhanced in presence of ponalrestat
Ponalrestat
-
IC50: 80 nM
protocatechuic acid
-
12.6% inhibition at 0.002 mM
puerariafuran
-
a 2-arylbenzofuran from Pueraria lobata, collected in Kyonggi-do, Seongnam, Kyungwon University, Korea. Xylose-induced opacity of lenses is significantly improved when treated with puerariafuran
pyrazole
-
slight
pyrazolo[5,1-c][1,2,4]benzotriazin-8-yl dimethylcarbamate
-
EN-00263
pyrid-3-ylcarbinol
-
-
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
-
inhibits cofactor binding
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
-
-
quercetin
-
50% inhibition at 11.15 nM
quercetin
-
IC50: 0.0376 mM
quercetin
-
IC50: 0.027 mM
quercetin
-
76.47-77.94% inhibition at 0.005 mg/ml
quercetin
-
39.1% inhibition at 0.002 mM
quercetin
-
uncompetitive inhibition
quercetin
-
potent inhibitor of recombinant human aldose reductase
quercetin
-
potent inhibitor of rat lens aldose reductase
quercetin 3-O-(2''-O-acetyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside
-
-
-
quercetin 3-O-(6''-O-acetyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside
-
-
-
quercetin 3-O-(6''-O-benzoyl)-beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
-
-
rosiglitazone
-
-
rosmarinic acid
P15121
docking structure with ALR2, overview
rubrolide L
-
-
-
S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine
-
1 mM, 86% inhibition, reversed by incubation with fresh media
S-nitrosoglutathione
-
0.05 mM, up to 40% inhibition, possibly due to selctive formation of a single mixed disulfide between glutathione and Cys298
S-nitrosoglutathione
-
1 mM, 70% inhibition, reversed by incubation with fresh media
S-nitrosoglutathione monoethylester
-
1 mM, 73% inhibition, reversed by incubation with fresh media
S12728
-
inhibitor of ALR2, but no inhbition of ALR1
-
SB-203580
-
0 0.01 mM, decrease of sorbitol-induced activity below control level
semilicoisoflavone B
-
contains a gamma,gamma-dimethylchromene ring on the aromatic ring
Sorbinil
-
50% inhibition at 29 nM
Sorbinil
-
inhibition of enzyme, preventing apotosis and activation of caspase-3, attenuation of TNF-alpha and hyperglykemia-induced activation of protein kinase C
Sorbinil
-
-
Sorbinil
-
competitive, IC50: 0.0021 mM, recombinant enzyme
Sorbinil
-
IC50: 0.0011 mM
Sorbinil
-
IC50: 0.0034 mM
Sorbinil
-
enzyme inhibition abolishes fibroblast growth factorinduced and platelet-derived growth factorinduced up-regulation of PGE2 synthesis and lipid-adehyde signaling, e.g. by 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal, in Caco-2 cells, overview
Sorbinil
-
AR inhibitor, prevents hyperproliferation of aortic smooth muscle cells
Sorbinil
-
in vivo inhibition potentiates apoptosis due to lipid aldehydes, overview
Sorbinil
-
aldose reductase inhibitor, IC50: 900 nM
Sorbinil
-
IC50: 140 nM
Sorbinil
-
complex formation with the enzyme
Sorbinil
-
orally active inhibitor, IC50: 0.0036 mM
Sorbinil
-
inhibition significantly prevents the tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced prostaglandin E2 production in Caco-2 cells
Sorbinil
-
inhibition of aldose reductase suppresses lipopolysaccharide-stimulated production of nitric oxide and over-expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase. Inhibition also prevents the lipopolysaccaride-induced apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, activation of caspase-3, downregulation of Bcl-xl and up-regulation of Bax and Bak in macrophages
Sorbinil
-
thermodynamic binding data for isoform ALR2 and mutants
Sorbinil
-
-
Sorbitol
-
competitive inhibition with NADP+ and glucose
Statil
-
molecular modeling redicts an enhancement of net binding energy of the complex by 33% through replacement of the fluorine atom of statil by a carboxylate group
stobadine
-
i.e. (-)-cis-2,8-dimethyl-2,3,4,4a,5,9b-hexahydro-1H-pyrido[4,3,-b]indole
-
Sulfhydryl inhibitors
-
-
-
sulfuretin
-
69.8% inhibition at 0.002 mM
sulindac
-
exhibits both the highest inhibitory activity towards human aldose reductase among popular non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and clear beneficial clinical effects on Type 2 diabetes, uncompetitive inhibition, enzyme binding structure, overview
sulindac sulfide
-
enzyme binding structure, overview
sulindac sulfone
-
enzyme binding structure, overview
syringic acid
-
-
tetramethylene glutaric acid
-
-
thienocinnolinone alkanoic acid derivatives
-
i.e. 8-halogen-4,4a-5,6-tetrahydrothieno[2,3-h]cinnolinone-N2-alkanoic acid derivatives, synthesis and inhibitory potency, IC50 as low as 0.0314 mM, the length of the N2 alkanoic chain strongly influences the inhibitory activity, overview
-
tizoxanide
-
partial inhibition
TNF-alpha
-
-
-
Tolmetin
-
enzyme binding structure, overview
Tolrestat
-
inhibition of enzyme, preventing apotosis and activation of caspase-3, attenuation of TNF-alpha and hyperglykemia-induced activation of protein kinase C
Tolrestat
-
0.001 mM, about 50% inhibition
Tolrestat
-
-
Tolrestat
-
AR inhibitor, prevents hyperproliferation of aortic smooth muscle cells, cell cycle progression in the presence of high glucose was blocked by tolrestat
Tolrestat
-
potent inhibition, mechanism involves residues Arg312, Leu300, and Phe122
Tolrestat
-
orally active inhibitor
Tolrestat
-
inhibition significantly prevents the tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced prostaglandin E2 production in Caco-2 cells
Tolrestat
-
inhibition of aldose reductase suppresses lipopolysaccharide-stimulated production of nitric oxide and over-expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase. Inhibition also prevents the lipopolysaccaride-induced apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, activation of caspase-3, downregulation of Bcl-xl and up-regulation of Bax and Bak in macrophages
Tolrestat
-
thermodynamic binding data for isoform ALR2 and mutants
Tolrestat
O60218
uncompetitive inhibition with respect to NADP+, competitive inhibition with respect to geraniol
Tolrestat
-
uncompetitive inhibition
Tolrestat
-
-
Tolrestat
-
-
trans-Cinnamic acid
-
-
Valproate
-
less than 25% inhibition at 0.5 mM
Valproic acid
-
-
Vanillic acid
-
-
Zenarestat
-
-
Zenarestat
-
orally active inhibitor
zofenoprilat-glutathione disulfide
-
the enzyme is specifically S-thionylated and inactivated by ZSSG, a homodisulfide formed by GSH and zofenoprilat, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor carrying a thiol group, which is more stable than glutathione, optimization, overview
zopolrestat
-
-
zopolrestat
-
inhibiton of enzyme, increase in rates of glycolysis and glucose oxidation
zopolrestat
-
0.001 mM, about 30% inhibition
zopolrestat
-
competitive, IC50: 0.00006 mM, recombinant enzyme
zopolrestat
-
IC50: 4 nM
zopolrestat
-
inhibition of aldose reductase suppresses lipopolysaccharide-stimulated production of nitric oxide and over-expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase. Inhibition also prevents the lipopolysaccaride-induced apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, activation of caspase-3, downregulation of Bcl-xl and up-regulation of Bax and Bak in macrophages
zopolrestat
-
-
zopolrestat
-
thermodynamic binding data for isoform ALR2 and mutants
zopolrestat
-
treatment with the aldose reductase inhibitor zopolrestat significantly improves endothelial-dependent relaxation in response to acetylcholine in aged rats
zopolrestat
-
-
zoporestat
-
-
-
[(5Z)-2,4-dioxo-5-(3-phenoxybenzylidene)-1,3-thiazolidin-3-yl]acetic acid
-
pIC50 is 6.89
[(5Z)-2,4-dioxo-5-(4-phenoxybenzylidene)-1,3-thiazolidin-3-yl]acetic acid
-
pIC50 is 6.09
[(5Z)-5-(3-fluorobenzylidene)-2,4-dioxo-1,3-thiazolidin-3-yl]acetic acid
-
pIC50 is 6.13
[(5Z)-5-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzylidene)-2,4-dioxo-1,3-thiazolidin-3-yl]acetic acid
-
pIC50 is 6.25
[(5Z)-5-(3-hydroxybenzylidene)-2,4-dioxo-1,3-thiazolidin-3-yl]acetic acid
-
pIC50 is 6.18
[(5Z)-5-(3-methoxybenzylidene)-2,4-dioxo-1,3-thiazolidin-3-yl]acetic acid
-
pIC50 is 6.32
[(5Z)-5-(3-methylbenzylidene)-2,4-dioxo-1,3-thiazolidin-3-yl]acetic acid
-
pIC50 is 6.19
[(5Z)-5-(3-nitrobenzylidene)-2,4-dioxo-1,3-thiazolidin-3-yl]acetic acid
-
pIC50 is 6.31
[(5Z)-5-(4-fluorobenzylidene)-2,4-dioxo-1,3-thiazolidin-3-yl]acetic acid
-
pIC50 is 5.94
[(5Z)-5-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene)-2,4-dioxo-1,3-thiazolidin-3-yl]acetic acid
-
pIC50 is 6.15
[(5Z)-5-(4-hydroxybenzylidene)-2,4-dioxo-1,3-thiazolidin-3-yl]acetic acid
-
pIC50 is 6.82
[(5Z)-5-(biphenyl-4-ylmethylidene)-2,4-dioxo-1,3-thiazolidin-3-yl]acetic acid
-
pIC50 is 6.59
[(5Z)-5-(naphthalen-1-ylmethylidene)-2,4-dioxo-1,3-thiazolidin-3-yl]acetic acid
-
pIC50 is 6.77
[2,4-dioxo-5-(3-phenoxybenzyl)-1,3-thiazolidin-3-yl]acetic acid
-
pIC50 is 6.00
[2,4-dioxo-5-(3-phenoxybenzyl)thiazolidin-3-yl]acetic acid
-
IC50: 0.0010 mM
[2,4-dioxo-5-(3-phenoxybenzyl)thiazolidin-3-yl]acetic acid methyl ester
-
26% inhibition of ALR2 at 0.05 mM
[2,4-dioxo-5-(4-phenoxybenzyl)-1,3-thiazolidin-3-yl]acetic acid
-
pIC50 is 5.55
[2,4-dioxo-5-(4-phenoxybenzyl)thiazolidin-3-yl]acetic acid
-
IC50: 0.0028 mM
[2,4-dioxo-5-(4-phenoxybenzylidene)thiazolidin-3-yl]acetic acid
-
IC50: 0.00082 mM
[2,4-dioxo-5-(4-phenoxybenzylidene)thiazolidin-3-yl]acetic acid methyl ester
-
33% inhibition of ALR2 at 0.05 mM
[3-(4,5,7-trifluoro-benzothiazol-2-ylmethyl)-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-1-yl]acetic acid
-
-
-
[5-(3-aminobenzylidene)-2,4-dioxothiazolidin-3-yl]-acetic acid methyl ester
-
IC50: 0.039 mM
[5-(3-carboxymethoxy-4-methoxybenzylidene)-2,4-dioxothiazolidin-3-yl]acetic acid
-
i.e. CMD, a potent inhibitor of ALR2, but not for ALR1, structure molecular modelling, overview. The non-conserved C-terminal residue Leu300 in ALR2, which is Pro301 in ALR1, contributes to inhibitor selectivity
[5-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzylidene)-2,4-dioxothiazolidin-3-yl]acetic acid
-
i.e. HMD, modelling of inhibitor-enzyme active site complex
[5-(3-hydroxybenzylidene)-2,4-dioxothiazolidin-3-yl]acetic acid
-
IC50: 0.00066 mM
[5-(3-hydroxybenzylidene)-2,4-dioxothiazolidin-3-yl]acetic acid methyl ester
-
43% inhibition of ALR2 at 0.05 mM
[5-(3-methoxybenzyl)-2,4-dioxo-1,3-thiazolidin-3-yl]acetic acid
-
pIC50 is 5.53
[5-(3-methoxybenzyl)-2,4-dioxothiazolidin-3-yl]acetic acid
-
IC50: 0.0030 mM
[5-(3-methoxybenzyl)-2,4-dioxothiazolidin-3-yl]acetic acid methyl ester
-
IC50: 0.0211 mM
[5-(3-nitrobenzylidene)-2,4-dioxothiazolidin-3-yl]-acetic acid
-
IC50: 0.00049 mM
[5-(3-nitrobenzylidene)-2,4-dioxothiazolidin-3-yl]-acetic acid methyl ester
-
22% inhibition of ALR2 at 0.05 mM
[5-(4-aminobenzylidene)-2,4-dioxothiazolidin-3-yl]-acetic acid methyl ester
-
25% inhibition of ALR2 at 0.05 mM
[5-(4-benzyloxybenzyl)-2,4-dioxothiazolidin-3-yl]acetic acid methyl ester
-
24% inhibition of ALR2 at 0.05 mM
[5-(4-benzyloxybenzylidene)-2,4-dioxothiazolidin-3-yl]acetic acid
-
IC50: 0.00028 mM
[5-(4-benzyloxybenzylidene)-2,4-dioxothiazolidin-3-yl]acetic acid methyl ester
-
12% inhibition of ALR2 at 0.05 mM
[5-(4-hydroxybenzyl)-2,4-dioxo-1,3-thiazolidin-3-yl]acetic acid
-
pIC50 is 5.68
[5-(4-hydroxybenzyl)-2,4-dioxothiazolidin-3-yl]acetic acid
-
IC50: 0.0021 mM
[5-(4-hydroxybenzylidene)-2,4-dioxothiazolidin-3-yl]acetic acid
-
IC50: 0.00015 mM
[5-(4-hydroxybenzylidene)-2,4-dioxothiazolidin-3-yl]acetic acid methyl ester
-
IC50: 0.0062 mM
[5-(4-methoxybenzyl)-2,4-dioxo-1,3-thiazolidin-3-yl]acetic acid
-
pIC50 is 5.97
[5-(4-methoxybenzyl)-2,4-dioxothiazolidin-3-yl]acetic acid
-
IC50: 0.0011 mM
[5-(4-methoxybenzyl)-2,4-dioxothiazolidin-3-yl]acetic acid methyl ester
-
24% inhibition of ALR2 at 0.05 mM
[5-(4-nitrobenzylidene)-2,4-dioxothiazolidin-3-yl]-acetic acid
-
IC50: 0.0012 mM
[5-(4-nitrobenzylidene)-2,4-dioxothiazolidin-3-yl]-acetic acid methyl ester
-
8% inhibition of ALR2 at 0.05 mM
[5-(biphenyl-4-ylmethyl)-2,4-dioxo-1,3-thiazolidin-3-yl]acetic acid
-
pIC50 is 5.77
[5-fluoro-2-[[[(4,5,7-trifluoro-2-benzothiazolyl)methyl]amino]carbonyl]phenoxy]acetic acid
-
-
[6-ethyl-3-(4,5,7-trifluoro-benzothiazol-2-ylmethyl)-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-1-yl]acetic acid
-
-
-
[6-hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxyphenoxy)pyrazin-2-yl](4-hydroxyphenyl)methanone
-
isolated from red ascidian Botryllus leachi, pyrazine derivative, IC50: 0.0194 mM
[6-methyl-3-(4,5,7-trifluoro-benzothiazol-2-ylmethyl)-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-1-yl]acetic acid
-
-
-
[[(4-methylphenyl)sulfonyl](2-thiophen-2-ylethyl)amino]acetic acid
-
S-12728
{(5Z)-2,4-dioxo-5-[3-(trifluoromethyl)benzylidene]-1,3-thiazolidin-3-yl}acetic acid
-
pIC50 is 6.33
{(5Z)-2,4-dioxo-5-[4-(trifluoromethyl)benzylidene]-1,3-thiazolidin-3-yl}acetic acid
-
pIC50 is 6.34
{(5Z)-5-[3-(carboxymethoxy)-4-ethoxybenzylidene]-2,4-dioxo-1,3-thiazolidin-3-yl}acetic acid
-
pIC50 is 5.85
{(5Z)-5-[3-(carboxymethoxy)benzylidene]-2,4-dioxo-1,3-thiazolidin-3-yl}acetic acid
-
pIC50 is 6.64
{(5Z)-5-[4-(benzyloxy)benzylidene]-2,4-dioxo-1,3-thiazolidin-3-yl}acetic acid
-
pIC50 is 6.55
{(5Z)-5-[4-(carboxymethoxy)-3-methoxybenzylidene]-2,4-dioxo-1,3-thiazolidin-3-yl}acetic acid
-
pIC50 is 6.59
{(5Z)-5-[4-(carboxymethoxy)benzylidene]-2,4-dioxo-1,3-thiazolidin-3-yl}acetic acid
-
pIC50 is 6.22
additional information
-
high ionic strength inhibits the enzyme to a higher extent when NADPH instead of NADH is used as a cofactor
-
additional information
-
model of inhibitor binding interactions
-
additional information
-
scarcely inhibitory: sorbinil
-
additional information
-
no inhibition by 3,5-bis(3,4-dimethoxybenzylidene)-4-piperidone, 1,5-bis(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-1,4-pentadiene-3-one, 2,5-bis(3,4-dimethoxybenzylidene)cyclopentanone, and 2,6-bis(3,4-dimethoxybenzylidene)cyclohexanone, at 0.1 mM
-
additional information
-
enzyme-inhibitor complex structures, the hydrophobic nature of the enzyme active site makes significant contributions to inhibitor binding rather than a reliance on pi-pi orbital interactions with Trp 20, overview
-
additional information
-
molecular modelling, enzyme docking at the active site of the enzyme, structure-activity relationships of 5-arylidene-2,4-thiazolidinediones, an additional aromatic ring or an H-bond donor group on the 5-benzylidene ring enhance ALR2 inhibitory potency, the presence of a carboxylic anionic chain on N-3 is important, and the length of the carboxylic chain is critical, overview, no inhibition by 5b 4-[2,4-dioxo-5-(4-phenoxybenzylidene)thiazolidin-3-yl]-2-butenoic acid methyl ester
-
additional information
-
poor inhibition by [2,4-dioxo-5-(4-phenoxybenzyl)thiazolidin-3-yl]acetic acid methyl ester
-
additional information
-
inhibition of AR protects the ischemic myocardium and is associated with improved energy metabolism
-
additional information
-
enzyme inhibition counteracts nitrosative stress and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activation in high-glucose exposed mesengial cells
-
additional information
-
enzyme inhibition counteracts nitrosative stress and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activation in diabetic kidney cortex
-
additional information
-
aldose reductase inhibitors have considerable potential for the treatment of diabetes, without increased risk of hypoglycemia, structure-activity relationship study, the applicable side alkyl chain length and the presence of a OCH3 group at C3 in the aromatic ring are essential features for enzyme recognition and binding, no or poor inhibition by gingerol, shogaol, 2-(4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl)ethanoic acid, 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethanoic acid, and 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethanoic acid
-
additional information
-
inhibition of the aldehyde-metabolizing enzyme modulates NF-kappaB-dependent activation of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in mouse serum, liver, heart, and spleen, overview
-
additional information
-
synthesis and structure-activity relationship study of inhibitors, overview
-
additional information
P07943
inhibitor synthesis, overview, enzyme docking study, modeling, no inhibition by (1,3,3-trioxo-2,3-dihydronaphtho[2,3-d]isothiazol-2-yl)acetic acid and 2-methyl-1,3,3-trioxo-1,2-dihydronaphtho[1,2-d]isothiazole-4-carboxylic acid
-
additional information
-
berberine and palmatine exhibit no RLAR inhibitory activities within the test concentration of 0.012.5-0.05 mg/ml; extract and fractions of the rhizome of Coptis chinensis exhibit broad and moderate RLAR inhibitory activities of approximately 0.038.9-0.067.5 mg/ml
-
additional information
-
not inibited by (Z)-2-[2,4-dioxo-5-(4-phenoxybenzylidene)thiazolidin-3-yl]acetamide, (Z)-2-[5-(4-methoxybenzylidene)-2,4-dioxothiazolidin-3-yl]acetamide, and (Z)-2-[5-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzylidene)-2,4-dioxothiazolidin-3-yl]acetamide
-
additional information
-
Arg312 in ALR1 contributes favourably to the binding of 3,5-dichlorosalicylic acid through an electrostatic interaction with the inhibitor's electronegative halide atom and undergoes a conformational change upon tolrestat binding. Tyr116 in ALR1 forms electrostatic interactions with the fluorobenzyl moiety of minalrestat and the 3- and 4-hydroxy groups on the phenyl ring of quercetin.
-
additional information
-
the enzyme activity is not affected by 0.1 mM Wy14643
-
additional information
-
methanolic and ethanolic extracts of Litchi chinensis fruits are potent inhibitors of rat lens aldose reductase
-
additional information
-
identification of inhibitory compounds from Glycyrrhiza uralensis, overview
-
additional information
-
identification of inhibitory compounds from Glycyrrhiza uralensis, overview. Inhibitory effect of the compounds on the sorbitol accumulation in rat lenses incubated with high glucose
-
additional information
-
development of series of highly potent and selective [3-(4,5,7-trifluoro-benzothiazol-2-ylmethyl)-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-1-yl]acetic acid aldose reductase inhibitors. The compounds inhibit aldose reductase, but are inactive against aldehyde reductase
-
additional information
-
structure-activity relationship of a series of coumarins as ALR1 inhibitors, overview. The C6 OH group interferes with ALR1 inhibition activity; structure-activity relationship of a series of coumarins as ALR2 inhibitors and their suppressive effect on the accumulation of galactitol in the rat lens, overview. Substitutions in the C7 OH group enhanced the potency toward ALR2
-
additional information
-
design and synthesis of pyrrole based inhibitors and evaluation as selective aldose reductase inhibitors, bioisosterism between a carboxylic acid moiety and that of a tetrazole, overview
-
additional information
-
synthesis and evaluation of 2,4-thiazolidinedione inhibitors, structure-activity relationships, overview. No inhibition by (Z)-5-[(4-benzyloxyphenyl)methylidene]-3-(3,3,3-trifluoro-2-oxopropyl)-2,4-thiazolidinedione
-
additional information
-
enzyme active site interactions with the 3-carboxymethoxy-4-methoxy-phenyl moiety of the inhibitor, binding structure, overview
-
additional information
-
structure analysis of a series of 2,4-thiazolidinediones derivative ALR2 inhibitors, 3D-QSAR molcular modeling, detailed overview. A large volume group next to the R-substituent will increase the ALR2 inhibitory activity, and adding a -CH2COOH substituent at the R-position can generate a compound with higher predicted activity
-
additional information
-
inhibition of the enzyme activity also inhibits the expression of the enzyme protein in xenograft tissue
-
additional information
-
inhibitory effect of total lignan from fructus Arctii on aldose reductase, ethanolic extract from dry ripe fruits of Arctium lappa
-
additional information
-
synthesis of quinoxalinone derivatives as potent inhibitors of aldose reductase, Structure-activity relationship and molecular docking studies, overview
-
additional information
-
inhibitor development, synthesis and molecular docking, overview
-
additional information
-
inhibitor molecular docking study with ALR2, overview
-
additional information
-
inhibitors isolated from Prunus mume flower buds, cultivated in Zhejiang province, China, structure analysis, overview
-
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
(NH4)2SO4
-
0.1 M; at 0.3 M more than 3fold activity
(NH4)2SO4
-
0.1 M; activation
(NH4)2SO4
-
400 mM: activation
(NH4)2SO4
-
0.1 M
(NH4)2SO4
-
0.1 M; wild type and recombinant from Escherichia coli
12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate
-
i.e. TPA, induces enzyme expression in A-549 cells and increases the enzyme activity, TPA is a potent tumor promoter, TPA-induced increase in mRNA level and promoter activity of the AR gene is significantly attenuated in the presence of inhibitors of protein kinase C, tyrosine kinase, or nuclear kinase and NF- kB, cycloheximide, actinomycin D, bisindolylmaleimide I, and genistein abolish enzyme induction by TPA
Bovine serum albumin
-
10-15% increased activity
-
D-xylose
-
induces enzyme activity
DTT
-
activates the enzyme in healthy heart slightly, but slightly inhibits the ischemic heart enzyme
glutathione
-
ALR shows a high level of specificity towards glutathione conjugates and very little specificity towards trypanothione conjugates
N-(beta-glucopyranosyl)-N2-acetyl-S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine
-
2 mM, up to 7fold increase in activity, possibly due to nitrosation of Cys298
Na2SO4
-
at 0.3 M 3fold activity
Na2SO4
-
0.1 M, wild type and recombinant from E.coli
NaCl
-
increased concentration
NADPH
-
in absence, loss of 60% of activity
peroxynitrite
-
peroxynitrite activates by oxidizing cysteine resiudes to sulfenic acid. C298 is the major site of sulfenic acid formation and oxidation of C298 is necessary and sufficient for enzyme activation by peroxynitrite
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
-
2,5fold activity at 0,5 mM
SO42-
-
stimulation
SO42-
-
stimulation
SO42-
-
ammonium and lithium salt is somewhat more effective than sodium and potassium salt; stimulation
Sodium acetate
-
0.5 g/l in reaction medium, about 10% increase of activity
Sodium phosphate
-
at pH 5.0-5.8 and pH 7.2
Sorbitol
-
600 mosmol per kg H2O, up to 2fold increase in activity
SP-600125
-
0.01 mM, about 50% increase of sorbitol-induced activity
sulfate
-
activates the enzyme in ischemic heart
Tween
-
Tween-20, Tween-80, Tween-100, each 0.1% (w/v)
Methylglyoxal
-
up to 4.5fold induction of mRNA, activity and protein level, abolished in presence of cycloheximide or actinomycin D
additional information
-
upregulation of the enzyme by homocysteine in type II alveolar epithelial cells, overview
-
additional information
-
induction of enzyme expression inliver by toxic metabolites generated by rapidly proliferating cells
-
additional information
-
gene expression in YPEN-1 and NRK cells is up-regulated by treatments with submicromolar concentrations of hydrogen peroxide and 1,4-naphthoquinone, but not with fibroblast growth factor-1, fibroblast growth factor-2, 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone and 17beta-estradiol
-
KM VALUE [mM]
KM VALUE [mM] Maximum
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.2
-
(1S)-Camphorquinone
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
0.015
-
1-butanal
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
0.091
-
1-butanal
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
63
-
1-butanol
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
0.0055
-
1-decanal
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
0.0044
-
1-Decanol
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
0.082
-
1-Decanol
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
0.0026
-
1-Dodecanal
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
0.0027
-
1-heptanal
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
0.023
-
1-hexanal
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
0.112
-
1-hexanal
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
0.18
-
1-Hexanol
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
0.97
-
1-Hexanol
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
0.0007
-
1-nonanal
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
0.005
-
1-nonanal
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
0.011
-
1-nonanol
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
0.74
-
1-nonanol
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
0.0017
-
1-Octanal
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
0.014
-
1-Octanal
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
0.0096
-
1-palmitoyl-2-(5-oxovaleryl)sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
-
pH 6.0, 30C
0.3
-
1-propanal
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
0.0006
-
1-Tetradecanol
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
0.0057
-
16-ketoestrone
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
0.68
-
2,3-Butanedione
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
0.0065
-
2,3-heptanedione
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
0.014
-
2,3-Hexanedione
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
0.051
-
2,3-Hexanedione
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
0.2
-
2,3-Pentanedione
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
0.048
-
2,4-decadienal
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
0.064
-
2,4-nonadienal
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
0.01
-
2-decenal
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
10.6
-
2-deoxygalactose
-
-
17.5
-
2-Deoxyribose
-
-
0.075
-
2-hexenal
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
0.017
-
2-nonenal
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
0.78
-
2-phenyl-1-propanol
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
0.052
-
2-phenyl-2-propenal
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
0.099
-
2-pyridinecarboxaldehyde
-
-
0.0009
-
20alpha-hydroxyprogesterone
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
0.001
-
20alpha-Isocorticosterone
-
and 20alpha-isocortisol, values below
0.0032
-
21-Dehydrocortisol
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
0.0095
-
21-Dehydrocortisol
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
0.31
-
3,4-hexanedione
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
0.07
-
3-deoxyglucosone
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
0.129
-
3-deoxyglucosone
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
0.046
-
3-Pyridinecarboxaldehyde
-
-
0.03
-
4-hydroxynonenal
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
0.01
-
4-Hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde
-
-
0.002
-
4-Nitrobenzaldehyde
-
-
0.003
-
4-Nitrobenzaldehyde
-
-
0.003
-
4-Nitrobenzaldehyde
-
4-hydroxyphenylglycolaldehyde
0.0035
-
4-Nitrobenzaldehyde
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
0.004
-
4-Pyridinecarboxaldehyde
-
-
0.0002
-
5-Pregnene-3beta,20alpha-diol
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
0.0004
-
5alpha-pregnan-20alpha-ol-3-one
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
0.0008
-
5alpha-pregnane-3beta,20alpha-diol
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
1.1
-
acetaldehyde
-
in 50 mM MOPS buffer, pH 7.0, at 37C
0.12
-
acrolein
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
13
-
acrolein
-
-
0.0097
-
benzaldehyde
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
0.025
-
benzaldehyde
-
-
0.063
-
benzaldehyde
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
0.295
-
benzaldehyde
-
-
0.3
-
benzyl alcohol
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
2.1
-
benzyl alcohol
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
0.444
-
Butyraldehyde
-
-
446.7
-
D-arabinose
-
-
448.4
-
D-arabinose
-
in 50 mM sodium phosphate at pH 7.0 and 30C
0.4
-
D-Erythrose
-
-
28.1
-
D-Erythrose
-
-
9.6
-
D-fructose
-
-
59.3
-
D-fucose
-
-
40
-
D-galactose
-
-
42.9
-
D-galactose
-
-
42.9
-
D-galactose
-
recombinant from E. coli
43.3
-
D-galactose
-
recombinant from baculovirus system in Spodoptera frugiperda cells
46.7
-
D-galactose
-
-
49.3
-
D-galactose
-
-
78
-
D-galactose
-
recombinant from E. coli
83
-
D-galactose
-
-
227.1
-
D-galactose
-
-
228
-
D-galactose
-
-
47.3
-
D-glucose
-
-
57.3
-
D-glucose
-
-
86.8
-
D-glucose
-
-
95
-
D-glucose
-
-
98.1
-
D-glucose
-
recombinant from E. coli
98.1
-
D-glucose
-
recombinant from baculovirus system in Spodoptera frugiperda cells
204
-
D-glucose
-
-
281
-
D-glucose
-
recombinant from E. coli
0.152
-
D-glucuronate
-
-
1.18
-
D-glucuronate
-
-
1.58
-
D-glucuronate
-
-
3.53
-
D-glucuronate
-
recombinant from baculovirus system in Spodoptera frugiperda cells
4
-
D-glucuronate
-
-
4.8
-
D-glucuronate
-
-
5
-
D-glucuronate
-
-
5
-
D-glucuronate
-
-
5.05
-
D-glucuronate
-
-
6.4
-
D-glucuronate
-
recombinant from E. coli
13.9
-
D-glucuronate
-
recombinant from E. coli
19.2
-
D-glucuronate
-
-
0.7
-
D-glucuronolactone
-
-
0.035
-
D-glyceraldehyde
-
-
0.073
-
D-lactoaldehyde
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
0.74
-
D-lactoaldehyde
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
479.2
-
D-Lyxose
-
-
506
-
D-Lyxose
-
mutant H110Q
2630
-
D-Lyxose
-
-
2740
-
D-Lyxose
-
mutant H110A
53.4
-
D-mannose
-
-
7
-
D-ribose
-
-
108.1
-
D-ribose
-
in 50 mM sodium phosphate at pH 7.0 and 30C
370.9
-
D-ribose
-
-
29.1
-
D-ribose-5-phosphate
-
-
399.5
-
D-Sorbitol
-
in 50 mM sodium phosphate at pH 7.0 and 30C
24.8
-
D-tagatose
-
-
179.5
-
D-xylitol
-
in 50 mM sodium phosphate at pH 7.0 and 30C
2
-
D-xylose
-
-
5.04
-
D-xylose
-
recombinant fron baculovirus system in Spodoptera frugiperda cells
5.1
-
D-xylose
-
-
6.2
-
D-xylose
-
-
7.4
-
D-xylose
-
-
8.2
-
D-xylose
-
-
8.7
-
D-xylose
-
recombinant from E. coli
13.5
-
D-xylose
-
-
16.8
-
D-xylose
-
recombinant from E. coli
17
-
D-xylose
-
pH 6.2, 22C
28.9
-
D-xylose
-
pH 6.2, 25C, enzyme from normal heart
29
-
D-xylose
-
pH 6.2, 25C, enzyme from ischemic heart
56
-
D-xylose
-
isozyme ALR 2, NADPH
61
-
D-xylose
-
isozyme ALR 1, NADPH
76
-
D-xylose
-
-
466.8
-
D-xylose
-
in 50 mM sodium phosphate at pH 7.0 and 30C
861
-
D-xylose
-
mutant H110Q
1340
-
D-xylose
-
mutant H110A
24.9
-
D-xylose-5-phosphate
-
-
0.02
-
DL-glyceraldehyde
-
-
0.02
-
DL-glyceraldehyde
-
pH 7.0, 25C, recombinant mutant R293A; pH 7.0, 25C, recombinant mutant W219A; pH 7.0, 25C, recombinant mutant W219E; pH 7.0, 25C, recombinant wild-type enzyme
0.025
-
DL-glyceraldehyde
-
-
0.03
-
DL-glyceraldehyde
-
-
0.03
-
DL-glyceraldehyde
-
pH 7.0, 25C, recombinant mutant S226A
0.046
-
DL-glyceraldehyde
-
-
0.047
-
DL-glyceraldehyde
-
recombinant from E. coli
0.05
-
DL-glyceraldehyde
-
pH 7.0, 25C, recombinant mutant R268A
0.071
-
DL-glyceraldehyde
-
pH 6.0, 25C, healthy heart
0.08
-
DL-glyceraldehyde
-
-
0.0835
-
DL-glyceraldehyde
-
pH 6.0, 25C, ischemic heart
0.0836
-
DL-glyceraldehyde
-
pH 6.0, 25C, healthy heart, in presence of DTT
0.092
-
DL-glyceraldehyde
-
pH 6.2, 25C, recombinant enzyme
0.0934
-
DL-glyceraldehyde
-
pH 6.0, 25C, ischemic heart, in presence of DTT
0.0973
-
DL-glyceraldehyde
-
presence of peroxynitrite, pH 7.0, 37C
0.11
-
DL-glyceraldehyde
-
pH 7.0, 25C, recombinant mutant S210A
0.12
-
DL-glyceraldehyde
-
recombinant from E. coli
0.124
-
DL-glyceraldehyde
-
pH 7.0, 37C
0.13
-
DL-glyceraldehyde
-
pH 7.0, 25C, recombinant mutant S214A
0.1734
-
DL-glyceraldehyde
-
presence of dimedone, pH 7.0, 37C
0.19
-
DL-glyceraldehyde
-
pH 6.2, 25C, enzyme from ischemic heart
0.2
-
DL-glyceraldehyde
-
pH 6.2, 25C, enzyme from normal heart
0.42
-
DL-glyceraldehyde
-
pH 7.0, 25C, recombinant mutant G213S
0.4287
-
DL-glyceraldehyde
-
presence of peroxynitrite and dimedone, pH 7.0, 37C
0.5
-
DL-glyceraldehyde
-
pH 7.0, 25C, recombinant mutant DELTA214-219
0.585
-
DL-glyceraldehyde
-
isoform ALR2, pH 6.2, 30C
0.6
-
DL-glyceraldehyde
-
pH 7.0, 25C, recombinant mutant C298A
2
-
DL-glyceraldehyde
-
-
2
-
DL-glyceraldehyde
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
3.4
-
DL-glyceraldehyde
-
-
3.7
-
DL-glyceraldehyde
-
pH 7.0, 25C, recombinant mutant G213P
4
-
DL-glyceraldehyde
-
in 50 mM sodium phosphate at pH 7.0 and 30C
12
-
DL-glyceraldehyde
-
mutant H110Q
64
-
DL-glyceraldehyde
-
mutant Y48S
71
-
DL-glyceraldehyde
-
mutant Y48H
84
-
DL-glyceraldehyde
-
mutant H110A
730.2
-
DL-glyceraldehyde
-
-
130.2
-
galactose
-
-
142
-
galactose
-
-
0.025
-
geraniol
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
0.0004
-
geranylgeraniol
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
0.0009
-
geranylgeraniol
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
21.8
-
glucose
-
-
155
-
glucose
-
-
113
-
glucose-6-phosphate
-
-
0.51
-
glyceraldehyde
-
-
1.5
-
glycoaldehyde
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
1.8
-
glycoaldehyde
-
-
21
-
glycolaldehyde
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
1.28
-
Glyoxal
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
11
-
Glyoxal
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
18.9
-
Glyoxal
-
-
0.034
-
Hexanal
-
-
120.5
-
Hexanal
-
-
0.016
-
Indole-3-acetaldehyde
-
-
0.0022
-
isatin
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
0.069
-
isatin
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
0.02
-
Isobutyraldehyde
-
-
1
-
Isobutyraldehyde
-
in 50 mM MOPS buffer, pH 7.0, at 37C
0.056
-
isocaproaldehyde
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
287.2
-
L-arabinose
-
-
416.8
-
L-arabinose
-
-
80.7
-
L-fucose
-
-
0.018
-
L-Glyceraldehyde
-
-
0.018
-
L-Glyceraldehyde
-
recombinant from baculovirus system with Spodoptera frugiperda cells
312.3
-
L-Lyxose
-
-
52.3
-
L-rhamnose
-
-
100
-
L-Xylose
-
-
111
-
L-Xylose
-
-
360
-
L-Xylose
-
mutant H110A
459.2
-
L-Xylose
-
-
1190
-
L-Xylose
-
mutant H110Q
0.112
-
Methylglyoxal
-
recombinant enzyme, in 100 mM sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0), at 25C, in the presence of 0.3 mM glutathione
0.26
-
Methylglyoxal
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
0.4
-
Methylglyoxal
-
recombinant enzyme, in 100 mM sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0), at 25C, in the presence of 0.3 mM trypanothione
0.087
-
n-Pentanal
-
-
0.016
-
NAD(P)H
-
-
0.22
-
NADH
-
-
0.25
-
NADH
-
-
0.62
-
NADH
-
-
0.0032
-
NADPH
-
-
0.004
-
NADPH
-
recombinant from baculovirus system in Spodoptera frugiperda cells
0.01
0.015
NADPH
-
-
0.01
0.015
NADPH
-
-
0.01
0.015
NADPH
-
-
0.049
-
NADPH
-
-
0.054
-
NADPH
-
isoform ALR2, pH 6.2, 30C
0.232
-
NADPH
P15121
pH 6.0, 30C, ALR2
8.2
-
NADPH
-
-
85
-
NADPH
-
pH 6.2, 22C
0.02
-
nerol
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
0.02
-
p-bromobenzaldehyde
-
-
0.005
-
p-Carboxybenzaldehyde
-
-
0.007
-
p-nitrobenzaldehyde
-
-
0.056
-
phenyl-1,2-propanedione
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
0.016
-
Phenylglyoxal
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
0.68
-
Phenylglyoxal
-
-
365
-
propanal
-
-
0.011
-
propionaldehyde
-
-
0.012
-
Pyridine-3-aldehyde
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
0.039
-
Pyridine-3-aldehyde
-
-
0.13
-
Pyridine-3-aldehyde
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
0.49
-
Pyridine-3-methanol
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
0.02
-
Pyridine-4-aldehyde
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
102
-
ribose
-
-
0.285
-
Succinic semialdehyde
-
-
0.0023
-
trans,trans-Farnesol
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
0.0033
-
trans,trans-Farnesol
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
0.25
-
trans-2-buten-1-al
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
0.004
-
trans-2-decen-1-al
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
0.028
-
trans-2-hexen-1-al
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
0.0034
-
trans-2-nonen-1-al
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
1.67
-
xylose
-
-
29.77
-
xylose
-
-
6.3
-
Methylglyoxal
-
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
brief investigation of steady state kinetic
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
kinetics
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
steady-state kinetics
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
steady-state kinetics
-
TURNOVER NUMBER [1/s]
TURNOVER NUMBER MAXIMUM[1/s]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.333
-
(1S)-Camphorquinone
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
0.007
-
(S)-1-indanol
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
0.003
-
(S)-1-teralol
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
-
0.67
-
1-butanal
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
1.3
-
1-butanal
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
0.137
-
1-butanol
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
0.35
-
1-decanal
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
0.023
-
1-Decanol
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
0.05
-
1-Decanol
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
1.25
-
1-Dodecanal
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
2
-
1-heptanal
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
0.75
-
1-hexanal
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
2.37
-
1-hexanal
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
0.068
-
1-Hexanol
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
0.158
-
1-Hexanol
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
0.57
-
1-nonanal
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
1.38
-
1-nonanal
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
0.062
-
1-nonanol
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
0.065
-
1-nonanol
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
0.7
-
1-Octanal
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
1.37
-
1-Octanal
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
0.61
-
1-palmitoyl-2-(5-oxovaleryl)sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
-
pH 6.0, 30C
0.13
-
1-propanal
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
0.017
-
1-Tetradecanol
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
0.183
-
16-ketoestrone
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
0.333
-
2,3-Butanedione
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
0.6
-
2,3-heptanedione
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
0.25
-
2,3-Hexanedione
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
1.32
-
2,3-Hexanedione
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
0.383
-
2,3-Pentanedione
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
0.2
-
2,4-decadienal
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
0.2
-
2,4-nonadienal
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
0.145
-
2-decenal
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
0.183
-
2-deoxy-2-fluoro-galactose
-
-
0.67
-
2-hexenal
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
0.155
-
2-nonenal
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
0.012
-
2-phenyl-1-propanol
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
0.43
-
2-phenyl-2-propenal
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
0.004
-
20alpha-hydroxyprogesterone
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
0.64
-
20alpha-Isocorticosterone
-
20alpha-isocortisol
0.2
-
21-Dehydrocortisol
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
0.48
-
21-Dehydrocortisol
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
0.233
-
3,4-hexanedione
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
0.2
-
3-deoxyglucosone
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
0.75
-
3-deoxyglucosone
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
0.183
-
4-hydroxynonenal
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
0.57
-
4-Nitrobenzaldehyde
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
0.006
-
5-Pregnene-3beta,20alpha-diol
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
0.008
-
5alpha-pregnan-20alpha-ol-3-one
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
0.012
-
5alpha-pregnane-3beta,20alpha-diol
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
27.6
-
acetaldehyde
-
in 50 mM MOPS buffer, pH 7.0, at 37C
0.27
-
acrolein
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
2.4
-
acrolein
-
-
0.42
-
benzaldehyde
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
1.73
-
benzaldehyde
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
0.0383
-
benzyl alcohol
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
0.167
-
benzyl alcohol
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
0.233
-
D-galactose
-
-
0.525
-
D-galactose
-
recombinant from baculovirus system in Spodoptera frugiperda cells
1.1
-
D-galactose
-
-
0.183
-
D-glucose
-
-
0.48
-
D-glucose
-
recombinant from baculovirus system in Spodoptera frugiperda cells
0.418
-
D-glucuronate
-
recombinant from baculovirus system in Spodoptera frugiperda cells
2.3
-
D-glucuronate
-
-
0.55
-
D-glyceraldehyde
-
-
0.283
-
D-lactoaldehyde
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
1.87
-
D-lactoaldehyde
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
0.283
-
D-xylose
-
-
0.635
-
D-xylose
-
recombinant from baculovirus system in Spodoptera frugiperda cells
0.09
-
DL-glyceraldehyde
-
pH 7.0, 25C, recombinant mutant W219E
0.16
-
DL-glyceraldehyde
-
pH 7.0, 25C, recombinant mutant R293A
0.32
-
DL-glyceraldehyde
-
pH 7.0, 25C, recombinant mutant W219A
0.38
-
DL-glyceraldehyde
-
pH 7.0, 25C, recombinant mutant R268A
0.431
-
DL-glyceraldehyde
-
-
0.5
-
DL-glyceraldehyde
-
pH 7.0, 25C, recombinant wild-type enzyme
0.54
-
DL-glyceraldehyde
-
pH 7.0, 25C, recombinant mutant S226A
0.583
-
DL-glyceraldehyde
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
0.673
-
DL-glyceraldehyde
-
recombinant from baculovirus system in Spodoptera frugiperda cells
0.76
-
DL-glyceraldehyde
-
pH 6.2, 25C, recombinant enzyme
2
-
DL-glyceraldehyde
-
pH 7.0, 25C, recombinant mutant S210A
2.1
-
DL-glyceraldehyde
-
pH 7.0, 25C, recombinant mutant S214A
2.15
-
DL-glyceraldehyde
-
pH 7.0, 25C, recombinant mutant DELTA214-219
3.7
-
DL-glyceraldehyde
-
pH 7.0, 25C, recombinant mutant G213S
4
-
DL-glyceraldehyde
-
pH 7.0, 25C, recombinant mutant C298A
4.6
-
DL-glyceraldehyde
-
pH 7.0, 25C, recombinant mutant G213P
155
-
DL-glyceraldehyde
-
-
0.567
-
geraniol
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
0.078
-
geranylgeraniol
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
0.165
-
geranylgeraniol
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
0.2
-
glycoaldehyde
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
0.58
-
glycolaldehyde
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
0.2
-
Glyoxal
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
1.12
-
Glyoxal
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
0.283
-
isatin
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
1.12
-
isatin
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
1.8
-
Isobutyraldehyde
-
in 50 mM MOPS buffer, pH 7.0, at 37C
1.43
-
isocaproaldehyde
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
0.43
-
Methylglyoxal
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
44.4
-
Methylglyoxal
-
recombinant enzyme, in 100 mM sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0), at 25C, in the presence of 0.3 mM trypanothione
78.4
-
Methylglyoxal
-
recombinant enzyme, in 100 mM sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0), at 25C, in the presence of 0.3 mM glutathione
266
-
Methylglyoxal
-
-
0.117
-
nerol
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
0.383
-
phenyl-1,2-propanedione
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
0.42
-
Phenylglyoxal
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
0.76
-
Phenylglyoxal
-
-
13
-
propanal
-
-
0.52
-
Pyridine-3-aldehyde
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
2.5
-
Pyridine-3-aldehyde
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
0.002
-
Pyridine-3-methanol
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
0.042
-
Pyridine-3-methanol
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
0.63
-
Pyridine-4-aldehyde
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
0.155
-
trans,trans-Farnesol
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
0.5
-
trans,trans-Farnesol
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
0.78
-
trans-2-buten-1-al
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
1.83
-
trans-2-decen-1-al
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
0.82
-
trans-2-hexen-1-al
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
1.34
-
trans-2-nonen-1-al
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
1.7
-
D-xylose
-
-
additional information
-
DL-glyceraldehyde
-
turnover number in mol per seconds for several mutants
Ki VALUE [mM]
Ki VALUE [mM] Maximum
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.0182
-
(2-benzyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole-8-yl)-acetic acid
-
pH 6.2, 30C, isoform ALR2
3.081
-
(2-benzyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole-8-yl)-acetic acid
-
pH 7.2, 37C, isoform ALR1
0.0167
-
(2-phenethyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole-8-yl)-acetic acid
-
pH 6.2, 30C, isoform ALR2
0.328
-
(2-phenethyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole-8-yl)-acetic acid
-
pH 7.2, 37C, isoform ALR1
0.00004
-
(5-chloro-2-[(4-cyanobenzyl)carbamoyl]phenoxy)acetic acid
-
mutant T113A/C303D, pH 7.0, 22C
0.00006
-
(5-chloro-2-[(4-cyanobenzyl)carbamoyl]phenoxy)acetic acid
-
mutant T113A/C303NpH 7.0, 22C
0.00011
-
(5-chloro-2-[(4-cyanobenzyl)carbamoyl]phenoxy)acetic acid
-
mutant T113A, pH 7.0, 22C
0.00029
-
(5-chloro-2-[(4-cyanobenzyl)carbamoyl]phenoxy)acetic acid
-
mutant S302R/C303D, pH 7.0, 22C; mutant T113V, pH 7.0, 22C
0.00051
-
(5-chloro-2-[(4-cyanobenzyl)carbamoyl]phenoxy)acetic acid
-
mutant C303D, pH 7.0, 22C
0.00062
-
(5-chloro-2-[(4-cyanobenzyl)carbamoyl]phenoxy)acetic acid
-
mutant F115Y, pH 7.0, 22C
0.0008
-
(5-chloro-2-[(4-cyanobenzyl)carbamoyl]phenoxy)acetic acid
-
mutant C303N, pH 7.0, 22C
0.002
-
(5-chloro-2-[(4-cyanobenzyl)carbamoyl]phenoxy)acetic acid
-
mutant C80N, pH 7.0, 22C; wild-type, pH 7.0, 22C
0.0039
-
(5-chloro-2-[(4-cyanobenzyl)carbamoyl]phenoxy)acetic acid
-
mutant T113Y, pH 7.0, 22C
0.004
-
(5-chloro-2-[(4-cyanobenzyl)carbamoyl]phenoxy)acetic acid
-
mutant T113Y/S302R/C303D, pH 7.0, 22C
0.0046
-
(5-chloro-2-[(4-cyanobenzyl)carbamoyl]phenoxy)acetic acid
-
mutant C80A, pH 7.0, 22C
0.0078
-
(5-chloro-2-[(4-cyanobenzyl)carbamoyl]phenoxy)acetic acid
-
mutant C80N/T113Y/S302R/C303D, pH 7.0, 22C
0.0088
-
1,2,7-trihydroxy-3,8-dimethoxy-6-methylanthracene-9,10-dione 2-O-beta-D-glucoside
-
pH 7.0, 37C
0.0136
-
1,3,7-trihydroxy-2,8-dimethoxy-6-methylanthracene-9,10-dione
-
pH 7.0, 37C
0.0159
-
1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methylanthracene-9,10-dione
-
pH 7.0, 37C
0.0241
-
3,3-Tetramethyleneglutaric acid
-
pH 7.0, 37C
0.0141
-
4-amino-N-(3,5-difluoro-4-hydroxyphenyl)benzenesulfonamide
-
-
0.00297
-
6-[[(di(2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)methylidene)amino]oxy]hexanoic acid
-
pH 6.8, 37C
0.00299
-
6-[[(di(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)methylidene)amino]oxy]hexanoic acid
-
pH 6.8, 37C
0.00292
-
6-[[(di(4-methoxy-3-methylphenyl)methylidene)amino]oxy]hexanoic acid
-
pH 6.8, 37C
0.0011
0.0026
bezafibrate
-
pH 6.2, 25C, recombinant enzyme
0.00088
-
ciprofibrate
-
pH 6.2, 25C, recombinant enzyme
0.00124
-
Clofibric acid
-
pH 6.2, 25C, recombinant enzyme
0.00033
-
davallialactone
-
pH 6.2, 37C
0.00056
-
davallialactone
-
pH 6.2, 37C
0.00063
-
Ellagic acid
-
pH 6.2, 37C
0.00137
-
Ellagic acid
-
pH 6.2, 37C
0.00056
-
fenofibrat
-
pH 6.2, 25C, recombinant enzyme
0.0012
0.0037
gemfibrozil
-
pH 6.2, 25C, recombinant enzyme
0.00082
-
hypholomine B
-
pH 6.2, 37C
0.0155
-
N-(3,5-difluoro-4-hydroxyphenyl)-4-methoxybenzenesulfonamide
-
-
0.0444
-
N-(3,5-difluoro-4-hydroxyphenyl)-4-nitrobenzenesulfonamide
-
-
0.0329
-
N-(3,5-difluoro-4-hydroxyphenyl)benzenesulfonamide
-
-
0.01355
-
nitazoxanide
-
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0.00045
-
Sorbinil
-
pH 6.2, 25C, recombinant enzyme
0.000458
-
sulindac
-
pH 6.2, temperature not specified in the publication, ALR2
0.0003
-
sulindac sulfide
-
pH 6.2, temperature not specified in the publication, ALR2
0.000434
-
sulindac sulfone
-
pH 6.2, temperature not specified in the publication, ALR2
0.00935
-
tizoxanide
-
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0.000005
-
zopolrestat
-
pH 6.2, 30C, isoform ALR2
0.000043
-
zopolrestat
-
pH 6.2, 25C, recombinant enzyme
0.00128
-
hypholomine B
-
pH 6.2, 37C
additional information
-
additional information
-
inhibition kinetics, pH dependence of inhibition, overview
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
inhibition kinetics and thermodynamic studies of inhibitors binding to the enzyme, overview
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
inhibition kinetics, overview
-
IC50 VALUE [mM]
IC50 VALUE [mM] Maximum
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.01
-
(1,3,3-trioxo-1,2-dihydronaphtho[1,2-d]isothiazol-2-yl)acetic acid
P07943
IC50: 0.010 mM
0.02
-
(1-(2H-tetrazole-5-yl)-1H-pyrrol-2-yl)(phenyl)-methanone
-
pH 7.2, temperature not specified in the publication
-
0.018
-
(1-(2H-tetrazole-5-yl)-1H-pyrrol-3-yl)(phenyl)-methanone
-
pH 7.2, temperature not specified in the publication
-
0.0033
-
(17alpha)-17-hydroxyandrost-4-en-3-one
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
0.000678
-
(2,4-dioxo-5-[(6,8-dimethyl-4-oxo-4H-chromen-3-yl)methylene]-1,3-thiazolidine-3-yl) acetic acid
-
pH 6.2, 37C
0.000522
-
(2,4-dioxo-5-[(6-isopropyl-4-oxo-4H-chromen-3-yl)methylene]-1,3-thiazolidine-3-yl) acetic acid
-
pH 6.2, 37C
0.000805
-
(2,4-dioxo-5-[(6-methyl-4-oxo-4H-chromen-3-yl)methylene]-1,3-thiazolidine-3-yl)acetic acid
-
pH 6.2, 37C
0.000261
-
(2,4-dioxo-5-[(6-nitro-4-oxo-4H-chromen-3-yl)methylene]-1,3-thiazolidine-3-yl)acetic acid
-
pH 6.2, 37C
-
0.0182
-
(2-benzyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-pyrido[4,3-b]indol-8-yl)-acetic acid
-
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
-
0.0963
-
(2E)-3-[4-hydroxy-2-methoxy-5-(2-methylbut-3-en-2-yl)phenyl]-1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one
-
pH 7.0, 37C
0.2572
-
(2E)-3-[4-hydroxy-2-methoxy-5-(2-methylbut-3-en-2-yl)phenyl]-1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one
-
pH 7.0, 37C
0.04141
-
(2R)-1-[(benzyloxy)carbonyl]-2,3-dihydro-1H-indole-2-carboxylic acid
-
-
0.00057
-
(2R,4S)-6-fluoro-2',5'-dioxospiro-[chroman-4,4'-imidazoline]-2-carboxamide
-
IC50: 570 nM, mechanism, active site binding modeling, the stereochemistry of the exocyclic amide group influences the affinity for the enzyme
0.00377
-
(2S)-2'-methoxykurarinone
-
-
0.00363
-
(2S)-3beta,7,4'-trihydroxy-5-methoxy-8-(gamma,gamma-dimethylallyl)-flavanone
-
-
0.00037
-
(2S)-7,4'-dihydroxy-5-methoxy-8-(gamma,gamma-dimethylallyl)-flavanone
-
-
0.00049
-
(2Z)-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-[(4-methylphenyl)carbonyl]prop-2-enoic acid
-
37C, pH 7.0
0.00795
-
(2Z)-3-(3-methoxyphenyl)-2-[(4-methylphenyl)carbonyl]prop-2-enoic acid
-
37C, pH 7.0
0.0244
-
(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)acetonitrile
-
IC50: 0.0244 mM
0.0634
-
(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)methamine
-
IC50: 0.0634 mM
0.0414
-
(4-hydroxyphenyl)(6-hydroxypyrazin-2-yl)methanone
-
isolated from red ascidian Botryllus leachi, pyrazine derivative, IC50: 0.0414 mM
0.0214
-
(4-hydroxyphenyl)[4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1H-imidazol-2-yl]methanone
-
isolated from red ascidian Botryllus leachi, imidazole derivative, IC50: 0.0214 mM
0.00003
-
(4-oxo-3-{[5-(trifluoromethyl)-1,3-benzothiazol-2-yl]methyl}-3,4-dihydrophthalazin-1-yl)acetic acid
-
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4
0.0017
-
(5-biphenyl-4-ylmethyl-2,4-dioxothiazolidin-3-yl)acetic acid
-
IC50: 0.0017 mM
0.00026
-
(5-biphenyl-4-ylmethylene-2,4-dioxothiazolidin-3-yl)-acetic acid
-
IC50: 0.00026 mM
0.00017
-
(5-naphthalen-1-ylmethylene-2,4-dioxothiazolidin-3-yl)acetic acid
-
IC50: 0.00017 mM
0.000432
-
(5E)-5-[4-(4-oxo-4H-chromen-2-yl)benzylidene]-1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione
-
pH 6.2, 37C
0.019
-
(5Z)-3-chloro-4-(3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxyphenyl)-5-[(3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxyphenyl)methylidene]furan-2(5H)-one
-
isolated from ascidians Ritterella rubra and Synoicum blochmanni, IC50: 0.019 mM
0.0008
-
(5Z)-3-chloro-5-[(3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxyphenyl)methylidene]-4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)furan-2(5H)-one
-
isolated from ascidians Ritterella rubra and Synoicum blochmanni, IC50: 0.0008 mM
0.02
-
(5Z)-4-(3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxyphenyl)-5-[(3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxyphenyl)methylidene]furan-2(5H)-one
-
isolated from ascidians Ritterella rubra and Synoicum blochmanni, IC50: 0.020 mM
0.013
-
(5Z)-4-(3-bromo-4-hydroxyphenyl)-3-chloro-5-[(3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxyphenyl)methylidene]furan-2(5H)-one
-
isolated from ascidians Ritterella rubra and Synoicum blochmanni, IC50: 0.013 mM
0.048
-
(5Z)-4-(3-bromo-4-hydroxyphenyl)-5-[(3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxyphenyl)methylidene]furan-2(5H)-one
-
isolated from ascidians Ritterella rubra and Synoicum blochmanni, IC50: 0.048 mM
0.017
-
(5Z)-4-(3-bromo-4-hydroxyphenyl)-5-[(3-bromo-4-hydroxyphenyl)methylidene]-3-chlorofuran-2(5H)-one
-
isolated from ascidians Ritterella rubra and Synoicum blochmanni, IC50: 0.017 mM
0.057
-
(5Z)-5-[(3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxyphenyl)methylidene]-4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)furan-2(5H)-one
-
isolated from ascidians Ritterella rubra and Synoicum blochmanni, IC50: 0.057 mM
0.046
-
(5Z)-5-[(3-bromo-4-hydroxyphenyl)methylidene]-3-chloro-4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)furan-2(5H)-one
-
isolated from ascidians Ritterella rubra and Synoicum blochmanni, IC50: 0.046 mM
0.000683
-
(5Z)-5-[(4-oxo-2-phenyl-4H-chromen-6-yl)methylidene]-1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione
-
pH 6.2, 37C
0.1
-
(6-amino-1,3,3-trioxo-1,2-dihydronaphtho[1,2-d]isothiazol-2-yl)acetic acid
P07943
IC50: 0.10 mM
0.18
-
(6-nitro-1,3,3-trioxo-1,2-dihydronaphtho[1,2-d]isothiazol-2-yl)acetic acid
P07943
IC50: 0.180 mM
0.1
-
(9-amino-1,3,3-trioxo-1,2-dihydronaphtho[1,2-d]isothiazol-2-yl)acetic acid
P07943
IC50: 0.10 mM
0.19
-
(9-nitro-1,3,3-trioxo-1,2-dihydronaphtho[1,2-d]isothiazol-2-yl)acetic acid
P07943
IC50: 0.190 mM
0.019
-
(E)-3-(5-(3-nitrophenyl)furan-2-yl)acrylic acid
-
in sodium phosphate buffer (100 mM, pH 6.2)
0.0203
-
(Z)-2-(5-biphenyl-4-ylmethylene-2,4-dioxothiazolidin-3-yl)-N-hydroxyacetamide
-
in 0.25 M potassium phosphate buffer pH 6.8, at 37C
0.00734
-
(Z)-2-[5-(4-benzyloxybenzylidene)-2,4-dioxothiazolidin-3-yl]-N-hydroxyacetamide
-
in 0.25 M potassium phosphate buffer pH 6.8, at 37C
0.00652
-
(Z)-2-[5-(4-methoxybenzylidene)-2,4-dioxothiazolidin-3-yl]acetamide
-
in 0.25 M potassium phosphate buffer pH 6.8, at 37C
0.0123
-
(Z)-5-[(3-hydroxyphenyl)methylidene]-3-(3,3,3-trifluoro-2-oxopropyl)-2,4-thiazolidinedione
-
pH 6.8, 37C
-
0.0233
-
(Z)-5-[(3-methoxyphenyl)methylidene]-3-(3,3,3-trifluoro-2-oxopropyl)-2,4-thiazolidinedione
-
pH 6.8, 37C
-
0.003
-
(Z)-5-[(4-hydroxyphenyl)methylidene]-3-(3,3,3-trifluoro-2-oxopropyl)-2,4-thiazolidinedione
-
pH 6.8, 37C
-
0.0174
-
(Z)-5-[(4-methoxyphenyl)methylidene]-3-(3,3,3-trifluoro-2-oxopropyl)-2,4-thiazolidinedione
-
pH 6.8, 37C
-
0.0083
-
(Z)-5-[(4-phenoxyphenyl)methylidene]-3-(3,3,3-trifluoro-2-oxopropyl)-2,4-thiazolidinedione
-
pH 6.8, 37C
-
0.0042
-
(Z)-N-hydroxy-2-(5-naphthalen-1-ylmethylene-2,4-dioxothiazolidin-3-yl)acetamide
-
in 0.25 M potassium phosphate buffer pH 6.8, at 37C
0.0127
-
(Z)-N-hydroxy-2-[2,4-dioxo-5-(3-phenoxybenzylidene)-thiazolidin-3-yl]acetamide
-
in 0.25 M potassium phosphate buffer pH 6.8, at 37C
0.00367
-
(Z)-N-hydroxy-2-[2,4-dioxo-5-(4-phenoxybenzylidene)-thiazolidin-3-yl]acetamide
-
in 0.25 M potassium phosphate buffer pH 6.8, at 37C
0.00179
-
(Z)-N-hydroxy-2-[5-(4-hydroxybenzylidene)-2,4-dioxothiazolidin-3-yl]acetamide
-
in 0.25 M potassium phosphate buffer pH 6.8, at 37C
0.07764
-
([2-[(4-methoxy-1-methyl-1H-indazol-3-yl)amino]-2-oxoethyl]sulfanyl)acetic acid
-
-
0.0034
-
1,5-bis(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-1,4-pentadiene-3-one
-
IC50: 0.0034 mM
0.0253
-
1,5-bis(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-1,4-pentadiene-3-one
-
IC50: 0.0253 mM
0.0359
-
1,5-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,4-pentadiene-3-one
-
IC50: 0.0359 mM
0.0331
-
1,5-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,4-pentadiene-3-one
-
IC50: 0.0331 mM
0.00029
-
1-butyl-2-[[(4-oxo-3,4-dihydroquinazolin-2-yl)methyl]sulfanyl]-1H-benzimidazole-5-sulfonamide
P42330
pH 6.6, temperature not specified in the publication
0.012
-
17alpha-estradiol
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
0.003
-
17beta-estradiol
O60218
in 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, at 25C
0.03561
-
2,1,3-benzoxadiazol-5-yl 5-chlorothiophene-2-sulfonate
-
-
0.5271